Created: 4/21/1961

OCR scan of the original document, errors are possible


The collated data contained herein are prirarlly background Information and do not represent an Intelligence position. This report has been preparedeference aid for intelligence analysts and otherswith the subject matter and may not be acceptable or usable Tor other purposes.

h April ig6l

CENTRAL INTELLIGENCE AGENCY Office of Scientific Intelligence


There is insufficient direct evidence on vhlch toirm assessment of Soviet BW offensive activities, nevertheless, on tbe basis of considerable Indirect evidence, including Soviet nicrobiological and other research possibly related to BW, and knowledge of what we believe toield testing site, ve estiaateW research end development program is under way ln the USSR which probably encompasses both offensive and defensive aspects.

ecurrent tempo of testing activity is undertain. There isfl^bbhnvldcocc thafc offensive BW field tests have been carried out for many years, probablyariety of diesemination devices and delivery systems, including aircraft and possibly artillery. Some offensive BW research probably is.carried.'out at three military medical Institutes, and studies related to offensive BW are conducted at various other institute!

3- Available evidence does not permit us to determine with certainty which BW agents are under Investigation or which agents, if any, beve been standardized for employment by the Soviets. There are Indications that as many as l6 candidate events are beinsh

'.denti'ied in the"

'No BWc^ksshave but known biological facilities are

adequate to produce bacterial BW agents if desired-

k. We estimateariety of organisms probably will have been thoroughly tested, and some may be standardized for delivery systems, Possible agents forby the Soviets in this time period include those of anthrax, plague, tuleremia, foot-and-mouth disease,the encepballtides viruses, aad Botulinum toxin. The development of anticrop agents is unlikely.

5- he Soviets could undertake large-scale virus production and moss-rearing of infected arthropods. Munitions for delivery by high-performance aircraft also could be perfected and, although unlikely, tbe Soviets probably could have BW varheeds for missiles-

6. BW defense training by the military Is conducted as port of CBR defense training. Apparently, however, lt la not emphasized. Research and development on immunization, rapid detection ot airborne microbea, and decontamination methods are veil along, and military medical defense measures are well organized- Civil defense ia veil organized and has emphasized BW defensive measures as port of the progroa Nevertheless, civil defense against BW is not well developed. he Soviet defense capability should be strengthened markedly through improved medical measures and preparations, efficient aerosol sampling systens, more rapid Identification procedures, and mere effective training In BW defense.

The extensivly detailed Information presented herein is being published to provide. intelligence community with as much background guidance as can be feasibly published to assist interested persons In understanding and resolving the serious problea of Soviet biological warfare. The intelligence research effort was The basic study findings were endorsed by tbe .Scientific Intelligence Committee of the USU" 'ta 2i>


General Aspects of the Soviet BW



Orgnniaation of Biological Warfare

The Offensive Program

Defensive Organization

The Capability of Soviet Science to Support


Medical Microbiology

Veterinary Sciences


Biochemistry and

Aerobiology and

Industrial Fermentation


Sanitation and Hygiene


Trends in

The Offensive Program

Resources for BW Weapons Development

The Scientific Research Institute of Epidemiology


Military Medical Acadeny ineni Kirov

Lisly Islandnion Institute of

Experimental Veterinary Medicine (VIEV)



Central Scientific Research Testing Institute

of Military

Military Veterinary Scientific Hesearcb Institute


Moscow Veterinary Academy

Military Academy of Chemical Defense

The All-Union Institute of Plant Protection

Vozroahdeniya Island

Biological Warfare Agent Production Facilities .

Personnel Implicated in

Status of Agent

Role of NIEEG (Bacterial BW Agents)

Bacterial ToxJn BW

Viral and Rickettsial BW

Unique BW

BW Agents and Ionizing

Fungal BW

Arthropod-Vector BW Agents

Antilivestock EW Agents

Anticrop BW

Trends in BW Agent

Status of Weapons Development

Current Research Identifiable with Offensive BW . . .

The Defensive Program

Status of Military

Status of Civilian Defense


General Aspects of the Soviet BW PrOflram Existencerogram

oviet Interest In biological warfare dotes at leaat Publications spanning the decode prior to thoof World War II, for the tost port, are unavailable for study in their original form; although Soviet scientists and military writers appear to bave been no core prolifiche subject of biological warfare than authors of other nations during the save period. It is apparent that accumulated evidence on tbe alleged military use of infectious microorganisms in Worldas reviewed an early5 by Soviet military flgurts and thatather thorough survey of the world's BW literature had beenepresentatives of the Soviet armed forcesng the first to point out tbe potential usefulness of biological agents In time of war and to call for work by the nation's scientists on defensive measures. umors of BW research in the USSR ore sold to have been circulating among Soviet scientists as long agond there are indicationsounting awareness of the subject vos felt within tbe scientific community. French, Polish, and Japanese intelligence organizations are credited with having defined an active Soviet Interest in both the offensive and defensive aspects of BW prior to World Wur II,elief that the USSR has devoted such attention to the study of biological agents Is also found among Yugoslav military German Intelligence of tbe Hazi regime amassed voluminous records of reported Soviet development and testing of biological agentseans for disseminating them. These records formedvast collection of unevaluated Information covering an era from% to the early days of the second World War and were consolidated after the war into the so-called Elrscb report. Despiteshortcomings, that report constitutes one of the pillars upon which tbe otlll incompletely known historical development of Soviet BW activities has been partially reconstructed.

