Economic Intelligence Memorandum
ANNUAL REVIEW OF INLAND TRANSPORT IN THE SINO-SOVIET9
CENTRAL INTELLIGENCE AGENCY Office of Research and Reports
This memorandum is oneeries of annual publications that are designed to present ln susfsary fora the significant developments ln transportation ln the Slno*Sovlet Bloc during each preceding calendar year. In addition to the present memorandum on Inland transport, the series vlll Include two other annual publications, one on developments In civil aviation ln tbe Slno-Soviet Bloc and another on merchant shipping ln the Sino-Sovlet Bloc.
This memorandum has been coordinated within this Office but not with other USIB agencies.
- Ill -
Inland Water Fleet
Block Signaling and Centralized
E. Problems and Prospects
and Prospects of Individual Countries .
IV. Communist Far
3- Inventory of
5. Problems and
Bloc: Estimated Freight Traffic Perform-
ance of Modern Inland
Estimated Freight Traffic Performance of Modern
3. European Satellites: Estimated Freight Trafficof Modem Inland Transport,
k. Communist China: Estimated Freight Trafficof Modern Inland
5. USSR, European Satellites, and Communist China:
Selected Comparative Data on Modern Inland Transport,
- vlll -
AHMJAL REVIEW OF INLAND TRANSI'OST is THE Smo-SOVIET BLOC'
The total performance of modern inland transport ln the Sino-Sovlet Bloc9 amounted toillion ton-kilometersr more thanercent of the estimated performance ln the US 59 the Inland transport performance of the Bloc, as shown In TableIncreased byercent In terms of ton-kilometers andercent In terms of tone carried.1 Therate of growth was achieved by Communist China, which registered increasesercent In ton-kilometer performance end moreercent In tons carried.**
9 the growing economy of the USSR continued to demand und to receive more Inland transport service, ond the general level of freight traffic Increased aboutercent above that8 (see. The share of traffic carried by each mode of transport In terms of ton-kilometers remained virtually unchanged from thatith the railroads handling aboutercent of the total
Negotiations with Free World firms for additions to the transport plant ond equipment were carried on at an accelerated pace. Some electric AC locomotives and railroad communications equipment werefrom France, and further orders are now being filled ln France and West Germany. Pipe for gas and petroleum pipelines also wasln significant quantities, particularly from West Germany.
ilometers (km) of new railroad lines wereIn the USSRncluding the Stollnsk-Abakan sector of the Important South Siberian main line. The length of electrified railroads increased byercent and that of diesel1zed lines by
The estimates and conclusions in this memorandum represent thc best Judgment of this Office as
"* Tonnages are given ln metric tons throughoutecoror.dii=. elow.
r The term tons carried as used ln this memorandum includesexport. Import, ond transit traffic.
tt For selected comparative data on modern inland transport ln the Sino-Sovlet Bloc, see the Appendix, Tableelow, ttt elow.
ercent. In spite of the fact that the Soviet electrificationcontinued to run ahead or schedule, delays in acquisition of the necessary locomotives or power supply for some lines caused difficulty. Future delays of this nature might become critical as certain lines approach capacity operation.
Highway transport in the USSR remainedhort-haul operation The relative share of tons carried by motorcontinued to Increase, however, and the continuing consolidation of motor pools resulted in more efficient utilization of vehicles.
Gradual progress was made9 in modernizing the Inland water fleet of the USSR and its port and navigational facilities. Thewater fleet carried an increasing traffic load under adverse navigational conditions andontinued decrease in Its share of total freight traffic.
Planned construction of pipelines in the USSR lagged somewhat Inand traffic Increased at about the sane rate aean of new pipeline enabled greater volumes oftraffic to be moved at less cost andeduced requirement for services from other modes of transport.
The economic growth of the European Satellite countrieseavy burden on their Inland transportation systems, but there is no evidence that the systems failed to respond to demands for service or in any way inhibited economic growth. 9 the railroads, highway transport, and inland water transport performedtkm and carried9 billion tons <see. the European Satellite area9 the railroads continued to account for the major share of total ton-kilometer.
In Bulgaria, East Germany, Poland, and Rumania, decreases In rail passenger traffic9 coincided with substantial Increases in passenger traffic by highway bus. This trend Is significant in that it indicates some success In diverting passenger traffic from the railroads to the highway.
Very little construction of new railroad lines has taken placein the European Satellites. Double tracking andof routes with high traffic density, however, are progressing in Czechoslovakia and Poland and,esser degree. In East Germany.
