A SOVIET LIQUID OXYGEN DISTRIBUTION FACILITY SUPPORTING SURFACE-TO-SURFACE MISS

Created: 2/10/1961

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N? 85

CIA HISTORICAL REVIEW PROGRAM RELEASEAS9

A SOVIET LIQUID OXYGEN DISTRIBUTION FACILITY SUPPORTING SURFACE-TO-SURFACE MISSILE DEPLOYMENT IN THE CARPATHIAN MILITARY DISTRICT

CIA/RR*1

CENTRAL INTELLIGENCE AGENCY

Office of Research and Reports Office of Scientific Intelligence Office of Current Intelligence

A SOVIET LIQUID OXYGEN DISTRIBUTION FACILITY SUPPORTING SURFACE-TO-SURFACE MISSILE DEPLOYMENT IN THE CARPATHIAN MILITARY DISTRICT

CU/RR*

WARNING This nuUrUU conlainy intomaHon AccUne thc National Wnw/ul the UnlWO Stateseaning/of the eapknfaie lain,, Dtac/ttlUICrevelation of which In any manner lo an unauthorized person Is prohibited by law.

CENTRAL INTELLIGENCE AGENCY

Office of Research and Reports Office of Scientific Intelligence Office of Current Intelligence

FOREWORD

This memorandum presents significant new information relating to ballistic missile deployment in the USSR. The memorandum examines iniquid oxygen (LOX) facility in the Carpathian Military District. In addition, reference has been made to some of the other intelligence that may assist in estimating the significance of this installation in relation to thc missile program of the USSR.

Additional reports will examine in greater detail other aspects of missile deployment in the Carpathian Military District.

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CONTENTS

Summary and Conclusions

I. Introduction

II. Description of the LOX Facility at Kolchino

Related to the LOX Facility

to the Facility

of LOX Shipped and Its Significance . .

Supplier of LOX

Supported by the Facility

Deployment Activity in the Mukachevo Area . Relationship to the Guided Missile Program

Appendixes

Appendix A. Methodology

Appendix B. Source References

Illustrations

1. USSR: Carpathian Military District (Map) inside back cover

^. USSR: LOX Distribution Facilities at Kolchinopage

A SOVIET LIQUID OXYGEN DISTRIBUTION FACILITY SUPPORTING SURFACE-TO-SURFACE MISSILE DEPLOYMENT IN THE CARPATHIAN MILITARY DISTRICT*

Summary and Conclusions

Recant evidence of Soviet missile activityiquid oxygen (LOX) distribution facility supporting the Soviet ballistic missileprogram, located at KolchinoNm) northeast of MukachevoNn the Carpathian Military District (CMD). ubstantial body of evidence provides numerous indicationsajor missile deployment program underway in the CMD DeploymentauIical-milc (nm) missiles is believed to have occurred in the CMDoviet strategic requirements, test range activity, and estimated capabilities, however, indicate that units becoming operational in the CMD0 probably would be equipped withm weapons.

Present estimates conclude that Soviet long-range missilesas an oxidizer in their propulsion systems. Consequently,of LOX, located conveniently for field units, are anin thc deployment program. Analysis of thc activity atindicatesinimumetricf LOXat this facilityotals suf-

ficient to supply LOX form) missiles, including allowances for and losses from transportation, handling, and storage forays. This quantity of LOX is too great lo be required only

* The estimates and conclusions in this memorandum represent (he best judgment of the contributing offices as0 Tonnages are given in metric tons throughout this memorandum.

S-*TT U f! T

L- r

I. Introduction

'The Carpathian Military Districtee the map.| has long been suspected of missile deployment act-ivity,. Its location is well suited (or the coverage of Western Europe and Asia Minor by medium-range ballistic missiles. Germany is within range of thenm) Soviet missile, and England, France. Italy. Greece, and Turkey are within range of them) missile.

a LOX distribution facility in the CMD.

iSoviet activity was taking place in thc area.

This memorandum attempts to describe the facility and to assess the cumulative significance of these observations in the light of other relevant information.

II. Description of the LOX Facility at Kolchino

f OX distribution

Utility located at the small town ofm from Mukachevo, on the road lo SvalyavaNw of the facility, as shown

4 acr.al photograph of thehoutline of the Ko y superimposed. f par,

* Inside back cover, following p q.