Unclassified Soviet literature on BW from the World War II period ore few In number, and it is not clear whether the limited distribution of those papers or the suppression of publication is tbe underlying cause. Little reliable information on BW from any source was forthcoming during the years of World War II,ontinued interest is inferred from intensive Soviet Interrogation of prisoners of war on this subject during the period of hostilities and from intelligence information generated In tbe postwar

odd articles dealing specifically vith BW have been gleaned from Hussion sources, by far the greatest number of theo having been noted in unclassified nilitary or scientificand civil defense training manuals appearing It now appears likely that the notoriety following the Khabarovsk investigationt9 of alleged Japanese BW activities and the widespread charges. employment of BW during the Korean hostilities provided the stimulus for much of this writing, which ranges in scope from materialurely inflammatory nature to scorching Inquiries on the subject of agents, weapons, and defensive measures. There is little doubt that ln recent years the concept of BW and the problems inherent in its enploymtnt have teen brought to the attentionide audience in the Soviet Union through allitary periodicals; professional medical textbooks; training manuals issued to civil defense groups; reading material placed in bookstores for sale to the general public; indoctrination of the Armed Services; aod radio broadcasts. /

In addition to the mass dissemination of articles whoseexpressly to BW, the Soviet scientificoffers on occasional instance of stated applicabilityresearch topic to biological warfare but almost invariablydefensive aspects alone; examples of implied application are do For tbe most part, Soviet authors

are prone to limit the scope of their discussions, particularly on those phases related to the actual employment of biological agents, to topics that originate in the world press or which can be traced to Western scientific periodicals. tudy of unclassified writings yields no clear insight into the paths of BW development that tbe USSR may have pursued historically. The limitation of tbe subject matter itself reveals that Soviet microbiologists follow closely the progress io development of biological wcapoos asby Western scientific publications. In view of the extreme secrecy surrounding present day Soviet weapons development, lt would be overly opticlstlc to anticipate publication of experimental work performed in support of unconventional warfare activities. The extent to which this aura of secrecy has pervaded the Soviet scientific community is exemplifiedecent statement on BW research in the SovBloc nations:

There tends toaboo on the subject of BW in Soviet or Satellite scientific circles, especially in those . fielda_ oost immediately concerned vith relatedhe subject never arises spontaneously, and if it li brought up, the atmosphere indicates this is

diseases Include certain of those which Western microbiologists recognize as possessing valuable agent characteristics, that is, plague, anthrax, brucellosis, and tularemia. The older documents cite the development of still other bacteria, among them typhoid fever, the dysenteries, and cholera, which are not generally looked upon today as favored agent candidates for modem mass dissemination weapons systems. Bacterial toxins, viruses, and the rickettsial diseases have been mentioned far less often than the bacterial infections, and no one disease of these groups has been given brood emphasis. No specific instance bas been found of alleged Soviet ' interest in pathogenic fungi for use against human and animal

targets or of the development of plant pathogens as agents of warfare against food crops and economically Important plants, for the most part, the agents which have been reported under study In the USSR are those which give riseignificantly high proportion of fatalities among infected hosts; for example, "lethal" agents, as opposed to the so-called "debilitating" agents which engender disease with relatively low mortality.

Many different methods for disseminating these infectious materials reportedly were considered by Soviet scientists over the years. Experimental development of biological weapons suitable for both strategic and tactical employment has been noted in many of tbe older reports, for example, serial bombs, aircraft spray systems, artillery munitions, and even rockets and missiles. References are made frequently to agent preparations or harmless-appearing devices for spreading disease covertly by means of food and water supplies and to procedures for Infecting populated localities by birds, arthropods, rodents, or direct human efforts. uick tabulation of representative data from the older information reports shows thatodd test-sites or other experimental Installations, lying over widely scattered areas of the USSR, were purportedly engaged in support of phe earlier Soviet developmental programs. The size and complexity of these Installations ranged from primitive laboratories with makeshift equipment to elaborate research centers and field test areas covering hundreds of square miles. There is little solid evidence, however, to substantiate early Soviet BW interests of such brood scope, and modern intelligence methods have not providedof even tbe existence of the great majority of these previously reported programs and facilities. Aside from thethat 6ooe of the source materials were based on nothing more substantial than rumor or fiction, it seems likelyignificant portion of the earlier activities ascribed to BW may have arisen from the close similarity between BW research and conventional public health work. Certainly, the activities of field stations and survey teems of the widely-dispersed anti-plague organization and the frequent epidemiological expeditions sponsored by various other

public health establishmentsM, and later, could have been construed Id the minds of untrained observers asore sinister purpose. /

From an historical standpoint, distillation of classified intelli. gence information and its correlation with pertinent materials from more recently available open sources, focuses attention on tho^espectively, as the probable beginning of active participation by Soviet military figures ln antipersonnel and anti-livestock BW research and weapon*ry, although primitive efforts cay have occurredears prior to those dates. erman intelligence officers believed that Soviet attempts0 to develop biological bombs were supplemented by animal experiments at Ft. Alexander on Leningrad's Kronatadt Island. wo former Russian residents also mentioned the island as tbe site of possible BW work. / It is known that Kronstftdtlagu* laboratory from, and that this installation was tbe forerunner of today's Scientific Research Institute ofand Epidemiology of the Southeast USSR (Mlkrob) inistory of Ft. Alexander's work Indicates that lt was the primary training center for plague specialists In the USSR untilransfer to Saratov. Aerogenic infection of laboratory animals with plague was studied as one phase of research. / Mo record exists of the period9 and tbe allegednd evidence toW mission at Ft. Alexander ln more recent years has not been forthcoming. Despite the obscurity of early accomplishments in 3W, there are strong indications that development of the program had progressedoint thateographically isolated areas were required for testing biological agents, dissemination cethods, and defensive measures.

As far as can be determined, this expansion began5 vith the establishment by the Commissariat of Defenseenter for BW research on Gorodomlya Island in Lake Sellger, Kalinin Cblast, RSFSR, utilizing preexisting facilities of tbe Foot and Mouth Disease Institute. ittle has been learned of tbe work carried out by the Gorodomlya Institute, beyond the probability that diseases of bothnd animals vere studied before Its abandonment and partial destruction during World War II, but lt Is believed to haveattern for constructionranch installation of the All-Untou Institute of Experimental Veterinary Medicine (VIEV) on Lisly Island, Kalinin Oblast, approximatelyiles to tbe east. The Lisly Island facility, thought to have been In operation81 and again during thentil at* adjudged tohave been almost certainly engaged in both defensive and offensive aspects of antilivcstock BW

Significant development of antipersonnel, biological weapons probably dateshe year in which Vozrozhdenlya Island in the Aral Sea Is believed to have been establishedield teat area. sland is considered to be the site most likely to' be involved in current Soviet BW agent and veapons testing. While information compiled by German Intelligence in World War II first pointed to Vozrozbdenlya Islandajor Soviet BW test area, little information of real value on the guidingfor such activities, or on the scientific establishments and research personnel which supported the test program, was available


research in KulbysheV at an installation vhich^^lcslBnated as the

Sanitary-Hygienic Research Institute of the Soviet Army. These military scientists, who had been workingroup as earlyere subsequently identified as staff members of the Scientific Research Institute of Epidemiology and Hygiene of the Armed Forcesn institute later determined to be located In

Kirov, Kirov Oblast, RSFSR. // In recent years, evidence has indicated that the NIIEG-VS may be the principalBW research center ln the USSR, and thia center is now believed to have used the Isolated test facilities provided by Vozrozhdeniya Island as one phase of its research programs.