One of thc most Important developments In transportation duringecision under the auspices of the Council for MutualAssistance (CEMA) torude oil pipeline, to beIn from the USSR to Poland, East Germany, Czechoslovakia, and Hungary. The pipeline is expected to carry most of the crude oil that Is presently moved by rail, thereby reducing requirements for tank cars, locomotives, and other rail services. The Czechoslovak section of the pipeline la to be completedI and will be able to transportillion toes of crude oil annually, or more than the total of all petroleum and petroleum products carried by therailroads
The continuation of the "leap forward' program9 placed heavy demands on the transportation system of Communist China, which lt did not always meet and which in some instancesetarding effect on economic development, nevertheless, the Chinese were able to claim record-breaking performances for all forms of Inland odern forms of Inland transport" performedillion tkm and carried atillion tons of freight (see Primitive forms of transport may have carriedillion tons.
The most notable feature of the modern inland transportationof Communist China9 continued to be the extent to which rail services predominated. Railroads accounted for aboutercent of inland traffic performance in ton-kilometers. Investment9 reflected an awareness on the part of theigher level of state investment vas necessary to cope vith the congested traffic situation that developed sed steam locomotives free the USSR Increased somewhat the capability of the Chinese to move the increasing volume of traffic Continued progress vas achieved on new lines in tbe southwesternof the country. The openingev Sino-Soviet rail link through Slnkiang came closer to reality Construction vas completed by the USSR to the Slnkiang border at Gosgranltsa, and the Chinese completed their section as far as Ha-ml.
A major development In highway transport in Communist China9 vas the marked emphasis placed on short-distance transport. Junks, carts, porters, and small local improvised railroads provided an indlupcnouble link betveen producing or consuming areas and the modern transportation system. ignificant trend In Inland water transport9 was the continued delegation of responsibility for river shipping to provincial navigation departments.
Railroads, motor trucks, and modern inland water transport. ** elow.
TOe organization for the Cooperation of Socialist Railroads (OSShD) continued to function succcosfully. 9 the OSShDew agreement on international transportation of freight by railroad ln the Sino-Sovlet Bloc. This agreement prescribes terras andunder wnich international freight traffic vlll be handled and the exact freight rutcs for transit freight trurflc throughout the Sino-Soviet bloc. Tbe OSShD also adopted new Soviet Bloc standards for line and rolling stock that willore practicalof rolling stock among all Bloc countries.
Freight traffic on Soviet railroads9 increased byercent above the level8 andercent above the plan. Tons carriedercent above the level8 (seeercent above the plan. The share of traffic performed by electric and diesel traction Increased5 percent8xceeding the planned goal of1 percent. Trofflc density Increased5 million tkm per route-kilometer compared7 million An Increase in the average length of haulm, comparedm resulted at least in part from the lurge volume of wood shipped from eastern Siberia and of groin shipped from new agricultural lands ln the east.
Freight traffic performance by motor transport ln the USSR96 billion tkmillion tons carried. This amountpercent increase ln traffic above tbe level The average length of motor freight haul remained the some,9 km.
3- Inland Waterway
Freight traffic on tbe Inland waterways of the USSR,of adverse navigational conditions,ercentlevelotal6 billion tkm. Tons carried8 percent above the levelotalaverage length of freight haul increasedm afteratm since
Petroleum pipelines in the USSHillion tkm sndillion tons In terms of ton-kilometers, pipeline transport Is showing the most rapid rate of grovth of any carrier In the USSR,9 level being aboutercent above that The average length of petroleum haul by pipeline increased bym,m.
Continued modernization of transport plant and equipment in the USSR resultedeneral increase in tbe level of operational efficiency Costs per ton-kllometer were reduced, while utilization of freight ears, locomotives, vehicles, and ships was generally Improved. The labor productivity of transport workersto increase. Railroads, for example, Increasedercent while the labor force remained constant. In the fourth quarteroreover, thereeduction of the workdayf theail systems. Diversion of extremely short-haul traffic from railroad to motor transport continued andlped In the general improvement of operating efficiency.
Important administrative changes took place in the Ministry of Railroad Transportation of the USSR Effectivohe number of railroad systems was reduced from hU toy9 systems (tbe Amur, Ufa, Orenburg, Ordzhonlkldze, Kirov, Pechora, Moscow-Kiev, Moscow Belt, and Moscow-Ryazan1 Railroads) into adjoining systems. The changes were said to have been made In theof greater efficiency in planning and operations.
1. Railroad Rolling Stock s. Freight Cars
The USSR9 increased its total inventory of freight cars byercent to an estimated totalnits. All additions were represented byxle or multlaxle units of higher capacity. Total freight-carrying capacity of the freight car Inventory increased by> percent, and average capacity per unit increasedons8 totons All cars were aald to be equipped with automatic brakes and automatic coupling, and0 cars were equipped with roller bearings. It is estimated thatercent of9 freight car Inventory was made upaxle or multlaxle units, representing aboutercent of the total capacity.
