ANNUAL REVIEW OF CIVIL AVIATION IN THE SINO-SOVIET0
ClAKISTOrriCAl ffilfSVBEASE AS SANITIZED
CENTRAL INTELLIGENCE AGENCY Office of Research ;md Reports
Economic Intelligence Memorandum
ANNUAL REVIEW OF CIVIL AVIATION IN THE SINO-SOVIET0
rot/lal contain/ inlormaUoD greeting lb* NaUfaa) DefmW of the UhW Sutcs withinraranlni- fcf liic espionage laws. Tlllc II. USC. Scck pn. theor rerclattonJof which In any manner to anir.ioa Is prohibited by law.
CENTRAL INTELLIGENCE AGENCY Office of Research and Reports
This memorandun ia oneeries of annual publications that are designed to present in Bummary form the significant developments in transportation In the Sino-Sovlet Bloc during each preceding calendar year.
In addition to the present meiorandum on civil aviation, the series includes two other annual publications, one on developments In inland transportation ln the Sino-Sovlet Bloc and another on merchant shipping in the Bloc.
3- Inventory and Types of
If. Expansion of
3- Sales of
R. International Developments
IV- Communist Far
Performance of Aeroflot, Selected,
Inventory of Civil Aircraft Held by Aeroflot,
3- USSR: Length of Scheduled Domestic Routes of national Importance Operated by Aeroflot, Selected Years,
k. European Satellites: Inventory of Civil Aircraft, as of
5- European Satellites: Passenger Trafficby Major Civil Air Carriers,
Satellites: Freight Traffic Per-
formance by Major Civil Air Carriers,
Far East: Inventory of Civil Air-
craft, as ofecember
Q. Communist China and North Korea: Civil Air
Figure 1. USSR: Performance of Aeroflot,
Pigure 2. USSR: Domestic Routes of Aeroflot,
Flfrurc 3- USSR: International Routes ofI96l
Figure I. European Satellites: Domestic Routes
of Civil Air Carriers,1 (Map) -
Figure 5. European Satellites: international Routed of Civil Air Carrlem,
Figure 6. Communist Far East: Domestic amiRoutes of Civil Air
- vi -
ANNUAL REVIEW OF CIVIL AVIATION IH the SlriO-flovrCT BLOC*
Tbe fairly substantial expansion of civil aviation In the Sino-Soviet Bloc0 vas attributable almost entirely to the civil air carriers of the USSR and Czechoslovakia. In spite of thishowever, tbe USSR at the end of the year vas further behind the US in the numbers of high-performance Jet and turboprop civil aircraft than at the beginning. The USSR, vhose inventory of such aircraft vas aboutever than that of tho US at the beginning of the year, had aboutever aircraft at the end, as follows:
Type of Transport (Actual)
In volume of passenger-kilometers and freightlowneroflot, the civil air carrier of the USSR, continued to maintain ita position as second in the world only to thc combined operations of US civil air carriers. US operationsimes those of Aeroflot measured in pasecngcr-lilcmetersimes in freight and mall ton-kilometera. Aeroflotts passenger-kllomcteroj percent and its freight ond mall ton-kilometers byercent. By far the greater part of these gains took place in domestic operations, Id view of the fact that Aeroflot did Dot Initiate any new international routes during the year and operations along existing scheduled International routesonly slightly.
" 'll;c iu>i concilia linn; in Ihlii mrc. fiiii'luri rcpivi.cni tin
best Judgment of this Office as
Tonnages are given in metric tons throughout this memorandum.
Operations of the civil air carriers of the European Satellites and the Connnunlst Ear East were minor in comparison with those of Aeroflot. The gap between traffic carried by Aeroflot and that carried by the rest of the Sino-Soviet Bloc continued to widen. The USSR Increased passenger-kilometers by moreillionhereas tho rest of the Bloc is estimated to have increased its traffic by lessillion passenger-kilometre.