Soviet scientists vere exploring measures for defense against BW durings,ime when concern was felt in the USSR that Germany and Italy, rapidly rearming, might resort to biological warfare. The establishment of the Lisiy Island laboratories8 probablyirect result of thia concern. Actual field testing of methods for rapid detection and disinfection of BW agents at an early date, was reported by Germanut tbe scientific literature and unclassified military writings of the period prior to World War II are largely devoid of any indication that original research devoted specifically to BW defense was under way at that time. Only after the war did Soviet publications begin to reflect work clearly suggestive of BW defense, which apparently had been In progress for some years.

The foundation for the present-day Soviet defense mechanism may be considered in one sense to have been laid downhen the new Connnuoict regimeumber of Central Research Institutesystem of sanitary and epidemiological control laboratories under auspices of the Commissariat for Public Health to combat epidemic disease.

Through the years, the civil public health structure evolved gradually and is recognizable todaylosely knit organization

of Scientific Research Institutes of Epidemiology and Microbiology, Institutes of Vaccines and Sera, Anti-plague Research Institutes, Sanitary-Eplderalologlcol Stations, and various other specialized facilities. Fron Its inception8 untilhe Chief Military-Sanitary Administration, the organization most intimately concerned with medical problems of the Armed Forces, vas on integral part of tho Commissariat of Public Health. uz/ When in thehe military medical services began toore independent interest in sanitation, disease prophylaxis, and epidemiology, divergent paths of development un pursued and this Administration became tbe nucleuseparate medical agency under Jurisdiction of the Commissariat for Army end Navy Affairs. roup of purely military research institutes vas created to study problems of armed forces sanitation, prophylaxis, and related utters. / Little is knovn of the possible role of these institutes in 3tf research, but tbe secrecy surrounding their existence and the nature of some of their activities suggest that the role may haverominent one.

With the advent of World War II, additional strengthening of the military medical forces took place, and separate high-echeloncomponents were established to direct hygiene and antiepidemic control of disease. At the same time, greater responsibility for teaching and research in these fields vas bestowed on the military medical academies, kzj This period of expansioni-u3 probably marked the beginning of an era of research and development on problems of BW defense, and possibly offense, vlthin the Military Medical Academy system, and particularly at the Military Medical Ac ode ay local Kirov in Leningrad. us/orld War IItrenuous test of the epidemic-prevention system which had been devised in the years preceding the war, and close mutual support between civilian health agencies and the military radical services was quickly found to bc necessary. / The conceptnited defense effort has been retained and enlarged upon In the years since the war,hat today the framework of defense embraces not only the civil and military health agencies and unlta of the armed forces, but certain semiofficial associations such as the Red Cross and Red Crescent Societies, hzj ka/

While Integration of nedlcal defense programsunction of the Ministry of Health, other agencies also appear to bave arole, no that, in effect, research on matters of BW defense could logically be found in biological research Institutes of many different types In the USSR. This is very probably the case today according to pertinent BW information emanating from public health laboratories, Academy of Sciences research centers, medical institutes, the military medical academy, and specialized

laboratories of the Armed Services. Aside from Conventional civil defense planning and preparations, only recently have Soviet figures deemed lt appropriate to announce the existence of research programs designed fQr> BW defense. / Attempts have been made to incriminate Soviet forces ln the intentional contamination of medical dressings with anthrax and tetanus aporca, the appearance of typhus and typhoid fever among German military personnel in World War II and in an outbreak of foot and mouth disease in Finland during9 Russo-Finnlsb War, but, again, complete documentation has not been established. / Thus, the question of whether the USSR has ever resorted to BW remains largely unanswered.

As information on Soviet BW interests became available over the years, periodic studies were undertaken by intelligence organizations to evaluate certain critical factors, such as the capability of Russian science to support aa active BW program, possible choice of agents, capacity for defense, and others. While tbe intelligence positions which were established in this manner from time to time did not take Into account all of the elements essentialW program, they do reflect, in large measure, historical advances in the state of our knowledge on the existenceW program ln the Soviet Union. For exaople, resultstudy conducted2 "suggested strongly" that the USSRW research and development program; this waa substantially the same position which had been heldi8. he study alsooviet capability to employ biological agents covertly and recognized atimited capability for defense againstttack. k, there was general agreement that the USSR possessed the resources for sustained supporting researchapacity to produce agents aad devices for large-scale clandestine attack, or possibly even limited overt operations. At the same time, it was concluded that the Soviets probably have an active program encompassing antipersonnel; antilivestock and possibly antlcrop aspects. / Estimates prepared6osition thaC the USSR almost certainly had an active BW program. Beyond this, an indication of the relationship between HIIEG-VS and Vozrozbdenlya Island in research and development on human diseases was obtained, and Lisiy Island was pointed out as almost certainly having been involved in both the offensive and defensive phases of antianimal BW research. ecent status reports have not materially altered6 position with respect to estimated Soviet capabilities in science and technology, defensive stature, offensive developments, or other major facets of tbe problem.

Recent Progress.critical gape in Soviet BWwere identified in the course of the recent studies, and the lock of progress in determining tbe ecope and magnitude of the Soviet program, especially its offensive features, was pointed but. Since

publication of theomprehenaive status reportuch valuable information on Soviet BW efforts has become nvoilable, both from classified sources ond from study in depth of the scientific literature and other open publications. From analysis or thissignificant conclusions can be advanced to supplement the meager

knowledge in several or those substantive areas of BW intelligence for

which major deficiencies were defined.