Acquisition by tbe Soviet railroads9iesel locomotive units andlectric locomotive units,imports of AC types from France, brought the combinedof these more modern and efficient typesnits handling5 percent of the total rail traffic. Of tberench AC locomotives contracted for, ere scheduled for delivery9 andn tbe first quarter As ofboutad been delivered. Ine Soviet government contracted for delivery ofC locomotives from West Germany. No information has been received on fulfillment of this latter contract.
A decline In the volume of ton-kilometers handled by steam, traction eliminated the need for moreteam Some of these were relegated to switching and branch line service, some vere retired, and others were exported to Communist China. esult, the total number of units Is estimated to have decreased08lthough tbecapacity and efficiency of the locomotive Inventory wasenhanced.
The net Increase in the Inventory of motor vehicles inh9 la estimated to have beenehicles,the total inventoryehicles. Of thisxe estimated to have been truckB or0 buses,assenger automobiles. It is estimated thatf these vehicles are assigned to tbe military services. current inventory and production arc extremely low forarge country, the lack of suitable roads will minimize thefor road vehicles5 at least.
The majority of trucks being produced areonon capacity, and tbe output of light, heavy, end specialised trucks lo Inadequate. ew more passenger automobiles were produced than in previous years, although tbelr total Is stillOl.
3. Inland Water Fleet
The Increase ln the Inventory of vessels ln tbe Sovietwater fleet9stimated to haveorsepower lo self-propelled vesselseadweight tons In non-self-propelled vessels, bringing the total self-propelled vesselsorsepower and thc total non-self-propelled vessels to
illion deadweight tons. Tbe fleet ia still not adequate to meet the demands made on lt. Furthermore, there iuargeof the existing fleet awaiting or undergoing repairs. facilities have been unable to make repairs on the fleet,new ships, and carryrogram that began9 to coo-vert steamships built6 to motor propulsion.
a. New Lines
9 Plan called for the additionm of new railroads to the permanent rail network of the Ministry ofTransportation of the USSR and in early0 it wasthat "morem" were added This addition extended the total network as0 tooute-kilometers, of0 are electrifiedre die-sell zed.
The longest and most Important addition wasm section of the South Siberian Railroad from Stallnsk to Abakan, which was finally put into permanent operation Infterears of Intermittent and difficult construction. The line had been in temporary operation since shortly after tracklaying was conpleted in Construction of tbe Stallnsk-Abakan line hasthe short-line haul of freight from the Abakan-Minusinskto the Kuznetsk Basinmm and hasadly needed alternate route for some of the traffic that otherwise moves on tbe heavily utilized Trans-Siberian Railroad. Among other lines added to the permanent rail network of the Ministry of Railroad Transportation9 werem line running from Peskl In Kazakhstan to Utyak in tha Urals on the Trans-Siberian Railroad;ka line from Kustanny to Tobol in Kazakhstan, servicing thc new Sokolov-Sarbay Ore Mining and Enriching Combine; the Ufa-km line from Tobol to Dzhetygara, the building site of an asbestos miningondkm line from Mi ass in the Urals to the Uchalydeposits. km stretch in the Kerclo-Finnish SSR between Suoyarvl and Lendery also was put Into permanent operationThis line is being built to exploit large timber reserves.
Thc Soviet program for electrification of railroads continued to run ahead of scheduleotalm of route were electrified, comparedlanm. On the
Moscow-Irkutskm were electrified (Ryazan' -Sasovo, Inxa-Syzran', Tayga-Moriinsk, Chernorechenskaya-Klyukvennaya, and Zlma-Cheremkhovo) . m Chernorechenskaya-Klyukvennaya stretchthe firat operational use of alternating current for rail
electrification in the USSR.
0 it is planned tou0m ofm which remain to be converted on the Moscow-Irkutsk route.
The Soviet press reported that the length of linesto diesel traction9 increased00 km. This Increase was apparently an underfulflllment of the plan,to be 0 km by one source, although an earlier source gave the planm. onversion ofm totraction la planned.
Block Signaling and Centralized Traffic
m of line were converted to automatic block signaling and centralized traffic control in the USSRSpeclflc lines on which automatic block signaling was Installed9 include Lyuban1-Splrovo, Petushkl-Vladimir, and Krasnogvardeyskay-HilyutlnskAya, Installation of centralized traffic control on thehu and Kandagacb-lletsk stretches was completed.
The total route length of the network of highways ln the USSR at the end9 va*m, of whichm were surfaced roads, comparedm 0 km of this network were pavedompared with0 km The low priority given to tbe development of good roads ln the USSR hasf the cooseouenceaolicy of Intensive use of existing facilities with expansion occurring only where absolutely necessary. Because of adverse road conditions, the operating efficiency of motor vehicles often Buffers, and motor traffic is practicallyin many areas that could benefit from Buch service.