Scheduled air operations of the civil air carriers of the Sino-Sovlet Bloc were sugumented chiefly by the addition of Soviet flights along existing routes and by the extension of services by the European Satellites to the Middle East, the Far Beat, Africa, and thecountries. Czechoslovakia, ln the forefront,0 route-kilometers to Its international network by Inaugurating eerrlces to Conakry, Guinea, via Zurich and Rabat, and by an extension of the Bombay route to Rangoon and Djakarta. These new routes were flown byiA (Camel)Coot) aircraft.
Production of commercial aircraft within the Sino-Sovlet Bloc waa almost wholly within the USSR, with only liaison and light trainer types being manufactured in Czechoslovakia and China. Somewhatin view of its poor operating efficiency, variants of the two-engine Jet transport (Camel) continued to be manufacturedthe year at tbe rate of about fire aircraft per month. Twoeach of the new two-engine transports, theCoorpot) andere completed and submitted for testing, but apparently neither aircraft emerged from series production during the year. Production of all types of high-performance transport aircraft In the USSR Is estimated to have decreased slightly9
Utilization of the Inventory of hlgh-porfoimance transport aircraft remained low throughout the year. Major difficulties with the power-plant ofesulted In the grounding of this aircrafteriod ofonths. TheCat) was seldom observed in pausenger service during the year, probably also because of engine problems. Continuing trouble with theCleat) kept this large aircraft from scheduled service during the year. On the fewflights that the Tu-llfc made outside the USSR, it vasto hare undergone special pre flight maintenance and testing and to have carried large stocks of spare parts.
The utilization rate of high-performance transport aircraft ln the USSR remained low in terms of US economic concepts but did give theontinuing large reserve of transport aircraft. If the total inventory of aircraft had been mobilised, the potential airliftof the high-performance transport aircraft at thc end of the year would have been sufficient to enable the USSR to move, at relatively
short notice and without modification ol' aircraft,0 seated pn&sungcra,0 additional scaled passengers could have been airlifted with piston types of transport aircraft. In the US the comparable figures for commercial aviation would0 passenger seats for high-performance aircraft0 for piston aircraft.
Reductions In fares of fromoercent were announced on selected routes during thc year. The reductions usually were made on those routes traversing areas where competition existed from other modes of transport, particularly the railroads. At thc endll fares were changed to conform to thc revaluation of thes were wages and other expense items-
On the basis of scattered announcements, long-distance and middle-distance air passenger travel continued to Increase more rapidly than comparable rail travel. Several new long-distance routes were placed on tbe Aeroflot schedule toward the end of the yearegions where rail connections are roundabout or do not exist at all. Air freight service, often by helicopter, ofegular and an ccergency nature has become particularly effective in remote regions as new airfields have been constructed.
During tho year thc program to developodern airfields with suitable terminals and maintenance Bystems continued, but few wore open to inspection by foreign visitors, and none io known to have been completed. Installation of new communications systems and facllltlos apparently went forwardarge scale andairly rapid pace.
Sales of high-performance transport aircraft during tbo year, with the exception of one Tu-lOaA delivered to Czechoslovakia in January, were confined to Il-l8 aircraft, someales of which were negotiated. Four of8 aircraft sold went to Ghana, andre for civil carriers in the European Satellites and will raise their total inventory of high-performance aircraft At the end of the year, negotiations were underway with India for the sale of approximately eightircraft, with delivery scheduled for
Airline service in thc European Satellite areas0 was extended and improved to some extent, chiefly by Czechoslovakia. Development of air facilities in these areas coincided with theof, or plans to acquire, high-performance transport alrcruft.
* Ruble value0 throughout this memorandum are expressed in current new rubles and may be converted to US dollars at the rote of exchange0 ruble to
International Jet terminals have been placed under construction, and there haaeneral trend toward the addition of hangara and thc
Installation of communications equipment atondardized throughout the Sino-Sovlet Bloc and compatible with Western equipment.
Civil aviation in the &xtmrunlst Far East made little progress during the year. No new air agreements were concluded, and there was no expansion of international operation!!. Domestic operations, which had been emphaGized in tho "leap forward" program9ere curtailedear standdovn of transport flights at the ond Policy statements lndlcsted that there willonsolidation of achievements before other "big leaps forward" are attempted ln civil aviation.