Perhaps the most notable progress was cade in the collection of vital information on Voxrozhdenlya Island, long considered because of its Ideal location to be tbe most probable site of Soviet field test activities.

In addition, substantiating

evidence has been obtoined that the port of Arolsk,iles northeast of the island, servos as the mainland supply base for

udden outpouring of Russian scientific publicationsealth of data on research programs of unusual significance to BW intelligence, which, in some cases, probably hod been under way for several years. This flow of Information has continued with little apparent interruption to the present time. Intense Soviet activity is apparent in certain brood Holds of applied research whichirect bearing on both public health improvement and protection agulnst biological weapons, while other work is manifestly in support of BW defensive, and quite possibly offensive, planning. As an example, considerable emphasis has been noted recently in the field of Soviet aerosol research on development of chambers and allied equipment for the study of pathogenic bacteria, viruses, and microbial toxins dispersed as clouds; da tend nation of the degree to which immunity can be established against respiratory infection and,the Immunogenic properties of airborne microorganisms; and design of various sampling devices for detection of alrborno disease agents. / An active program to devise laboratory and field procedures for early detection and rapid identification of pathogenic agents has been defined, and much additional information which denotes widespread research activity on such fundamental needs as multiple, combined vaccines ond polyvalent antisero, more effective

vaccine strains, improved disinfection methods, and others have:been studied. / Thus, within the period which has elapsed since the lost critical evaluation of Soviet BWreater volume of more reliable information has been placed at the disposal of the analyst than was evident in the past affording the Intelligence Community the opportunity totronger and more confident position on BW in the USSR than was previously possible.

Organization of Biological Warfare

Although lacking finite data on Soviet procedures for developing biological weapons, from examination of the structure and functions of agencies expected to be active in one or more phases of the program, one can nonetheless establish organizational relationships which appear plausible. This approach presumes that steps found necessary by Western scientists to perfect an efficient weapons system,for overt employment, that Is, agent research, munition design, testing, procurement, maintenance, and training, would also be underhe USSR. That the presumption is valid in part, at least, is shown by recent information that indicates not only the existenceBW proving ground but that weapons suitable for overt employment have undergone extensive field testing. / Many of the aforementioned steps in developoent are applicable to biological devices for covert delivery, although the scope nnd magnitude of effort might be substantially less, involving smaller numbers of orkers and permitting the greater part of the program to be confined to oneew agencies.

Tbe Ministry of Defense is suspected of exercising generalover BW matters in the Soviet Union. / An armed forces establishment; lo/ biological aerosol experimentation at theedicalnd the existence of troop units with BW defense/ and probable military jurisdiction over the Vozrozhdeniya Island proving ground are among the many factors which point in thi3 direction. Each of these factors can be said to derive from tho authority and control over all military forces vested in the Defense Minister and his responsibility for developing tbe means of combat.

The direction offensive BW planning should take and the parameters of the program arc policy decisions apt to be determinedtill higher executive level. During World Wartate Committee for Defense headed by Stalin io sold to have performed functions of this general nature, relinquishing them to the Council of Ministers at the end of the war. / In subsequent years, the Council formulated policy and provided guidance to the Defense Minister on matters affecting the armed services. /p?/ Various consultant groups, commissions, and administrative agencies subordinate to the Council of Ministers have been identified as possibly activeW advisory capacity to the Minister of Defense because of their support mission to research and development in general. Among the core Important of these are the State Committee for Defense Technology, the State Scientific Technical Committee, and the State Planning Commission.

Staff advisory groups ore also

found within the Ministry of Defense proper, notably the Military Soviet and the College of the Defense Ministry; and lt Is entirely logical that the consultant services of these bodies should embrace BW planning problems. /

The bulk of experimental work on the newer weapons systems Is reportedly etill carried out in the military academies and in specialized institutes under the armed forces technical services. This suggests that the trend toward realignment of industrial establishments and institutes of the Academy of Sciences under the State Planning Con-mission pertains more to research on industrial problems and mass production of items of military equipment than to biological/ It is apparent that microbiological work related to BW is still conducted primarily outside the Academy of Sciences system, and publications from Institutes affiliated with the Academy more nearly reflect fundamental research or industrial applications.

Because studies on .the Soviet military research structure have implicated so many different elements of the scientific community, the Defense Mlnlotry's role3ha8 been pictured as largely one of coordination.

'.hai, supporting research would be diffused through -out various ministries, that is. Health, Agriculture, Defense, and would be administered through so-called secret sections of these/ The diffusion of BW-oricnted experimentation on defensive matters is apparent today, particularly in military medical forces and among installations of the Academy of Medical Sciences, Ministry of Health, and the Agricultural Ministry- The extent to which offensive follows this pattern is less obvious-

that the larger institutes serve as assembly points for projectsated to smaller laboratories, the Scientific Research Institute of Epidemiology and Microbiology (Mlkrob) at Saratovpecifi<

examplearger institute serving lo this fashion. /

;hat the security services handled research assignments,data, and provided tte means ofthe MVD or KGB controlled

EWhat KGB elements perfuse every echelon of the military structure is documented; their existence in preGent-day civilian establishments has also been inferred. S/ Other means are undoubtedly available for exerting control of research;it is reported that each civilian medical school and many research Institutes have military departments, or faculties, which could be utilized for this purpose. / Even if the presence of secretsections is discounted, coordination and direction of effort could almost certainly he accomplished through organizational mechanisms and liaison groups already openly identified. The military medical establishment maintains contact with health agencies by liaison between Its Main Military Medical Administration and the Minister of Health, USSR; this arrangement is extended to successia:ly lower levels, involving military districts, republic, and oblast health services- / The commander of each military district, la addition, reports directly to the Minister of Defense on all activities involving military personnel in his area. fcOJ_/ The Academy of Medical Sciences has within its structure theroup which develops broad research programs in biological sciences, which may be applicable to BW,cientific Planning Committee, which works through so-celled "problem" subcommittees composed of institute directors. Many military microbiologistsin planning sessions of subcommittees in the Academy's Department of Hygiene, Epidemiology, and Microbiology. t/ TheAcademy of Sciences, USSR,ajor role ln research planning for the Central Committee and the Council of Ministers. / Itsorganizations, notably the Department of Biological Sciences and various councils and commissions set up to assign tasks and solve individual problems, affor* to some degree on additional possible mechanism for coordinating BW research. / Only one administrative body of the variety of types mentioned has actually been identified ln offensive BW work. The Scientific Medical Council of the Main Military