* aved rood is one that has been graded and surfaced withater-resistant materialaterial which facilitates drainage that ia, concrete or asphalt.
3. Inland Waterways
The total length of potentially navigable rivers In the USSR is estimated tom, ofm are actively used for river transport operations. Less thanercent of the routes In use are operated by common-carrier steamship lines. Inyears, most new routes have been opened in the Siberian regions where the rivers are least utilized because of short ice-free periods and the difficult navigation conditions.
9 the main petroleum pipeline network in the USSR was expandedm, bringing the total length tom. onsiderable portion of the new installation wasinch pipe. At the endboutercent of the network consisted of pipelines with diameters ofnches or less. hortage of pipe, the network has not been expanded as The network is designed primarily for short-haul transport of crude oil from the producing fields to the refineries, most of which are located in the vicinity of the fields.
E. Problems and Prospects
railroads of the USSR are allocated only enough capi-
tal to allow the system to stay one step ahead of traffic The resultear-capacity operation on many lines, and any delay in the application of technological Improvements, additional equipment, or installation of new required capacity may cause serious traffic problems.
Steam locomotives, for example, were unable to handle the traffic on the Chernorechenskaya-Klyukvennaya line in the extremely cold winter weather, and, notwithstanding the lack of suitable service facilities, dlesel locomotives and crews were brought from otherin9 to help out. Insufficient acquisitions of AC locomotives caused dlesel locomotives to be still operating on the line Inoreonths after AC electric locomotives started operating there. Soviet domestic production of ACwas below plan, and deliveries of admittedly superior ACfrom Prance were behind schedule. Furthermore, manydefects are complicating the use of Soviet-built AC locomotives. These problems and the Increasing traffic on lines being converted to AC operationontinued Import of Free World locomotives and temporary, partial operation of completed AC lines with dlesel
Construction of nev lines s3 required continues in thc USSR as part of the ansver to the ever-Increasing traffic. 0 It Is planned to put anm of nev lines in permanent operation. These lines vill Includem line from Axtogay In Kazakhstan to the Chinese border at Gosgranltsa, on vhlch tracklaylng vas completed in9 snd on vhlch trains are operating. Another Important nev addition to thc network planned0 ism stretch from Kulomzlno on the Trans-Siberian Railroad vest of Omsk through Irtyshskoye to Karasuk. Priority Is being given toof the Kulomzino-AltoyBkaya line because of its great importance in relieving the TraoB-Slberian Railroad of heavy coal traffic moving vest from the Kuznetsk Basin on the Omsk-Novosibirsk stretch. Planned completion3 of the last sector of the South Siberian Railroad from Abakan to Tayshet villore direct alternate routingignificant volume of Trans-Siberian traffic.
The principal problem facing motor transport in the USSR is the extremely limited highway network, particularly paved roads, and tbe lack of priority given to the expansion of this netvork. Much of thc existing netvork is of such poor quality that vehicles operate with low efficiency. Although lt is planned that the length of paved roads will Increase tom, the plan may not be fulfilled. Judging from past experience. The traffic load vill not Increase greatly, hovever, and the hlghvay netvork vill be able to sustain lt. ,The present vehicle inventory has not been suitable for all purposes, because It is made up mainly of medium-size trucks. Vehicle production will concentrate more heavily on trucks of Iconons and moreons and on special trucks toore balanced Inventory.
5 tbe total length of navigable Inland vater routes in the USSR Is expected to be expanded to aboutkm. of the eastern rivers, concurrent vith tbo projected industrial grovth of that area, should account for the greatest share of nev routes to be opened. It is planned to increase the load capacity of the self-propelled cargo fleetercent by both nev construction and converting non-self-propelled ships. The relatively smallIn traffic projected5 indicates that grovth of the fleet will be limited. The requirement for more efficient dleseland steel barges, hovever, appears closer to partial otor-propelled ships shouldercent of the total horsepower, compared withercent etal barges should account forercent of the non-self-propclled tonnage, compared withercent
The Soviet pipeline program has been hampered by aof large-diaraeter steel line pipe. Because requirements have exceeded production, the USSR has turned to the Free World,West Germany, for supplies of this pipe. As muchons of pipe for gas and oil lines uere Imported from West Germany Smaller quantities have been imported from Italy, the UK,and Austria. Recently the 'JSSR proposed that France supply pipe0 million in exchangeillion tons of Sovietannually for theears. Annual imports of pipe areto remain at least as high as they now areumber of years.