Coordination of civil air operations throughout the Sino-Sovlet Bloc was again extended Since the session of the Council for Mutual Economic Assistance (CKMA) inore of thework formerly left to the member states has been brought under central control. In addition to increased CEMA activity, meetings on civil aviation, formerly heldear In the various European Satellites, are now held ln Moscow, and thc Communist Far Eastern countries are Included.
As9 the Slno-Soviet Bloc continued to apply pressure on foreign countries to permit overflights, to provide technical landing rights on existing fields (some built by the US and still used as militaryo permit special flights, and to enter intofor extension of regular service. In the European Satellites, new air agreements signed0 on the port of Czechoslovakiaagreements on tbe governmental level with Italy, Burma, India, and Indonesia. Hungary signed bilateral agreements vith Italy, the UK, and France; Poland, with the Hetherlondu and France; and Rumania, with Greece und Switzerland. Iran, Turkey, and Sudan were placed under particularly strong pressure from the USSR.
Scheduled negotiationsewoscow reciprocal air service were canceled by the US because of the generally unsatisfactory political and economic relations between the two countries. Toward the end0 the USSR undertook toeciprocal air agreement with Iceland, apparently designed to givetopping point between Moscow and Kew York, with no particular advantage to Iceland. In view of the unsatisfactory performance to date of the Tu-llk, land-log righto at Keflavik could be of considerable advantage to the USSR in the implementationhrough-service agreement to the US.
eroflot transportsumber of nonscheduled flights outside the USSR. These included publicized support missions to the UN in New York andumber of other countries end unpubli-clzed missions In support of friendly factions in Laos and thc Congo.
A. Domestic . Administration
In the spring0 the Administration of Fblar Aviationhich had previously operated its own aircraft under the direct control of the Main Administration of the Northern Sea Haute and which was in noert of Aeroflot, was merged into Aeroflottatus equivalent to thaterritorial adminietration. Busideo operating two main-line routesally basis, UPA carried out ice surveys, supported Soviot stations on the polar ice cap, ond provided logistical support and medical aid to numerous isolated outposts.
2. Performance and Operations
The passenger-kilometer performance of Aeroflot0 is estimated5 billion, an absolute gainillion passenger-kilometers above the total9 and tbe largest for any year of Aeroflot'b history, as shown in Tablend in the chart,ay of comparison with all US-scheduled civil air operations, the USet gain5 billion passenger-kilometersn freight and mail movement, Aeroflot Is believed to haveillionainillion ton-kilometers This gain is In excessS gain of about lh2 million. Both comparisons suffer from the fact that US dataubstantial Increment of carriage performed by contract carriers, an omission that is particularly serious in tho freight comparison. The Soviot duta are consistent with thc rate of increase required to fulfill tho Seven Yearor freight and mail movements.
Although many on-the-spot observers report that Aeroflot has aa unusually large inventory of inactive transports, the normal load factor on internal flights nevertheless is high in comparison with the west- On the Ik flights per day ofn each direction between Moscov and Leningrad during theactor of fromercent loaded seems to have been achieved In the hauling of passengers. here had been only six such flights each way per day.
0 the Trans-Siberian services from Moscov and Leningrad to the Soviet Par East consisted oflights dally in each direction. The average load factor on these routes is Judged to be of
ollows on p.* Following p. 6.
USSR: Performance of Aeroflot Selected5 Plan
Metric Tons of Freight and Mall Carried
Freight and Mall Metric Ton-Kilometera
the same magnitude as that on the Moscowroute. The Tu-llLew experimental flights nn thc Trana-Siberian route but was not placed in regular scheduled service anywhere during the year.
Air passenger travel within the USSR continued to be handled entirely as tourist class. On moat international flights, first-class accoBOodatlons also were provided to enable Aeroflot to offer the same service as tbe foreign airlines serving Moscow under bilateral treaty arrangements. Aeroflot continued the practice of previous years of making seasonal fore reductions of from.or particular domestic routes.