- il

Medical Administration, Ministry of Defense, almost certainly directed some phases of NIIEG's research inO's. / Closely related groups tn tbe same ministry may likewise be involved, although no evidence can be brought to bear on this point; the Medical Technical CoKaittee servesoordinating agency between the Military Medicaland industry for production of medical equipment, end the Medical Trainingroup of specialists from various medical fields, reportedly plans military medical investigations, studies problems of sanitation and epidemiological control, and evaluates items of supply and equipment. /

Most of the known research shows only defensive Interest on the pert of scientific establishments of the various civilian agencies; but in selected instances, possible involvement ln offensively oriented experimentation can been seen. Tbe Rostov and Irkutsk antlplagucof the Ministry of Health conducted live vaccine work on plague and tularemia ln conjunction with HIIEG ins. / In the course of these explorations, pulmonary plague and tularemic pneumonia were studied in animals. roup at "Mikrob" in Saratov carried out plague aerosol research during the some period. / The Information so gained was undoubtedly of great value to NIIEG's program. Examples of work similarly important to offensive EW froa other institutes of civilian agencies are: computations on aerosol dispersion ln turbulent air froa tbe Institute of Applied Geophysics, Academy of Sciences,/ ornithosis aerosol studies at tbe Institute of Virology, Academy of Medicalf biological aerosols and development of chambers for their use, Kiev Institute for Advanced Training of Physicians, Ministry of/ radiation effects on experimental anthrax, Minsk Medical/ physiologic action of combined bacterial toxins, Odessa Medical Institute;/ and membrane feeding methods for artifically infectingnstitute of Vaccines and Sera lsenl Molotov in Perm. / Whether these varied pieces of research, among others over the years, were initiated by some executive body for direct utilization ln BW cannot be stated with certainty, but theyurposeful weapons development support program in the Soviet scientific community.

Agent development durings was conducted by HIIEG, showing that tho Main Military Medical Administration, to which HIIEG was subordinate, performed at least part of that function for the BW program- xb// Formerly known as the Sanitaryand redesignated the Chief Military Sanitary Administration early in World War II, tbe executive organ for medical problems in the Dcfonse Ministry now is usually referred to as the Main Military Medical Administration, or Directorate. / his administrative organization has supervised medical activities for the

While some evidence is available on the probable mechanism of agent the USSR, the location of BW munitions development is more difficult to define. There are no indications that KIIEG'a program went beyond- experimentation on agents- If biological weapons follow the Soviet pattern of development for conventional armament, disseminating devices and delivery systems would logically become the responsibility of the Air Force, Navy, and Ground Force Directorates, under the Ministry of Defense. / The Main Directorate of theervice rather than combat organization, supervises research end development of items for cocoon use; specialized ordnancewhich would almost certainly include BW hardware. Is either carried out right within the Ministry of Defense or by the force component directorates. The latter may actually draw up designand work directly with the appropriate state committee in further developing an item; usually, however, these directorates cell on their respective service academies or specialized institutes for assistence In prototype design- / Each branch of the armed forces maintains an academy for officer education, testing of new weapons, the study of military tactics, and related functions. / Some academies are reported to have subsidiary scientific research institutes, other such institutes ore found directly subordinate to the forcedirectorates. / Some of these establishments ere the Central Scientific Research Experimental Institute of the Air Force, Military Artillery Engineering Academy imeni Dzcrzhinskly, Military Academy of Armored Troops Voeni: Stalin, and Scientific Research Institute of the Military Air/ It seems clear, however, that certain force component directorates, or subordinate troopcarry out weapons development for the other service branches as well as their own. For example, the Main Artillery Directorate is said to handle design, development, and Initial procurement not only of artillery, but naval guns, aircraft armaments, infantry weapons, and munitions. / On the other bond, the Air Force's Military Air Engineering Academy Imeni Zfcukovskly was reported ins tohemical Weapons Department, indicating that each arm of the combat services probablyertain amount of developmental work on the munitions or appliances which its forces will/ It Is conceivable, then, that BW devices under study inof the Air Force, Navy, and some elements of the combat ground forces; but.because of the secrecy surrounding this form of warfare, BW

weapons development is more apt to be considered "specialized ordnance" and, hence, located within tbe headquarters of the Defense Ministry. bQ5/

Although Vozrozhdenlya Island's probable operational test sites nay be used for an extensive weapons testing prograa, including the use of delivery aircraft, the Military organization vhich administers tbe proving ground remain unidentified. It appears probable that units have been organized for manning test equipment on the ground, providing the aircraft, and evaluating the military characteristics and performance uf weapons under development.

teocarve officer trainees amongstudents of Moscow State University, formerly assigned to infantry duty, were purportedly trained4 In the "Bacteriological Warfare Branch" of the service during summer encampments. /

Reportedly, the Soviet-trained personnel of an Albanian chemical unit indoctrinated artillery and infantry troops in the use ofand chemical agents and protective measures against them. / In all probability, such reports pertain to defensive training alone. Chemical units operatinghief of Chealcal Troops, which is subordinate to the Main Directorate of Ground Forces, are organic to oil Soviet tactical regiments and divisions. / In addition to on ABC defensive mission, these units employ smokes and toxic checlcajs offensively. H fW BW weapons ore part of theirmanlnTel^ that the test force on Vozrozhdcnlya Island6 was working under the guise of chemical troops.

