Created: 4/1/1961

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TITLE: Snapshots At Random author: Jane Schnell




A collection ol articles on the historical, operational, doctrinal, ond theoretical aspects ol Intelligence.

All statements of fact, opinion or analysis expressed in Studies in Intelligence arc those of

the authors Ihey do not necessarily reflect official positions or views of the Central Intelligence Agency or any other US Government entity, past or present. Nothing in the conienis should be construed as asserting or implying US Government endorsement of an article's Tactual statemenis and interpretations.


Intelligence market for the product of the camera fan's fun.


Everyone who has taken photographsoreigncollected potential ground photographic intelligence. The (. raveller tiirhs his camera upon'anythmg trialexciteanV'ih- -'

civil engineer on peculiarities in theof dams, roads, bridges, and cityomanon clothing, Jewelry, and hairoctor on things related to disease andarmer on crops and tools and methods of farrning. The more widely travelled the man behind the camera and the broader his Interests, the more discriminating he is likely to be In photographing subject matter peculiararticular place. But the potentialelllgcnce thus collected is often lost; there are two minimum requirements for transforming it Into actual photoOne Is that the pictures must be Identified, at least by the name of the place or subject, the direction the camera was facing, and the date. The other is that they must get to the market.

The most omnivorous and Insatiable broker for the photo Intelligence market is the CIA Graphics Register. If yonatch of photos taken anywhere abroad, properly identified and preferably with negatives, the Register would like to look them over. If they were taken In London or Paris or Vienna, say. the pickings may be slim, but the Register would like to decide for itself. And if It knows In advance that you art going toour in some less well frequented place. It may be interested enough in promoting your hobby to supply you with camera and film.inimum of effort, adding to the pictures you normally would takeotation of the place, time, and direction and as much descriptive data as you can, you are likely to produce some useful photos. Targets of Opportunity

The results will be much better, however, if you add to this minimumittle more and become as familiar as you

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can with photo collection manuals and lists ot requirements on the area. Graphics Register can refer you to generalon thesend attache offices In all the us diplomatic missions have such manuals andlists In detail for their particular areas. You can pick out of theew things that are of interest to you and accessible for photographing in the course of your normal day-to-day activities. One standing requirement, for example, Is photographs of prominent persons in almost, any field, espe-

notew pictures of the speakers? If they are withineet5 mm. camera, the heads can be enlarged to an identifiable likeness. The closer theaturally, but the main thing Is to get them on film and in focus.

The fact that an object may have been photographedby no means disqualifies it: changes, or the absence of changes, In Iteriod of years or of weeks may be important- And changes aside, it Is amazing how manyof the same object can be taken without telling the whole story.ust have seen hundreds ofof the Eiffel Towerent to France, it wasn'talked under Itealized the first balconyig hole in it. So lookinghotographed the tower through the hole; and then, Just forept trying to find another photograph that showed there wasole in the middle of the balcony. It was threealf yearsawood photographic practice is to take the normal view of an object and then try to trunk up aviewpoint and take that also. Few people look up, and It Is often by looking up that you find an extraordinary picture.

ew gas storage tank Is being built In the city where you are stationed and you drive past it going to work every day, why not photograph iteek oronth? The photos will tell how long it takes to build it, what types of materials and methods of construction are used, and how much gas storage capacity is being added. Maybe you don't knowas storage tank looks like, and all you see is a

'See appended bibliography

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big tank being builticture of it anyway; obviously it is built to store some tiling. What you don't know about it the analyst will. That is what he is an analyst for, but he can't analyze It if you don't get him the pictures.


A bit of extra effort put into captioning your shots will pay off, too. One kind of Information you may not be in the habit of noting for your own purposes, technical data, may

as wellerial number for each roll and frame. You should especially make note If you haveelephoto or wide-angle lens. Information on the type of film and exposure speed win not only assist In its development but also make it possible for you to get advice on how to correct anyyou make and improve your technique.


rame No.0 local time, Malaya, Kelantan state. Town, road, waterway.

Main road between Eota Bharu and Kuala Trengganu looking south at ferry toward village of Jerteh. Note cut at right for bridge under construction (seeor other shots of bridge).



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Most Important, however. Is good Identifying data about each picture. The essential elements are the date (and the tune of day may behe precise place; the subject or subjects, with special note of particular features ofinterest; and the direction the camera was facing, by compass or with reference to landmarks. It might be noted, for example, that framefas exposed0 onovember, one mile east of Otaru, Hokkaido, on the road to Sapporu, looking north andoviet trawler In the

on his way to the corner toamlor.