III. European Satellites A. Performance 1. Railroads
The railroads of the European Satellites are estimated to have carriedillion tons of freight Ton-ktlometer performance9 is estimated to haveillion tkm (see. The railroad system performedillion tkm per route-kilometerraffic density slightly less than that of the US
Motor truck transport In the European Satellites isto haveillion tons of freight Ton-kllometer performance9 is estimated to have7 billion. These two performance figures indicate an average length of haul of3 km and reflect the limited function of motor truck transportocal cartage and rail feeder service with very littleas an intercity carrier of freight. The greateet increases in truck transport performance in terms of tons carried occurred in the least economically developed countries,ercent) andercent). This development suggests that truck transport is supplanting more primitive forms of transportapid rate and that transport service is being providedider area than in the past.
Passenger traffic by motor bus is growingapid rote in the European Satellite countries as more service is provided
to outlying district*. This growth indicates that the announcedof diverting rail passenger traffic to the highways is meeting with someevelopment that will enable thc railroads toadditional effort to the more important task of transporting freight.
3- Inland Waterways
Traffic on the inland waterways of the European Satellites9 accounted forercent of the ton-kilometersor-cent of the tons carried by all modes of transport. Performanceillion tkm7 million tons carried. Thc relatively high average length of haulm reflects the predominantlycharacter of Inland water traffic.
B. Inventory of Equipment
Railroad Rolling Stock
The European Satellites possessedreight carsn Increase of0 cars above the estimated Inventory It Is estimated0 freight carsome of which were exported to countries outside the European Satellite area. It Is probable, therefore,umber of freight cars were imported to fill the gap that would normally be created by retirements.
At thc beginning9 the European Satellites0 locomotives of all types. Including diesel and electric rail cars used for passenger traffic. This figure represents an increase ofnits above the previous year. Czechoslovakia, the only country to report openly, haset addition ofnits7 dieools,lectric locomotives, andlectric rail cars wore added, andteam locomotives were retired. Thc European Satellites producedocomotives of all typesnd some of those locomotives were exported.
2. Motor Trucks
Thc Inventory of motor trucks In the European Satellites amounted tonits, on Increase0 units above the level Production of motor trucks in the Satellites is estimated to have amounted0 units
At the beginning9 the European Satellites are esti-
ted to have0 route-kilometers of standard-gauge line and
an of narrow-gauge line. There is no evidence of new route constructionlthough double tracking andhave continued. There la some evidencerend towardof some branch lines with low traffic density. Czechoslovakie reported on increasem of electrified linehile Poland reported an Increase of aboutm. Electrification is known to be underway In East Germany and Hungary, but reports cf actual progress have not yet become available.
The European Satellites are estimated to have9m of roods, of0 km were improved roads. Road conditions vary in the Satellite countries. The principal routes in Czechoslovakia, East Germany, and Poland appear to be in fair to good condition by Western European standards, but thc others ore less developed. All the Satellite countries are continuing pro grama totheir network of roods.
Rumania is the only country ln the European Satellite areaignificant pipeline network. The length of thc8m, ofm were crude oil linesm were petroleum products lines. The total operating capacity3 million tons per year for the crude oil linesillion tons per year for the petroleum products lines.
D. Problems and Prospects of Individual Countries
Poland is experiencing considerable difficulty lnits railroad system to tbe extent necessary to meet increased traffic demands. This statement is particularly true of theprogram. Poland planned tom of route by the ondut at tho beginning9m had been electrified. Progress9 Is not known, but if progressO8riterion, tbe program will not be completed One of the major reasons for the slow progress hasack of funds to purchase equipment and to hire foreign engineers with experience ln railroad electrification.
The entire transportation system of Czechoslovakia Is operating efficiently, with no major problems, and is fully capable of meeting the planned target Czechoslovakia is modernizing the railroad systemapid rate. m of line were electrified, bringing the total or electrified line9 to 6O5 km,ercent of total route-kilometers. During the same year, more thanev electric locomotives were placed in service. Morereight cars are being added to the inventory yearly, and the percentage of new equipment in the entire inventory Is increasing rapidly.
3- East Germany
The East German railroad system, as presently constituted, is used very intensively. Capital Investment has been limited, with the result that maintenance of route, renewal of trackage, and the doubling of single-track routes have been delayed. The average age of locomotives and rolling stock is high, resulting in Increased liability to breakdownsigh percentage of equipment under If allowed to continue, the lack of funds unquestionably will result In reduced capability to keep pace with economic growth. capacity, heretofore emanating from increasingly intensive use of facilities, is all but exhausted, and it has now become essential that additional Investments be made in route improvement, nevand nev rolling stock.
Blghvay transport In East Germany, which functions onlyocal cartage and rail feeder service with an average length of haul ofm, should be able to contributereater measureolution of over-all transportation problems. East Germany has an excellent highway network. There Is little evidence, hovever, that any pluns are being made to utilize the potential of hlghvay transport.