It is highly unlikely that BW military units, per so, will be found as distinct entities among the conventional Soviet armed forces. Specialists in agent control, weapons maintenance, aircraft aerosol dispersion, and related phases can be integrated into presentstructures should the need for employment of biological agents arise. Personnel with this special training logically would be assigned to separate, closely controlled groups to which knowledge of sensitive Information could be restricted. ossible analogy lies in the special air elements for nuclear weapons delivery, or the security forces of tbe HVD end KGB. /

Because no organization vlth clear cut responsibility foreapons development aad employment has been recognized so far within tho conventional combat forces of tbe USSR or their supporting technical services, the possibility exists that the all-important offensive

Investigative phases have been delegated in the main to some agency whose activities arc less susceptible to detection, both by foreign powers and by the Soviet populace, itself. The position taken over the years by the USSR and re-caph&slzed recently by Khrushchev would appear to make it Imperative that any offensive BV research be withheld from public view. / An environment which affords the requisite degree of secrecy is opt to be found in the quasi-military organizations of the Ministry of Internal Affairs (MVD) or the Committee of State Security (KGB). While these elements are not subordinate to the Defense Ministry, being under Council of Ministers control, they actually comprise on Important segment of the total military resources of the USSR. /

That personnel of the Interior Ministry security forces, andKGB os well, hove tbe necessary facilities ot their disposaldegree of microbiological research is shown by diverse For example, the Main Administration ofaid to be an am of the MVD, purportedly maintainsscientific laboratoryedical experimentalfor development of civil defense equipment. / kc6/taff corps of defense specialists supervised by tbehas established an extensive organization ofoutfitted to conduct bacteriological surveys and analysesair, and contaminated objects in the wakeW attack. In this regard, reference bus been made in the scien-

tific literature to microbiol research carried outDistrict Sanitary-Epidemiological Laboratory of the MVD Troops Protecting the Frontier." / Thus, there arc strong Indications of an existent framework of epidemiological and diagnostic laboratories within th MVD resembling that of the health and military medical services

s of the MVD are physically located at sanltory-ep.

sites of the Ministry of Health ondlose workingbetweon the two organizations in carrying out themiaslan common to both. jj7_/ There is evidence,the MVD provides its own veterinary services tothe parent organizatlonj

(XaBBH^BrntammBmamiBafl Still less has been reported onin the KG3. / 4cg/

assignmentrucellosisnu MVD

laboratory; be also iaentlTieTastrcogl^^ardcd MVD chemical laboratory for phamacqlogy and toxlcologica! work In the Moscow area.


near inns ana Baku, without divulging their exact location or Additional information in thin vein, however incomplete, was providedeneticist whose experience in the USSR before World War II


led bin to believe that the MVD has its own BW research projects. }hhf According to this native Russian, young scientists were recruited for work in KVD installations under severe security restrictionslittle contact with the scientific community.

While the majority of reports to date mention only the MVD's interest in BW research, the KGB is cited occasionally as having hod an active role. It seems probable, however, that these citations actually pertain to the NKVD, the common ancestor of the present day MVD and KGB before loUl. / Purported Soviet documents seized by the Germans at the beginning of World War II revealed the earlier formationedical investigative service within the KGB to explore, through operators especially trained in biological detection, outbreaks of infectious disease in tbe Soviet Union and to expose evidence of infiltration of combat teams or espionage groups employing BW methods. 2/ This alleged bestowalounter-BW mission on the KGB is compatible with its function as an internal security agency end with the history of arrests and sabotage charges ofs involving prominent Soviet microbiologists. / Information of more recent times suggests that the KGB stillecurity function ln Institutes conducting classified research. /

Perhaps the most comprehensive, albeit still scanty, informationupposed BW operatians by the security force;

Material obtained from the former in ighti wa3 laterubstance by the latter. The similarity of the two statements is so striking that the possibilityommon source cannot be excluded, atthoughthere is nothing to indicate that such was the case. That fPJU^revclatlons,i particular, should be given carefulfollows from his professional relationship with political control elements of the USSR and his accurate identification of certaloworking in toe BW field, the group later verified as members of the KIIZG. / Somes believed to be accurate, too; M|arks pertaining to the transformation of Gorodomlya Island in thesoot and Mouth diseese laboratoryW installation under the Defense Ministry are substantleted with only minor discrepancies by German Intelligence of the World War II period, /

Without admitting factual knowledgeFrf

research vould fall under the auspices

aVBaHH directed in reality by the MVD. projects would be parceled out among conventional programs of the health, agriculture, and defense ministries, .but that control would be retained by MVDthrough "secretf the various research installations.

Jalso described the existence ln nonmilitary Institutesaivlslons" which supervised BW oriented research,an MVD chain of command to the Council of Ministers level,censorship rights over experimental results, decidingshould be published in the open literature, / An MVDof communication among such Institutes was noted bysource, whothat projectsof the type mentionedwhich house them, are designated only byresults from these widely dispersed projects were said toscab ledomposite report by some of the largere existenceumbering oystem was confirmed by aofficerI4. $uq/ s the designation ofwhich supposedly established test facilitiess recorded by German Intelligence. The validity

oncept of MVD control of BW research has not been fully substantiated. Their belief that phases of research would be widely dispersed rather than confinedingle Installation or agency is consistent vith the distribution pattern of BW defensive investigations In the USSR today. Biological aerosol research, aero-genlc vaccine development, air sampler design and testing, disinfection studies, and similar projects recognizable as directly pertinent to BW defense ore published onreat many organizations, involving different ministries, without any remblence of unity or coordination.

So far, insufficient evidence is at hand to connect either the MVD or KGB with offensive BW research, testing, or employment, and information on thin association Is exceedingly scarce. Reportedly, agents of these groups used typhus-infected lice and typhoid fever bacilliater additive, presumably during World War II, against Ukrainian villages ln retaliation for suspected subversive activities of tbe inhabitants, jjl/ Moreoviet refugee who claimed former status as an officer ln the Red Amy described the organization and training of MVD offensive or "aggressor* groups to carry out sabotage. / These groups, said to have been employed6 in the Suez Canal area, are purportedly maintained on such constant alert that operationsoreign power could be undertaken withinours. Among tbe members of each aggressor team is one agent well versed in methods of contaminating food supplies aad water sources with chemicals and microorganisms. His skill is allegedly put into action only on specific order, from an unidentified top agency of the .

