lU; 'Jnited -'UtM'vlt?- ion-wid*taff structure SuttIm]r. lncr**aljv and it It
andir* real.ting qualltUa than i. pcslbl. in theof
of -rear Iroi"th*
oevsral factors, tend to facilitate civil dwfenre preparation endinUi^rt: u) th* reciiwmt*tlon of th* people shoui'_ terxi to insure aisciplln* in an ftotr^encyi (b) central control oi' eivll defense nets towarddii-tont planned development; (c) thereo^al cosysilslonrve in civil defense; (d) the characteristics of most new urUn Itfjuslr^n large masonry aosrtamuitsermit tha preparation of basement fallout shelter areasood level of radiation attenuation, and reduces fireot severely tried inar II. th* OSiR acquired at that tie* some practleal operational experience in civil defense; and (f) ln the event that chemical and biological agents becoa* aore accepted eoans of warfare, the 1BSR haa the advantage of bom preliminary Civil defense training In the USSK has already introduced biological and chemical defense subjects.
Soviet oivil defenaa operates under security restrictions, reat deal of information, on the level of what the individual citisen needs to know, la disseminated throughpecialised periodical preaa, and in training courses. Plans, the level of civil defense supply, the amount of shelterand the status of oivil defease organisations above the basic "self-defense- group are not publicised. Pull lnfoivmtion on nuclear weapons effects nas been generally withheld fro- the public, probably with the intention of preventing undue alarm. The public Is, however, given datelied behaviorand assured that proper civil defense preparations will subetan-tially reduce casualties, *ven under conditions of nuclear warfare.
It Is clear that the USSXriority system In oivil defensej earliest training and supply, and heavier shelters are developed forImportant eiUw and for more Important inetallaUona. (liueh as those for government, oowiunicatlons. and for major factories.)
Popular level training is aimed at the entire adult population, and it la being smde increasingly compulsory.
Soviet civil defense preparations are long-term; they have boon carried on for over ten years with continuoua. if sometimes uneven, development.
rne USSKidespread, specialised civil defense officer staff, as-ala-ned at all levels of govornmont. niversal, popular level training pro-gran for the Soviet pubUe, which inolude* inotruoUon ln defense against chemical, bacteriological, and atomic weapons, has been programmedn spite of difficulties, it la estimated that moat of the0 peopls) have been exposed to trainingone0 haveeijree cf proficiency. City and factory drills are being held for operative unit training. Cider students in Joviet schoolsbeing organized and trained for ?ost-atUok rescue and first-ale work.
Ihe soviet* hay* been preparing shelter space tine*
that Urn*oar have provided basement shelter space for aboutrban rwsldents during theon of new lauonry build. Itbelieved tuti*nt arbitersoo attenuation ofrmdlhtlon (fallout), are not hlgiuy blast resistant, oovlot aubvays coula sheltervO,0OG people and tieteched shelter* (usually underground) may batO.COO or nor* controland workers in Important Industry.
lbs status of civil defame supply la not sufficiently known, ^oaeoups have performedqul ment which included reaioWicml ronitorlng instruftents. lvUisn guhlofi provides excellentagainst all standard war gaees. known biologicalnd radioactive dost, appeared several years ^o. It has not been generally issued.
Information on the Soviet civil defenaa warning system is Inadequate. However, sirens are reported to have been mounted and tested ln several cities. Th* needonelrad-type radio broad canting system Is rot critical because ths majority of Soriet so-calledare actually wired loud-speakers which will he used for dissemlnstlfy pre-attaok alerts and instructions te the population.
3. clsar Defense.
It can be deduced that ovlat civil defense planning. .inc.as been sltered to Include ovnslderations of nuclear defense and protection from fallout. Evldanoe includes chanced civil defers* Instructions andthe addition of blast traps and dust filter* to air raid shelternd th* addition of anilter t* th* civilian gaa mask. Instruction* fersing air raid shelter* Include the lnjunction to stay ln shelter after nueleer attack and not to com* out until wordeceived from tb* Soviet civil dmfens* authorltis*. f th* radiation level is high. citUene will be obligated to remain where protection la best.
Taelt admission of theulnerability ofhas been evident
in tho Soviet consideration of evaouatlon and dispersal. Iwo types of urban
ovaouatlon hav* been rationed ln Soviet civil defense llUratur*. One is th*
evaouatlon of olty oivil defense forces to peripheral area* where they are to
be sheltered" for us* In poat-atlack operation*. Th* other la a
area*. Th* Utterecentlyoonoept. Accomplished arrangements or practice for such an evacuation have not been reported. ew report*
free the USSR and th* Europeanurest that up topereent urbanmay be planned.)
Soviet leaders have occasionally noted with some satisfaction that theH'* population and industry la -sore -ldely dispersed than that of thea posslbl* thisill b* maintained or Increased by (l) developing
evaouatlon oftial .lament* of the population from likely -_ *
or DM CenturaU,by lavlcocnting ti* "satellite city" program around larger urbann.:byo enforce defense noma requiring isiniwa* distances between newly constructed Industry and populated -refcs, arxivu innuairjexist-.n- factories or transport InsUlir-llons.
New Urvelopaonts infenae.
isveral otlier charges inivilecent ve*r* nppear wortny of noto.
Uie subordination ofvlot civil defense (hVTO) start nss not been clarified since the MV1abolished in
everbut heavier basement shelters and increasing number, of detached underground shelters have bean reported ln the USJK, sooe of the latter by reliable Western observers. (Thisossibility that fewer but stronger shelters ere being prepared ln Soviet cities snd thismay be combinedtrateglc evacuation potential.) Repatriatesnationalities continue to report air raid shelter construction, of both the basement type and the Independent underground shelters In factory
of * preoccupation
bA*f, the Soviet parsmlllUry society. Startinghree courses hava been slven. (Anti-atonic Cmfenssj Anti-sir Defense, and Ready for Air
flrst completioneeent publication. Indicates that completion of the third courseI will now be
'WdT tor MrI. being
S^JS: "TObflbl7which have largely completed the
first three courses. During these courses of Instruction, more emphasis la now being placed on practical exercises snd testing.
IS ISLha. taken litU.
twlth ;blackout and staff exercises,
rather than full-scale drills.
. *those describing exercises, lndlcats that
olvll defense supplies have been Issued, and that larger shelter, have been equipped and stocked ln sosas cases.Original document.