CIA HISTORICAL REVIEW PROGRAM RELEASE AS9
CURRENT SUPPORT BRIEF
GENERAL NEED FOR FALLOUT SHELTERS SUGGESTED IN USSR
OFFICE OF RESEARCH AND REPORTS
CENTRAL INTELLIGENCE AGENCY
This report represents ihe immediate views of the originating intelligence components of the Office of Research and Report*. Comments are solicited.
GENERAL KEEP FOR FALLOUT SHELTERS SUGGESTED IN USSR
During tbe past five yenre published information on thearea and persistency of fallout contamination which could result from the explosion of large nuclear weapons has beenexpanded until the Soviet public is now being told that lethal fallout may cover large areas, extending in some cases for "hundreds of kilometers" from the point of detonation.
Although it is not evident what action Soviet officials intend to take consistent with tho expanded explanation of fallout danger, they have deliberately demonstrated to tho population tho oeedncreased civil defense training in rural aroas,helter preparations in rural areas and small towns noar posslblo target cities,he developmentallout warning system tofallout patterns and glvo the notification to take shelter or evacuate threatened areas.
Prioro information on fallout was given tho general
public; material published in tho armed forces Dewspaper Red Star
noted only that contamination might extend for/
6 civil defense manual stated that radioactiveis particularly strong in an atomic "ground "information was given regarding the size of the area ofpossible with large nuclear weapons, nor of the possible level and duration of contamination. 2/ ocumentary film was released for general exhibition in the USSR. Pictures of Hiroshima were used to show the peoplo some of the effocts of atomic warfare. Widespread" radioactive fallout was mentioned, but not
ilKitional lnformation "bout radioactive fallout was published8 Soviet civil defense manual. It stated that during an atomic ground burst, contamination is possible along the pathby the radioactive cloud to an area possibly extending for dozens of kilometers. 4/
The extent of contamination was placed at several dozen kllo-metors from the place of the explosion of an atomic bomb9 civil defense manual. 5/
ublications0 expanded further on fallout information, indicating that large areas of fallout are possible and stating that the population may have to stay in shelters for soveral days.
<a H defense manual stated, "Persons and animals at adistance (hundreds of klloceters) fromHuclear7 blast may behrough the fallout of radioactive substances tlllt* y i0ftrhis cloud is carried away from the !JCaDd the radioactive particles descend toward tho earth as the cloudThe contaminated area7 may vary
JiLSHI iTOm seY,eral dozen to several hundreds of kllometors and the widthewewradioactive
clouds contaminates the air and tho area...
In Hio "range for the protection of persons...
.ThlCheby the radioactiveasic protective measures in such areas must include sheltering tbe people where they are."
* Analyst's underlines throughout.
Tho oanual goes on to state that Soviet citizens will bewarned of the hazards from radioactive fallout along the path of the movement of the cloud by the "Chemical Attack" signal which will be given over the radio relay network and every other possible means of communication. Inasmuch as "life Itself" isby remaining outside of shelters, Soviet citizens arothey Bhould Immediately seek protection ln shelters orand they are "categorically" forbidden to come out untilto do so are receivod from the civil defense staffs. 6/
0 publication containod the statement, "At tho signal of radioactive contamination, the entire population should takein shelters and covered areas and they must take enough food and water with them to last several days." It also was said that civil defense agencies can quickly determine tho diroction of the movement of radioactive clouds on the basis of weather data, and that the population can be warned ln good time about the dangor of contamination or at least tho start of radioactive fallout. 7/
Tho Soviet authorities have disseminated this increasedon fallout through the medium of civil defensemanuals, and training courses. The Information therefore is not limited to select groups, but is part of publicaimod at preparing the entire population for civil defense. (The USSR has conducted three courses ln civil defense for the goneral populationnd has now started the fourth course, "Ready for Air Defense, Grade II." Practical exercise and testing are stressed in the third and fourth courses'.)
A large part of tbe Soviet population thus Is being apprised, or being coerced into loarning, that areas endangered by fallout may extend hundreds of kilometers Into the countryside fromurban or Industrial targets. At the same time, they are Informed that fallout shelters, usable for extended periods,ecessary part of protection from residual radiation effects.
1, , Intelllgonco7 OFF USE.
Translation, OFF USE.
US Joint Publications Research.
Joint Publications Research Service. 4
Joint Publications Research Service. 0
7. US Joint Publications Research Service. 6 Fob1.