The railroad system of Hungary has the lovest trafficpor kilometer of route of any of the European Satellites except Albania. This fact suggests ample room for improvement in operating efficiency, leading to increased capability in performance. One of the principal problems facing the railroads is the recurring shortage of freight cars, vhlch the Hungarians have attempted to solve byand purchasing foreign cars. 8ungaryars from Austria and vas negotiatingore. Hungary also enteredrade agreement vith Poland and Rumania for morereight cars. Imports coupled with domestic productionwill solve the shortage problem, but not until
A second problem Is the fact that aboutercent of the freight traffic is concentrated onercent of the railroad network,umber of lines an: unproductive and unremuiierative. Steps are being taken to abandon some branch lines, thereby releasing locomotives, freight cars, and personnel for service on thc heavy density routes.
Rumania is the only European Satellite inignificant role. It is estimatedillion tons of petroleum and petroleum productscomparedillion tons The pipelines ofbeen restored to approximately their prc-World War II length,capacity of the lines has been Increased. As Rumania Is aof petroleum, it is probable that pipeline performanceas will the pipelines' relative share of the totalinlandrend that will relieve the railroads to a
Plans for modernization of the railroad system appear to have been overambitious or unrealistic when compared with achievement. Rumania has announced thatercent of railroad freight traffic vould be moved by electric or dlesel traction The US militaryreturning from Rumania in9 reported that there were no installations Indicating progress in the electrificationingle route. With the exception of one dlesel passenger train, all traffic observed by the attache' was dependent on steam locomotives.
Bulgaria has planned to electrify certain sections of the railroad system but Is experiencing some difficulty in obtaining the necessary equipment. The Bulgarians aro negotiating with West Germany for cable, conduction, and signaling equipment. The equipment of the type required is known to be In short supply in the other European Satellites and Jn the USSR; so it Is probable that Bulgaria'sprogram will be delayed.
A. CctEsiur.lrita 1. Performance
The railroads of Communist Chinaillion tons of freightn increase2 percent Ton-kilometer performancestimated to haveillion tkm,0 percent above performance8 (see Table Oo this basis the railroad system producedi] .Ion tkm per route-kilometerraffic densityimes that of the US but somewhat below that of the
elative shortage of transportationto affect the economic development of Communist Chinahe performance of the railroads was generally adequate to handle the demands of the modern Industrial sector of the economy. If9 the same relationship existed asetveen rail tons carried and production of coal, cement, and ferrous materials, rail tons carried should have amountedillion tens. Thus actual performanceercent of theoretical performance based on production figures from thc industrial sector of the economy.
Claimed total highway performance (modern andcombined) in Communist China increased by more thanercent,I billion tons carried During the same period, ton-kilometer performance increased by aboutercent, to more thanillion tkm. Tbe greater portions of these Increases were realized ln primitive transport.
otor Vehicle Transport
In9 <he Chinese Communists revised their claimed figure for tons carried by motor vehiclesillionillion tons. ossible explanation for this revision Is the fact that fragmentation of control intransport resulted originally in Inflated performance claims. Thc figure claimed for tons carried by ootor vehicles9 was 3M1 million tons. At an estimated average length of haul ofm, these data indicate aboutillion tkm. With additions to the motor
truck parK almost equal to those8 and with continuingutilization of vehicles, it is possible that the Chinesecould have achieved this performance.
rimitive Highway Transport
The performance of primitive highway transport in Communist China may have beenillion tons carriedDuring the same period, ton-kilometer performance was more than 6tkm. Asuch of this increase probably was realized from improved statistical coverage and the marked emphasis on "short distance" transport The impressive achievements of primitive transport9 were apparently not adequate to meet the growing transport needs, however, and late in the year thc Chinese Communists placed increased emphasis on "native railroads" as an alternative means of increasing transport capability. Indications areajor means of increasing short-distance transport performance0 will again be "native
c. "Inland Waterways
The only announcement that the Chinese Comraonists have made on inland water transport performance9ombinedfigure for both river and ocean transportationtons carried. The inland water share of this total is estimated to bemillion tons.
2. Efficiency of Operations
9 the railroads of Communist China wereoperated much more efficiently and with considerably more skill and finesse than Congestion developed in important rail centers and probably at border transloading points, particularly in thc latter partut the situation was much less chaotic than Temporary shortages of railroad cars and inadequate line and yard capability bothole in the congestion that occurred. Although the Chinese press claimed that loading and unloading work hadeak link in the transportation process, at no time was it necessary to organize great masses of people into loading andteams to assist in rail operations, as The Chinese attained decided improvements in every Index of operating efficiency and were particularly successful in maintaining in operation higher proportions of the total car park.
The Chinese Communists measure efficiency ofof motor vehicle transport in ton-kilometer output per ton of rated capacity. 3 this index increased by aboutercent. Hy the end9 this measure of efficiency had increasedkm, still far short of the stated monthly ucal0 tkm per ton of rated capacity.