IH. Activity Related lo Ihc LOX Facility

A. Shipments to the Facilit

Thc principal activity appeared to be thc handling of LOX boing transported in/ LOX cars {see. The nature of the installation combined with the fact that no LOXfacility is known to exist in the area indicates that the facility is probably an unloading point and storage facility. Because no large consumers of LOX are known to be in the Mukachevo area, it is likely that this installation is intended for use by deployed missile units. Observations of this facility, were as follows:

of Cars Observed

* Followine D. 6

NT

B Quantity of LOX Shipped and lis Significance*

On the basis of the rated capacity ol theigure ofons is derived as thc minimumLOX unloaded at thehas been assumed

that Soviet losses in transportation, handling, and storage of LOX arc comparable to US experiencehat is. valuesercent per day in transit. ercent in transfer or loading, andercent per day in storage of large quantities. On the basis of these factors,one of LOX are sufficient totandby capability ofays for aboutissiles without replacement of boil-off losses This computation alsoonfiguration of theissileapacity of aboutons of LOX. ouble propellent loading exercises are conducted by deployed units, evaporation losses would be greater than those used above Because it would be wasteful to bring in the LOX (or missile units before they arc otherwise operationally capable, it is probable that the arrival ol this quantity of LOX indicates that some missile units in the area were issued missiles

C Probahle Supplier of LOX

A likely production source for the shipments of LOXis Plant No. SI atm southeastLOX plant was reportedly built on

a rush basis1

A description of the compressorsroduction capacity of * etailed cxplanat ionculaiior -. sec Appendix A

-

ons ol LOX per JayOX cars have beenin the rail yards al L'vov

Evident<>matom tins plant is consigned primarily touse.

D. Area Supported by the Facility

The area supported by the Kolchino LOX distributionbe defined at present. Thc fact that neither LOX tankprovisions for removing the LOX from the facility wereindicate that the LOX is stored at the site. In any case,is Sufficient storage capacity to allow unloadingargestthe LOX is stored at

Kolchino, it would seem likely that the military units served arc located nearby.

IV. Missile Deployment^ Activity in thc Mukachcvo Area Since late I

have indicated sensitive military activity and storage, usuallyas being associated with missiles, in the Mukachcvo region he towns of Svalyava and1 E) have been mentioned Spec it ically. Special weapons storage is located at StryyNm io Ihc north of Mukachcvo

Rcccnl identificationurface-to-air missile site near Muka-chevo may indicate that the USSR places priority on defending faciji-ties in the Mukachevo

ype thought to be capable of carrying eitherm or them missile was reportedoute south from Kiev

it is possible that this sighting was ol equipment (or newiy activated units in the Mukachevo area.

V. Relationship to the Guided Missile Program

The supplies ofKolchino proba-

bly are for the use of units cquippeO with suriace-to-surface weapons. Estimates indicate that both thenmJ and theml missiles were operationally available before

In consati on ofthat theissile was deployed in thcnd the limited target coverage possible fromm missile, it would be reasonable to expectm) missile units to this area at thc earliest Therefore, it is probable that the large quantilies ofinto Kolchinowere initial stocks for the use

ol military units equipped withm weapons.

2 Significance of the Quantity of LOX

This computation assesses the significance of the quantity of LOX shipped to Kolchino as it would be likely to be used in the deployment of them) missile, lt Is basedypical sequence of events that might be expected to be required in order to move the LOX from the producer to the missile. In addition, provision is made for the USSR to maintain sufficient reserve in the vicinity of the launch positions or in the support area to permit storage foraya without replacement of boil-off losses.

On the assumptionsays were spent in transitossercent per day and (hat all losses were computed by taking successive daily remainders, the additional losses that occurred follow ransfer to storage was madeoss ofercent, storage was maintained foraysurther loss ofperransfer to local transport would be required with an additional loss ofercent, an additional lossercent would be experienced during transport to the site, and loading of the missile would resultinal loss ofercentelivered tons are reduced toons available for final use. day storage period for each shipment of LOX.

the longer storage times of earlierwill mean slightly greater losses and will resultigureons of LOX available for final use.

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-secret

APPENDIX B

SOURCE REFERENCES

Evaluations, following the classification entry and designated "Eval.ave the following significance:

Source of Information

ocumentary

Confirmed by other sources

- Completely reliable

Probably true

- Usually reliable

Possibly true

- Fairly reliable

Doubtful

- Not ueually reliable

Probably false

- Not reliable

Cannot be judged

- Cannot be judged

"Documentary" refers to original documents of foreignand organizations: copies or translations of such documentstaff officer; or information extracted from such documentstaff officer, all of which may carry the field evaluation"

Evaluations not otherwise designated are those appearing on the cited document: those designated "RR" are by the author of this No "RR" evaluation is given when the author agrees with the evaluation on the cited document.

Original document.

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