Reports of visitors who have traveled on Soviet Internal and International flights0 show,ule, less annoyance with the dependability and comforts of the service than was prevalent The safety factor apparently wait high, although there were at least three fatal accidents, one involving an international flight on. Accidents continued to be treated as classified information
unless circumstances such as location and the deaths of foreigners obliged publicity.
3. Inventory and Types of Aircraft
The Inventory of high-performance transport aircraftto Aeroflot increased by approximatelynitsr considerably less than the gainf such aircraft experienced* as shown in* Ko new types wore introduced to service, but prototypes of thend there reported to have been completed and to be undergoing testing. The formerwo-engine turbojet transport capable of carrying from kkt speeds of upilometers (km) per hour for distancesm. The latter has twin turboprop engines and is designed to move fromoassengersm per hour nonstop form. In spite of optimistic predictions the Tu-ll4 failed to enter- scheduled services during the year, but aboutora' of these large aircraft are believed to have been manufactured.Aeroflot officials have stated that the Tu-ll4 is intended primarily for special purposes, but this explanation is believed to be an excuse for nonoporatlon of the aircraft because of frequent maintenance problems. Difficulties were still being encountered with the counter-rotating propellers and the associated gearing system, which appear to be hard to maintain.
, " Onollowing the crash near Kiev onugust of an Il-lfl aircraftlight from Cairo to Moscow,ircraft were temporarily grounded toleet retrofit program. The crash of thet Kiev is reported to have been oneeries of at least four crashes of this aircraft, all of which were caused by engine fires in flight- Tbe retrofit program Included replacement of high-pressure pipes and insulation of the lubrication system of the rear turbine bearings, inasmuch as some of tho crashes have definitely been attributed to failures in the engine fuelsystem. eriod ofeeks, thereomplete standdovn8 aircraft. During this period, Aeroflot had to draw on its reserves of Jetircraft andCoach),4ndCab) aircraft to maintain Its
* US civil airlines0 increased their ownership of high-performance Jet and turboprop transport aircraftnits. At the end of the year, there were onorc high-performance transports for deliveryl 0 evidentlyeak year of the changeover from piston to Jet in the US.
** ollowu on p. Hot all of thcircraft manufactured0 areto have been delivered to Aeroflot by thc end of the year.
USSR: Inventory of Civil Aircraft Held by Aeroflot
Typeof End of End of End of
domestic and international schedules. Both Tu-lObircraft were used on formerlynternational routes. onstituted more thanercent of the total high-performance civil air fleet. In view of this situation the ability of Aeroflot toreasonably adequate air movements of cargo and passengers whileas grounded has been of significance in shoving Its reserve strength. Furthermore, because thes equipped with the same engine as the Il-l8 and therefore Is subject to thc same engine trouble, Aeroflot could not consistently draw on its large park ofircraft. Observers reported that whereas numerousircraft were seen in flight In August, noircraft vere noted in flights after the Il-l8 aircraft were grounded, and there is strong reason to believe that theas beenetrofit program similar to that of.
v. JThejlncreflBedhelicopters, both for specialon scheduled routes, indicates that helicopters are beginningan essential role in civil air transport. It is estimatedownership of helicopters has increased from IbOn Q
h- Expansion of Routes
lhBtlUr nntrovided service on morecheduled routes of national importance with on estimated
f boUnable 3" In addition,m of feeder lines0 km of internationala total network
USSR: Length of Scheduled Domestic Routes of national Importance Operated by Aeroflot Selected
During the yonr, Aeroflot placed great emphasis on proving nights over an alternate, or northern Trans-Siberian, route from Moscow to Magadan. The northern route, to be inaugurated Ins above the Arctic Circle, touching at Amderma, Dickson Bay and Tiksi, and shortens by morem the distance from Moscow to Petropavlovsk, the longest route ln the USSR. When fully operational, the new route will provide "double tracking" of the existing Trann-Slberlan air route, making It possible for planes
flying on olther route to shift north, or south to bypass closedond to use alternative stops or Interlinking corridors, such as Horil'sk-Yakutsk-Magadan (see the map. Figure
Thc growing park of high-performance transports and the increasing use of them on long-distance routes have made lt possible to transfer more piston-engine aircraft to shorter and less traveled routes. New feeder-line routes therefore have been opened inadministrations in Siberia and in the southwestern areas of the USSR. Many routes, formerly operated with small aircraft, such as theColt) and there now being operated, orircraft.