The efficiency of primitive transport was increasedrincipally through better organization and Other devices used to improve primitive transport performance were food and wage incentives and better coordination of agricultural and transport labor. In9 the Chinese announced thatillionillion primitiveillion vessels,illion draft animals had been mobilized for short-distance transport. The authorities claimed that the measures used to increase efficiency resulted inolume of freight one-third greater with one-half of the labor force inompared with
3. Inventory of Equipment
a. Railroad Rolling Stock
9 the Chinese Communist freight carincreased byercent, tonits. This Increase was accounted for almost exclusively from domestic production. ignificant development9 "as the import by Communist Chinased main-line steam locomotives from the USSR. At the end7 the Chinese possessed an estimated parkteamwhich had increased by the end9nitsesult of increased production and imports. China probably willmore steam locomotives in the next few years because they are surplus to the USSR, which is engaged in an extensiveand diesellzatlon program.
9 the Chinese Communists reportedly produced three dlesel locomotives snd one electric locomotive for main-line service, although there is some question as to whether all three of the dlesels can be used in main-line operations. China will need an increased number of electric locomotives in the near future In order to operate the first electrified section of line in the country,kmeng-hsien section of thch'eng-tu line. The requirements for electric locomotives will have to be met primarily by imports. hina placed an order with the Frenchocomotives, with delivery to be completed At
present, there Is no indication that any of theocomotives have been delivered.
b. Motor Trucks
9 the estimated civilian motor truck park in Communist China increasedrucks, or by about 15 Even though imports probably were sharply curtailedt seems probable that higher priority was given to civilianrequirements than to military needs. The effects of intemperate utilization8 became apparent as the truck park sufferederious shortage of spare parts during Repair shops were ordered to cease "trial production" of vehicles and to concentrate on maintaining the existing park. The major portion of available funds for highway transport investment was used to expand the truck park
nvestment in Communist China was to be directed primarily toward the improvement of the existing network by reconstruction and double tracking and by the addition of branch and special lines. Highest priority ln double tracking was given to the Peking-Canton,'u-k'ou, and Nanking-Shanghai lines, on which the roadbed, was completed 9 the Chineseotal of trunk and branch line constructionm, comparedlan figure ofkm. arge part of thekm completed9 "as made up of branch and spur lines. Double tracking continued to be stressed, and several Importantwere underway. However, no announcements of large segments of double-track line completed were forthcoming. Inheng, Director of the China Railroad Research Institute, indicated that the railroads in service in Chinaotal length of more0 km,ercent above the length of total rail line in operation at the end
The highway network of Communist China increased0 km arge part of this increase resulted from aof "simple" highways to Classighways." m of highway are inferior by Free World standards, ond no substantial qualitative improvements are anticipated as long as motor vehicles retain priority for investment funds.
" One-lane, fair-weather, unsurfaced roads.
c. Inland Waterways
9 the navigable inland waterway network cfChina increased0 km,otalm. work continued on the Grand Canal, and improvement of the Yellow River and theing Chiang also took place. In addition, soce dredging and improvement occurred on almost all river systems. No basis exists, however, for estimating the total results of riverand water conservancy programs
In9 the Chinese Communists announced the completion of the first trunk pipeline in China. This line, which7 km long andally capacityons of crude oil, runs from the Karamai oilfield to the Tu-shan-tsu refinery In western Slnkiang Province.
5- Problems and Prospects
Early inice Premier Li Fu-chun stated that railroad construction would be the most Important transportation task In Conarunlst China0 and that the number of trunk and branch railroad lines to be built0 would be more than in any previous year. Investment In railroads0 is to Increase by Ul percent, compared withercenthe plan0 also provides for the railroad system to carry about one-third more freight than Additional rollingreight carsIs to be produced. ontinued increases in the performance of the Chinese railroads can be achieved only by similar annual increases in the freight car and locomotive parks rather than by further Improvements in operating efficiency. It also will be necessary for the Chinese to continue investment in construction or new lines and in production of rolling stock at least at the rate0umber of years In order to keep up with the increasing demand for transportation service.
Highway transport in Communist China has expandedlightly faster rate than other modes ofrend that may continue2- The highway network probablylower rate with emphasis on feeder roads to the existing network. Thc truck park will continue to expand, and somewill be effected by increased production of Liberation trucks. The major portion of Investment funds probably will continue to be allocated first to the truck park and second to the highway network. It is not anticipated, however, that the long-haul common-carrier type
of operations, such as those in the US, will be possible in China for many years.
The problems that occurred on the Inland waterway system of Communist Chiosnadequate port facilities. Inability of land transport to move the goods away from the ports, shortages of fuel,igh accident ratere all likely to continue. of petroleum9 forced the Chinese to change some vessels under construction from petroleum to coalource of power. the Chinese are aware of these problems and are making attempts to solve them, no immediate improvement lo tbe situation Is anticipated.