,hat Soviet BW efforts would be devoted to sabotage measures rather than large-scale strategic operation. he concept of sabotage elements is not foreign to Soviet military doctrine. Not only has the formation of smallgroups, froa MVD units for special missions been recorded, but the use of conventional troops by front-line commanders for covert destruction

of key lootollfttIons in the enemy's rear areas and for collection of intelligence information has been established. /

Whether the MVD and Its sictor service, the KGB, have ever worked cooperatively with scientists known to be active in BW researchatter of conjecture. It may be significant that mass testing of the /newly jdeveloped .STI_anthrax vaccine on domestic animals vas_occoaplished

ersonnel, ini andfarms In Saratov Oblast. / The military status of scientists manning the Vozrozhdenlya Island proving ground has never been clarified, hence the possible port played there by MVD troops Is unknown. It seems plausible that responsibility for security on the island should rest in the hands of one or the other of the two agencies. The existence of on MVD militia outposd during tbeon Borsa-Kelmeo, an Aral Sea island north of Vozrczhdenlya, has been mentioned. / Conclusive evidence that the secretiveprovided by the HVD and KG9 has been exploited for BW offensive purposes is wholly lacking at this time, but tbe information discussed so far indicates that an examination of these agencies' activities for such evidence might prove fruitful to the Intelligence community. The reported reorganization of Soviet forces (KGB)ew unit during the past year to strengthen the security of atomic energy and missile projects suggests that safeguarding of BW offensive work mightfall vlthln the purview of the new agency. /

Defensivethorough studies have been made on the organization of Soviet defenses against mass destruction weapons. They show the existenceomplex system largely based on anstructure devised in World War II. / Major elements are the military forces, public health agencies, the civil defense organization, and various para-military groups such as the Volunteer Scdicty for Assistance to the Army, Air Force, and Navyhe Red Cross, Red Crescent, and youth societies. Within the armed forces of tbe USSR,for UW defense is shared by medical, veterinary, and chemical troop units. // In addition, among the mainof force components, an independent anti-air defense force has been identified, composed of personnel, weapons, and supporting equipment drawn from appropriate branches of the combat and technical support services, its mission is one of early warning end counteraction in the event of air attack. /

Over-all defense policy is probably established by the Council of Ministers, with the advice of representatives of the various component elements. / The mainspring of tbe civil defense system Is the Local Anti-Air Defense Organizationorps of specialists administered by the Main Administration of Local Anti-Air Defense

(CUMPVO) under the Ministry of Internal Affairs (MVD). / Subordinate MPVO offices arc located at oblast, rayon, end city level, and these fona the basic operational units around which the citizenry, transportation, medical facilities, fire fighting units, and related resources ore organized. At the local level, each potential target of importance is said to have its own MPVO unit to promote uninterrupted functioning in the event of attack. Self-defense groups in cities and towns end on collective farms carry out damage repair, fire fighting, medical aid, end similar duties, end conduct measures for chemical end bacterial agent control. / The civil defense effort isesponsibility of civilian authorities In peacetime, working under directives formulated by MVD representatives in the MPVO offices. / Training of the population is handled in large partAAK, on organization administered by the Ministry of DefenseAAF Central Committee, although the lied Cross end Red Crescent Society are said to participate in soos phases of training. / escription of BW agents, weapons, and countermsasures for protection against them is included in civil defense/

The medical service of the MPVO Is superimposed on the Soviet public health system, utilizing personnel, sanltary-epidemiologicdl stations, and medical institutions to sustain Its self-defense teams and MPVO medical brigades, some of which are mobile. / The chief of the local health department heads an MSSMFVO, or Medical Senitary Service of the MPVO group- This medical organization for civil defense is coordinated within the MPVO section of theof Health, and at the ministry level with the Ministry of Defense through DOSAAF. / An Institutes for the Advanced Training of Physicians, teaching and research establishments under the Healthormal course of instructionefense is reportedly offered by MPVO medical service faculties. / Veterinary cervices are organizedashion analogous to medical care of the humanwith the head veterinarianajor city, agricultural center, or meat packing combine responsible to the MPVO for proper functioning of his/ The local Veterinary Bacteriology Laboratory, disinfection detachments, and related elements of the peacetime work structure could provide facilities in case of anand Dobile veterinary sampling teams also are available. / Presumably the veterinary establishments in each military district can be called upon for further assistance. / As In the case of other MPVO units, the veterinary groups routinely receive instruction in BW defense. /

Within the armed forces of the USSR, the military medical service probably holds primary responsibility for BW defenfe by virtue of its

mission to develop prophylactic and therapeutic measure againstdiseases and to maintain sanitary and epidemiologic control cf troop environment. / In this regard,H

Chief of the Main Military Medicals participating in the dcvelopnsnt of countermeasures for BW/ Medical groups ere an integral part of combat units down to battalion level, but the radical battalion attached to each line division is better manned and equipped for concerted BW/ This battalion conducts sanitary-epidemiological surveys and initiates area control measures, taslt3 which are elso accomplished by the Sanitary-Epidemiological Section of the field army medical serviceomewhat larger scale. / The division epidemiologist, an assistant to the Division Surgeon,ey role in BU defense, as he carries out immunization programs on the basis of survey findings, checks food and water supplies for contamination, and performs related diagnostic procedures, hjj At bis disposalariety of trained units organic to the division of field army: portable decontamination and disinfestation apparatus, bath and laundry disinfection trains, and oobile laboratories for sampling and analysis of air, food, end water. // Development of these facilities and techniques for their effective utilization was reportedly initiated prior to World War II and improved oa the basis of wartiou/ Standards of equipment operation In some cases vere devised by the Ministry of Health, showing tbe close association betveen public health agencies and the military forces in matters of biological research. 5flQ/ This working relationship, particularly during the war years, is further exemplified by Joint use of eedlcal treatmentand integrated programs of disease control. Ui/ There are indications that close cooperation between allltary units and civil defense organs Is also in effect at tbe local level; MPVO medical groups apparently have the function of sampling for BW agents and reporting results to mlMtory medical establishments in the event of air attack. More training and better Integration of these forces has been called for in Soviet writings. Ufl/