The0 alsoonsiderable expansion of helicopter routes. otal of only aboutuch routes In
was planned to Increase helicopter routes ton
of these routes aro In, the northern andof the USSR,outes alone,otal route lengthkm, being located in the Far East. Helicopters providedmeans of transport In newly developed areas- They alsotraffic in the Crimea and the Caucasus and providedairports and city centers, principally in the environsand Moscow.
5. Air Facilities
There has been little publicity on the progress ofof airports in accordance with the Seven fear Plan, which cells for completion ofodem airports capable of handling high-performance aircraft on mainline civil air routes by the endn some areas, military airfields were usedhile new civil airfields were under construction or old airports were being Observers report that runways are being made of portland cement and appear to be adequate, but other airport facilities are decidedly marginal. Planning with respect to the terrain of individual sites seemed unrealistic in certainrobable result of the effort to conform to standardized specifications regardless of natural Construction of hangars was underway at several mainbut was evidently far below current requirements.
ll International flights emanating froa Moscow were shifted from Vnukovo airport to Sheremet'yevo. was startedew Moscow airport knownomodyedovo, which may be more elaborate than any of those presently existing. Other cities at which airports were" being renewed, added, or modified for
Jet aircraft Include Kiev, Tashkent, Frunze, Klnypoda, Osh, Karaganda Stalioabad, Kiahinev, Turukhansk, Alma-Ata, Sverdlovsk, Magadan Pavlodar, Novosibirsk, airi Baku.
At Moscow the old central airport wan being modified for helicopter service to connect with tbe three principal airports now ln use.
B. International Developments 1- International Network
eroflot international operations arcuated toillion passenger-kilometers to thend Communist China andillion to non-Blocotal ofpassenger-kilometers" for all international operations.
eroflot provided service tooreignln the Sino-Soviet Bloc and the Free World. No new International routes were inaugurated during the year, but the USSR has been able to Improve service on many lines by replacing piston-engine aircraft with jet or turboprop aircraft. During the year,ircraft were put into operation on the routes from Moscow to Helsinki, Stockholm, Berlin, Warsaw, Bucharest, and Sofia, andircraft were placed inon the Moscow-Vienna route (see the map. Figure
There also was an increase in the number of scheduled flights per week on many routes. For instance, the number of sched-. uledlights from Moscow to Budapest was. Increased from one flight per week in9 to three flights por week lnhe number of flights to Cairo was increased from two to three, and the use ofircraft has cade nonstop servlca possible on this route. eparate twice-weekly service to Tirana was inaugurated using Tu-lOl. aircraft.
Inhereignificant change on the Moscow-Copenhagen-London route vhen nonstop Moscow-London service was
These figures were basedoad factor6 percent, which was the over-all Intra-European factor for the year The USSR hasrobablenternational load factor for the06 percent. The use of the latter factor wouldotalillion passenger-kilometers. Figuredercentage of total passenger-kilometers flown by Aeroflot the two estimates wouldercentercent, Basedumber of individual sightings, the lower figure Is regarded an the more accurate. Following
Irieekly Moscow-Copenhagen service was started. Also in0 the frequency of scheduled flights from Moscow to New Delhi wan increased from one to two flights per week. The many changes early0 in the frequency of flights on scheduled international routes indicate that the USSR has been attempting toschedules to the demands of traffic.
Negotiations vith countries of the Free Uorld did not result in the opening of any new international routeshe groundwork was laid for new routesew cases, hovever, and agreements of other types were entered Into or discussed.