These essentials can frequently be supplemented towith additional comments or with printedarticular picture. Perhaps the Idea of the target came from facts you read In the newspaper; clip the article out and send It along. You find your way around unfamiliar cities with the help of guidebooks, free tourist maps, and maps bought at local survey offices or book stores. The analyst can use the same material to And his way around yourIf you cant send copies, at least make reference to the tools of travel you used. In the absence of printedIt is extremely useful toketch showing the relationship of picturedketch is particularly good when there are several shots of the same subject fromvantage points, or of different subjects near each other, or of subjects that are not mapped. The analyst neverthat he Is given too many factsicture.

Spies and People

You may want to shoot beyond your targets of casualand make trips or excursions expressly for theof getting useful pictures. Fine; but since you areabroad on some other government business, it is paramount that you remember you are taking pictures for fun. You should never take photos at the risk of your proper work, your purpose in being there. This need for discretion is ofreater limitation in some places than in others. Once you have decidedarget, the thing to do Is become as familiar with it as possible, learn for sure Just what the limitations of law and discretion are, and forget completely

Snapshots at Rondor

why you want the pictures. Try to take them for some other reason than intelligence collection.

I once wanted toew electric power plant in Malaya. So farnew, nobody would question mythe pictures; but itittle oddirl to go around photographing power to find It, some* whereertainrove out the main road from that town, which finally passed under some high power wire*. After taking pictures of the road in both directions,

left parallel with the wires. But at the nextign pointed to the power plant.

I photographed the side road and then drove down Itamene-way bridgeoliceman at each end and the power plant on the other side. The first policeman waved meot out of the car, camera In hand, and went up and asked him why. Head toew minutes, the Sultan wassked what was the big building on the other side of the river. "That's our new powere said proudly. "That'said, "Does It workOh,aid,icture ofSure, why don't you go to the other end of the bridge, youetterot of pictures, somethe bridgeearby railway bridge,ot of kibitzing, until the Sultan came past In his Mercedes.hanked the policeman and left, congratulating myself that nothing could have been easier. If I'd been as smartas Id haveood picture of the Sultan and one of the policeman. No matter how much you see. If It Lent In your camera It's worthless.

The biggest hazard to the camera fan who has ulteriorIsordinary people, and people who might suspect him. If you act suspicious even the ordinary people will become suspicious. If you act quite ordinary even the suspicious people will think you quite ordinary. That Is why It Is important for you to forget the reason you are taking your pictures. Just take them; but know what you will say If you are questioned. Sometimes if people are watching me take pictures it makes me nervous,etaliate bymy camera on them to make them nervous. In the places

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urma, Kachtn state, Shwegu village. Sociological. Man cutting bamboo.

I've been they ate either so pleased they stop being Inquisitive or suspicious or else they are embarrassed and goave been told that in the Middle East they often throw things, and that in the Soviet bloc it can be quite dangerous; but in Asia usually they giggle. Some friends of mine in Borneoolaroid camera to divert the people withof themselves while they took candid shots. One Dyakhoto of the tattoo on his back; he had never seen itl

The necessary equipment for ground intelligenceconsists of one camera and plenty ofa camera,air of shoes, is an individual and personal5 mm. negative because Itsrrames perroll last longer without changing film, and larger cameras are too heavy andould notmaller one, of the submlniature class, except for some special reason; the negative is so small that enlargement potential Is seriously limited. And ordinary people, if they bother to think about it, think spies use tiny cameras that can be hidden. If you

mm mi ucr mm

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go around more or lessouristopular-sized one you avoid being conspicuous.

There are many publications on cameras andon special lenses, on the respective advantagesand color, of fine-grain and fast film.tried to touch on these subjects.ave triedIs point out that an opportunity exists for travellersin photography toonsiderablebasic Intelligence through collecting ground photos. Itliem .becam

me learn about the placeas living, and because Itwas fun.


; The Ouide for Graphics Coordinators. TMR/SUte. Octobernew handbook.

} anual for the Collection of Ground Photography and Related Data.

Bureau of Aeronautics. NAVASRarchhla Is tbe best previous guide. Illustrating many techniques and giving


Technique! for Producing Oood Ground Photography for Secret. Photographic Intelligence M.*

I VolumeAffairs, of Foreign Service Manual.

uide to the Collection of Ground Intelligence Photography on Porta and Harbor* Confidential Photographic IntelligenceCIA/ORR,

Amateur Photography from Commercial Aircraft. Secret.intelligence Memorandum. CIA/ORR,4

Intelligence CollecUoo GuidancePhotography.

Confidential. Air Forcentelligence Collection OuldanccRecognlUon. Air

Force Manual5ntelligence Collection Confidential. Army

Original document.

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