SOUTH KOREA

Created: 4/28/1960

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CURRENT INTELLIGENCE WEEKLY REVIEW0

f IMMEDIATE INTEREST

SOUTH KOREA

no popularleader to South Korea's former President Rhee has emerged, acting chief of state Ho Chong mayower'ln his own right ln tbe caretaker administration that willnew elections. Hoormer prime minister andof Rhee, but morehas been at odds with

the regime. He enjoyspopular prestige ln Seoul, where he served as mayor. His interimis almost certain to require continued militarysince tbe populace,by the success of mass action, probably will continue to be easily aroused toif its expectations for reform are disappointed.

President Rhee sent his formal resignation to theAssembly onprilew outbreak of

antlgovernment( demonstrations ln Pusan, South Korea's second largest city. At ths height of antlgovernment violence ln Seoul the day before, Rbee hadthat he would resign tbe presidency "if tbe people want me to doust bis chief political lieutenant, late Vicelect Yi Kl-pung, from all political offices, bold new elections, and amend the constitution toarliamentary form of government

Tbe rioting ln Seoul onpril, wblcb tookives and woundedther persons,to have been caused by Rbee's equivocal response to public demands for reform and redress of grievances. Rhee had appeared to be stalling, while attempting under theof martial law tohis power.

Whether Rhee will attempt to succeed himself may depend on whether his supporters ln the National Assembly are able, when the constitution is amended toarliamentary form of government, to alter the election procedures to provide for the indirect election of the president by the legislature. Tbe situation is furtherby the demands of some opposition Democratic party lawmakers that an electionew assembly should haveover revision of the In any event, South Korean constitutionalhave pointed out that new elections for the presidency and vice presidency must be held

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CURRENT 1NTELLIOENCE WEEKLY REVIEW0

ays or not later thanuly to meet legal

Meanwhile, Ho Chong has moved ahead to appoint ancabinet. Rhee already had appointed Yl Ho and Kwon Sung-yol as home minister and justice minister respectively. While Tl is an Improvement over his predecessor, Kwon'sls questionable. HcConaughy has observed that those subsequently selected by Ho to fill out the cabinet axe generally reputable figures who should be able to begin tbe cleanlng-up process expected by the public, although Hohad difficulty finding men of top quality willing to servearetaker government.

Ho is worried over whether he will be able to move fast enough to satisfy publicfor reforms, should his admlnietration fall to meet such expectations, or if Rhee should gp back on hie promise to retire from office, public disappointment and indignation could result ln new aod more violent demountrations. For the time being, however, Seoul ls reported returning to normal.

Lt. Gen. Song Yo-chan has ordered martial law relaxed, and students are cooperating with the authorities to reetore order. The government hasall students andpolitical prisonersby the police. Theonpril of the Kyonghyang Slnmun, South Korea's second largest newspaper which was closed last year forof the government, ls the first specific example of the redress of past wrongs.

During the demonstrations in Seoulhe relationship between theand the troops responsible

for maintaining order was almost friendly. The latteravoided shooting at the dem-onstrators and allowed their ranks to be breached and ln some Instances their tanks to be oTerrun by the crowd.

By contrast, the police have had to flee and hide and have been hesitant to reappear for fear of public reprisals. The students have demanded that those guilty of atrocities be punished. Members of bothparties have called for the police to be politically neutralized, and the new home minister has said this will be done. Dntll majorand personnel reforms are undertaken, lt appears that the police will be Incapable of carrying out even the normal functione of maintaining law and order.

The National Assembly hasine-member bipartisan committee, including onemember, to draft the constitutional amendment forarliamentary government, and has agreed that the election and controversial local autonomy laws should be amended immediately. The latter law substituted appointed for elected local executivegiving the regime direct control over almoet every aspect of local life. Tbe legislators also called for the resignation of members responsible for the fraudulentarchelections.

The speaker of theAssembly, vice President -elect Yl Ki-pung, died along with the rest of his family at the presidential residence onpril. All allegedly were ehot to death by Yl's elder son,, the adopted son ofand Madam Rhee, who then shot himself.

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CURRENT INTELLIGENCE WEEKLY REVIEW

the opposition Democratic party has virulently attacked Rhee ln the legislature and calded for reforms and an end to repression, lt has not as yet captured the loyalty of the general public. Factional strife has been resumed between

the followers of party leader Cbang Hyon and the late Cho Pyong-okj. Party leaders have announced that the Democrats will not participate ln any coalition.

There have been nothat any government likely to emerge from the debacle of the Rhee regime will betoward the United States. No incidents of anti-Americanism have been reported. Ambassador McConaughy has commented on the 'genuinely warm and enthusiastic" reaction of the crowd to the role of the United States In the situation.

With the possible exceptioneaction by North Korean interceptors to an Inadvertent violation of the demilitarized zoneouth6 aircraft onpril, there have been no recent significantwithin the Northmilitary establishment r: which can be linked to the situation ln South Korea.

Pyongyang continues toits full propagandato events ln South Korea. Emphasis has shifted, however, from earlier expressions of sympathy for tbe demonstrators to attempts to Influence the shape and direction to be taken by the emerging political North Korea demands the withdrawal of all American forces and the abolition of the whole South Korean governmentstating that under present conditions even new general elections would only result In another "puppet regime."

-1 Pyongyang requests talks between Koreans on both sides, establishmentointcommission, and national general elections to setnified government. Theseshould be held "without foreign interference,"meaning withoutsupervision. All the foregoing proposals suggest that Northis setting the stage todissatisfaction withtype of government emerges from the present situation, while hoping its propaganda for unification on Communist terms can make some Inroads during the existing

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