Negotiations with Japan in August resulted in thedefermentokyo-Moscow service, for the USSR openly stated its objections to the intelligence opportunities that theflights vould afford. The Japanese did at one point proposeubstitute the establishmentlocal" bilateral service, with the Japanese restricted to, Khabarovsk and the USSR to an airfield on the Japanese coast near Nilgata. No definite agreement was worked out during the year, however, and the impression is that the Japanese were only trying to keep the conversations alive, vith the Moscow route as their ultimate aim.
Aeroflot and REA (British European Airways) signed an agreement in the early autumn that provided for the pooling of London-Moscow services beginning inbe agreement provides for pooling the revenues of the two airlines and permits someof schedules by permitting the carriers to make adjustments in the weekly schedules. REA, which had been conducting nightwith Comet Jets, vill revert to daytime flying.
Although no air agreement exists between the USSR and Lebanon, the USSR has been attempting6 to obtain operating rights into and through Beirut- Foroute to be operated most economically, overflying of Turkey by Aeroflot would be necessary. In the last quarter0 the USSR brought heavy pressure to bear on Turkey to grant overflight rights and emergency landing privileges for commercial aircraft. Turkey, however, did not grant such rights, nor did Turkeyimilar request from Czechoslovakia- Hovever, tho reciprocal advantages that Turkey may have been offered in exchange for overflight rights ore not clear at the moment. The Lebanese Civil
Aviation council is believed to be considering reneved requests of the USSR and Czechoslovakia to negotiate civil air transport
Following the purchase of II-lS aircraft, Ghana
that the aircraft would be used on an Accra-Moscow route. Although no air agreement per se is known to-have been signed by the twoan accord vas possibly made or implied when the purchase agreement was signed. *
all indications the USSR has worked itselfosition where it can wield considerable Influence over*the operations of Air Guinea. ircraft, now at the disposal of Air Guinea, have made numerous nonscheduled flights to points in North Africa and to Moscow. An agreement to operate on internationalbetween.the USSR and Guinea, possibly in coordination with Ghana, is no doubt an immediate objective as soonoute with thestops can be worked out. In this connection' the USSR has'been conducting talks on mutual cooperation with Morocco.
Discussions between thc US and the USSRossible bilateral agreement to provide service between Moscow and New York were scheduled for the summer0 but were halted by the USesult of the shooting downS Air Forceover'the Barents Sea The USSR, however, has continued to expressfor the renewal of negotiations- In July, Sovietbegan to put pressure on Iceland for an agreement whereby the civil airline of the latter country would extend its weekly Helsinki service to Moscow, with Aeroflot in return receiving stopover rights at Keflavik, Iceland. The advantage to the USSR of this type of exchange is obvious, but Iceland has shown little interest. Latest advices ere that Iceland would be interested In an air agreement only il" Leningrad were to be the point of destination in the USSR rather than Moscow. Still another action on the part of tho USSR hasa desire to remove all possible obstacles to the opening of Aeroflot service to North America. In December, according to Danish press reports, thc USSR gave permission to SAS (Scandinavian Air System) to fly one DC-oB from Moscow to Itangkok, via Stalingrad, Tashkent, and Hew Delhi. SAS hopes forcheduled route across the USSR were revived by this action. If permission foroute were granted (and actually no new air corridor would need to be opened to foreign aircraft for thecandinavian objections to overflights of Soviet aircraft operating to and from New York would be nullified.
* Since the drafting of this mecoranduis, Tebanon hasilateral agreement vith Czechoslovakia and an interline agreement with East including the right to fly to Beiruthort-term basis.
3. Salee of Aircraft
The0 marked the first success of thc USSR In celling high-performance transport aircraft to countries outside the Sino-Soviet Bloc. Tn August, Ghana Airways purchased four Il-l8 aircraft, and these ulrcraft have already been delivered. Ghana reportedly Is planning to buy twoircraft to be delivered The total payment for the firstircraft amounted to approximately ft million to be paid overear period,ear grace period, and at an interest rateercent. The Bales agreement Includes the cost of training Chanalan crews In the USSR and provides for Soviet crews to fly the aircraft ln the Interim. Aboutoviet airmen, technicians, and maintenance personnel are now in Ghana.