B. Worth Korea
Performance by the modern transport system* of North Korea increased more rapidly9 than in any yearhen recovery from the Korean War was practically completed. Afterto the) level of ton-kilometer performancereight transport performance has continued to grow at an increasing rate. erformance reportedly increasedillion tkm7 million tons carried. Increases ofercent andercent, respectively, above the level The transportation system has been adequate to meet the demands made on It and can be expected tofurtherapid rate. Past Increases in performance have been due mainly to Improvements In the road and railroad networks and ln operating efficiency, and future increases probably will come mainly from increases In the inventory of equipment.
9 the railroad system continued to account for more thanercent of total ton-kilometer performance. Thehowever, carried aboutercent of the tonnage. Motor vehicle freight traffic expanded far more rapidly than that of other modes of transport. Performance9 was reported to havetkm andillion tons carried, increases of U3 andercent, respectively, above the levols Accordingly, highway transport carriedercent of the modern transport tonnageompared withercent- Increases In motor truck performance apparently have been achieved by expansion and Improvement of the road network, by increases in inventory, and by improvement In operating efficiency.
eparate estimate of im pqimmiHy Inland water transport apart from coastal water transport Is not available. Although inland water transport Is being expanded, its performance will remain anportion of total performance by modern transport.
2. Problems .and Prospects
The major problem In railroad transport in North Korea has been that of maintenance of equipment, particularly ofalthough this problem has been partly solved in recent years, primarily by imports froa at least five different countries of the Sino-Soviet Bloc. In highway transport the major problem has been lack of fuel, which must be imported. Atampaign isto convert all trucks to use indigenous fuels. Lack of fuel may account in partow utilization rate, which the North Koreans were attempting to improve
The railroads will continue to be the main carrier In North Korea. Although there will be continued improvement inefficiency by both the railroads and motor vehicles, enlargedof equipment probably will significantly increase North Korea has the capability of producing railroad cars at present and will develop the capability to produce motor vehicles in the near future. Fuel for motor vehicles will continue to be a
C. North Vietnam
9 the performance of tho inland transportof North .Vietnam reportedly amounted toillion tkm. Performance of the railroads increased byercent,km. Performance of truck transport wasillion tkm, and that of thc inland waterwaysillion tkm.
8 the railroad network of North Vietnam wasrestored to its length in the period before tho Viet Minnand since that time no major additions have been made. 9 the North Vietnamese continued slowly to reconstruct the rail line south from Thanh Hoa toward Vlnh with some emphasis on theof bridges. ajor development9 was thethat construction was started In Julym rail line from Dong Ann (just north of Hanoi) to the steel complex under construction at Thai Nguyen. Although the line Is temporarily being constructed to meter gauge, plans coll for eventual conversion to standard gauge and extension of the lino north. This plan again lends credence to reports that the North Vietnam system eventually will bo converted to standard gauge. This conversion could be slow, however, as Chinese interest nay wane when thc railroad system of Yunnan is linked to the Chinese system by lines currently under construction within China.
3- Problems and Prospects
The major problems of the railroad system of Northinclude the limited capacity of the system because of its meterack of repair capability, the necessity of importing any additions to the rail inventory,ack of trained personnel. The quality of the network probably also poses some problems,with regard to bridges.
Highway transport suffershortage ofoor road network, limited repair capability, shortages of liquid fuel,ack of trained personnel. Because there appears to be unutilized transport capability in the truck park, the road network and shortages of fuel and repair capability may pose the major The road network probably has not yet regained its quality of the period before the Viet Minh revolution,umber of bridges remain to be reconstructed.
Sino-Soviet Bloc: Eatlnated Freight Traffic Performance of Modern Inland Transport
European Satellites CcnmamiBt China
European Satellites Communist China
the performance of railroads, motor trucks, and the inland water fleet Inthe European Satellites, and Cccssunlst China and including the performance of pipelinesUSSR and Rumania only. Performance figures for North Korea and North Vietnam are
domestic, export, Import, and transit traffic.
addition to the duplication of tonnage created when traffic is carried by more thanof transport, this total also Includes duplication of foreign trade traffic moving inof the Sino-Soviet Bloc.
Million Tons Carried g/
Inland water fleet
b. This total reflects duplication of tonnage when traffic is carried by more than one mode of transport.
USSR: Estimated Freight Traffic Performance of Modern Inland
Cccnauiist China: Estimated Freight Traffic Performance of Modern Inland
Million Tons Carried
a"! IncludingImport, and transit traffic.
b. This totalof tonnage whencarried by more than one mode
i mum)ifiul |/ 'kfi.
fad iui.ii la mi* ml lar
hjhiimiiatlka llw umilmihi a. mi mix m4 tnuun ukt