Inuinea purchased an undetermined number8 aircraft, probably between four and six. In December,ransports, which may.be on loan under the terms of the aid agreement with the USSR, were placed at the disposal of Air Guinea and have been operated in nonscheduled international services within Africa.
Tbe government of India ln Novemberontract with the USSR to purchase eightransports plus spare parts and ground equipment. The sale price of each aircraft Is believed to be about million. Thc aircraft were scheduled to be delivered early Whereas these aircraft are military transports and are to be assigned to the Indian Air Force, the sale or this type, the first to be sold to any foreign country, crowns withersistentto sell aircraft and other equipment to India. The suspicion that these aircraft were bought by India with the intent of using them against Communist China on the northern frontier may tarnish this success ln time.
Inndia considered buying about eight Hi-li (Hound) helicopters, also for use in the high-altitude regions along the Himalayan border. Oneas purchased for use as a The purchase of additional helicopters has been delayed, however, pending further tests, because of the failure of theto meet the performance requirements at high altitudes.
0 the USSR soldransports tothree to East Germany, and two to Hungary. Czechoslovakia also purchased one more Tu-loU aircraft from the USSR.
III. European Satellites
A. DoneBtlc Developments
Domestic development of civil aviation In tbe0 was highlighted by the acquisition of high-performance transport aircraft, an intensification of service onroutes, and the modernization of air facilities. There was virtually no expansion of the domestic air network in any of the Satellites. Ths domestic route structures of the Satellite civil air carriers aro shown on the map.
Czechoslovakia, East Germany, and Hungary received new high-performance transport aircraft during the year (see De-.liveries ofircraft from the USSR included four to Czechoslovakia, three to East Germany, and tvo to Hungary. In addition, Czechoslovakiaourth Tu-lOaA from the USSR. Bulgaria, Poland, and Rumania all announced that they would8 aircraft early For the most part the high-performance aircraft received0 were put In service on international rather than on domestic routes. The other major increases in tbe inventorieB of civil aircraft consisted ofircraft.
European Satellites: Inventory of Civil Aircraft as of0
The- most impressive gain ln domestic performance vac made by Czechoslovakia, which now aoor more thanercent of thc total passenger-kilometer perfarmnnce of the European Satellite ulr carrlero (oee- The primacy offl apparent when the performance of Czechoslovakia Is compared with theof Poland, the second ranking carrier In Satellite civil aviation. hen Poland and Czechoslovakia were relatively coequal ln performance, the passenger-kilometer share of Poland has declined fromercent of the total to onlyercent
Domestic air services ln Czechoslovakia were Intensified considerably The current schedule listsound-trip flights weekly between Prague and Bratislava andound-trip flights weekly between Prague and Brno. In most of the other Satellites tbe frequency of service from the capital to each of the cities served is about six round-trip flights weekly.
The performance gains registered In the other Satellites approximated the gains made9 with the exception of Bulgaria and Rumania, where the rute, of increase declined considerably.
Performance figures for air freight traffic show the sane dominant position of Czechoslovakia (see The share of Czechoslovakia In the total ton-kilometer performance amounted to bk percentlight increase above that
A fairly extensive program for the modernization of air facilities to accommodate the Jet age is underway In the European Satellites. Several international Jet terminals have been established; new hangars are being constructed; and new communications equipment, compatible with both Bloc and Weutern standurdn, is being installed. Major runway construction is underway at the Sofia/Vrazhdcbno and the Stalln/Topoli airfields in Bulgaria, the Bucharest/Baneasa airfield ln Rumania, and the Berlin/Schoenefeld airfield In East Germany. Modern electronic and communications aids are being installed ot the Warssw/Okecie airfield In Poland and the Eerihegy/Vecses airfield in Hungary. ew international Jet terminal building is under construction at Prague.
B. International Dcyelopr-gr.ti.
All the expansion of international sir routes by the civil ulr carriers of the Sino-Soviet Blocotal of more0 route-kilometerswas accounted for by the European
" ollows onollows on p.ext continued on
Czechoslovakia vas again in the forefront,0 route-klloneUm to its International netvork. Thc Czechoslovak carrier inaugurated tvo major routes: the first to Conakry, Guinea, by vay of Zurich and Rabat, and the second to Rangoon ond Djakarta through an expansion of the Prague to Bombay route. In addition,added nev routes from Prague to Milan and from Prague to Rone (see the nap..
Other nev routes added by Satellite civil air carriers0 included an East German route from Berlin to Budapest, Belgrade, and Tiranaoute from Berlin to Prague to Vienna. Hungaryoute from Budapest to Frankfurt-sm-Moin to Paris. The Polish air carrierev route, extending its Warsaw-Vienna service to Rome.
Several new civil aviation agreements vere signed during the year, including agreements betveen Czechoslovakia and the governmento of Italy, Burma, India, and Indonesia. Hungary signed bilateral air agreements with Italy, the IK, and France; Poland, with theand France; and Rumania, with Greece and Switzerland. Although an unrecognized East Germany was unable to negotiate air agreements with most non-Bloc countries. Its international air company, Interflug continued to negotiate interline agreements with non-Bloc carriers. By the endhere had been negotiated somef thesemany of vhlch included provisions for the chartering of East German aircraft.
The international expansion of the European Satellite air carriers is to continue Latezechoslovakiaa route to Havana, Cuba, and early1 also extended its Prague-to-Conakry route to the Republic of Mali. The Czechoslovaks also have announced their intention to extend their African services to Brazil.
Poland has announced that lt will soon receive three Il-lS aircraft to be used on international routes. The Polish announcement also stated thatI Poland would extend its Warsaw-to-Gdansk service to Stockholm and subsequently to Helsinki. The Polesthat during the next few years they intend to open services to nine countries in the Middle East, Africa, and the Far East.
IV- Communist Far East
The fev elgnlficant developments noted in civil aviation In the Communist Fur Bust0 vere confined to Communist China.
The civil aviation networks of the Far Eastern Satellites remained: rudimentary, and the carriers performed limited services only (see the
. The aircraft inventories of tbeee small carriers remained substantially unchanged9 (aee An announced expansion of the Chinese domestic network Is believed to apply tonetworks.
Communist Far Eaot: Inventory of Civil Aircraft as of0
There ore varying numbers of small liaison aircraft ln the Inventories of the countries listed. The types Include thehe fak-l8hend theColt). Theccounts forircraft in Coemainlst China andircraft in Mongolia. There Is aofnd other types of small aircraft in North Vietnam and North Korea.
Ihe Chinese Communists made no effort to expand their international air services The air agreement9 with Ceylon has not been Implemented, and isolated reports of negotiation for on air agreement with Cambodia cannot be substantiated.
Domestic development of civil aviation in Communist China was retarded by shortages of gasoline and lubricants, which also had an adverse effect on other modes of transport. Beginning inhererastic curtailment or transport flights throughout the country. At the end of the year, norma! service had not been restored.onsequence, the Chinese failed to achieve gains In performance as
PERFORMANCE OF AEROFLOT
6 7 8 9 0
large as in the past Tew years, os shown In Table 8. Anotherfactor to thc anailer increase in performance in China was thc grounding in August of the8 aircraft received from the USSR in These aircraft had been used on the long-haul routes In China, and on their return to service in November they were returned to the Peking-to-Canton route.
Communist China and North Korea Civil Air Passenger
7 8 9 0
A fairly minor program for the expansion of air facilities is underway in the Communist Far East. The Chinese Communists arerunways at the airfields at Kunming and Wu-wei. ormer military airfield at Chengtu Is being reconstructed for Joint military and civil uee. Tho North Koreans have limited the use of tho main airfield at
^Pyongyang, which is in the city, and have transferred civil air traffic
'to Sunan field, which will accommodate Jet aircraft.