Activities relating to medical defense of troops against BU ere logically centered in the Military Medical Administration of the Main Directorate of the Bear. The counterpart of that agency forprotection is the Military Veterinary Administration, also immediately subordinate to the Main Directorate of tbe Bear. / Veterinary personnel carry out prophylactic end epizootic measures in animals accompanying the troops, control the quality of meat products, aid combat diseases transmissible from animals to men. / diagnostic laboratories are reportedly found at field army and army front levels, while dispensaries and assistance points are strategically dispersed throughout lover echelons. / Larger facilities are available within each military district. /

Presumably the same relationship exists between military veterinary groups end MPVO veterinary teams of the civil defense organization as was noted in the cese of medical units- Evidence of extensive defensive planning is available in the literature of World War II vintage, but little is known of current activities In military veterinary/

In addition to its medical end veterinary aspects, BW defense, along with chemical and radiological couotcrmcesures, i6 apparently the responsibility of Soviet chemical troop units. / This mission Includes training of line elements In CBS protection; decontamination of personnel, equipment, and terrain; and, reportedly, detection of CW and BW agents. / The detection of BW agents probably comprises sampling of suspicious materialsorward arcec and marking of contaminated zones prior to final confirmation of BW attack by medical or veterinary laboratories. ertain instances, members of CBR reconnaissance or detection teems appear to be medically trained troops rather than chemical service personnel,oint endeavor by combat and technical support unite. hemical troops are organic to all tactical regiments and divisions; at higherhemical battalion or brigade may be allocated In time of war. In addition to reconnaissance, decontamination, and detection, some of these units employ smokes and toxic chemicalsoffensively and carry out weapons maintenance. / There is no indication, however, that BW weapons are included in this offensive mission. CBR defensive groups areomplete line ofequipment, including impermeable clothing, decontamination devices, portable showering facilities, detector kits, and in come cases, mobile laboratories for CW agent identification. / The use of mobile microbiological laboratories by chemical troops has not been documented.

Research on civil defense matters is conducted in all medical research institutes and public health centers of the USSR. 4g/ eview of publications from representative establishments of theof Medical Sciences, the 6anitary-epidemiological service, and the military medical and veterinary forces amply Illustrates the diffusion of BW-orlented experimentation throughout the scientific community. In appendix, A, typical investigations from the literature of recent years are listed with their sponsors and laboratories of origin. Tbe coordinating mechanism behind these varied endeavorc is not well known; in all probability, policy making, program planning, research scheduling, and related executive tasksattern similar to thosediscussed in connection with tha organizations of offensive BW.

The Capability of Soviet Science to Support 3W

he USSR definitely possesses the scientific andcapability toW research and developmentt is necessary to examine recent Soviet advances in the fields of microbiology, aerobiology, the plant sciences, bloenginc-ering, and other interrelated areas of scientific activity in order to identify any discernible trends or accomplishments which mightearing on tbe status of BW in the USSR

Soviet efforts in the biological sciences ere not impressive by Western standarda; with the exception of certain high-priority research areas, much the seme conclusion can be reached with respect to basic work in the medical, veterinary, and agricultural fields.everal factors have been responsible for this relative backwardness of Soviet research, although not all fields of science are necessarily influenced by the same factors. In some instances, past adherence to unsound theoretical principles and the apparent restriction on freedom of scientific thought and action are believed to haveart.9j/imitation in the basic knowledge of Soviet scientistsroupaucity of outstanding researchers, together with poor distribution of scientific informationovernment policy which discouraged professional association with Western Investigators, have also been suggested as causative factors. OI/ Perhaps of equal or greater significance is tbe seemingly lower priority of biological programs to those in the physical sciences- 9U/ trict priority system for manpower, facilities, equipment, and materials has apparently operated in the past to the detriment of biological research; and only those laboratories vhich are engaged In priority investigations, generally Institutes of the Moscow-Leningrad complex, are reported to be in any way adequately equipped end staffed for fundamental experimentatton. /

Important changes can be anticipated, both in the Soviet basic research structure and in the orientation of theoretical investigations. Recent estimates predictarked improvement will be shown in the quality and quantity of research facilities, and this, together with the Increase In number of competent scientists which is also foreseen, will provide the basis for broadened research frontiers In future years. enewed acceptence of sound theoretical principles, greater freedom of scientific thought, and stronger official support for research programs, particularly in the biological and agricultural fields, have been notednd there is an Indication of Intensified medical research effort os partear plan extending5 - / Ample evidence is availablettempts to raise the level of Soviet science through administrative action, examples of which are personnel changes, elevated standards of

graduate education, wider dissemination of experimental data, and more rapid utilization of foreign scientific information. O6/ Inecent reorientation toward intercourse with Western scientists and the acceptance of Western scientific concepts has been detected. From this reorientation, several new and promising lines of research arc expected to emerge. og-Ill/ XX'j/

Among the significant changes which may be in the offingrobable trend tovard centralization of control and concentration of research planning in one government agency. / Under the present research structure, responsibility for fundamental work is diffusedumber of government agencies, although over-ell domination appears to be exercised by the Academy of Sciences, USSR. The complex organizational relationships in Soviet research have been reviewed in several recent publications. // These-reports suggest that basic Investigations of interest tontelligence, as well as the more direct application of experimentation to military art, ere likely to be under wayariety of widely scattered medicalutes, public health installations, military laboratories, and specialized research organizations. Thus, for example, medical research Is largely directed by the Academy of Medical Sciences of the Ministry of Health, but the Academy of Sciences, USSR, and the Main Medical Administration of the Defense Ministry also are believed to have active/ basic biology, including microbiology, genetics, biochemistry and other important fields, Is primarily the responsibility of the Academy of Sciences, USSR, and Its Department of Biological Sciences; OU/ while veterinary research on Infectious livestock diseases and studies on food crops and their infections fall within the purview of the Ministry of Agriculture, the All-Unlon Academy of Agricultural Science, the Academy of Sciences, USSR, and others- / The bulk of the military research on weapons is considered to be centered ln the academies of the armed forces; however, important segments of lt are reportedly conducted throughout the entire scientific structure, from the Academy of Sciences level down to laboratories in individual/ In view of the broad dispersal of research in the USSR, each increment of which couldearing on BW capabilities, it isat outset to examine only the scope and direction of research in selected major sectors of Soviet science, and to reserve for subsequent close study the programs which appear toore immediateto actual development of BW.

MedicalUSSR has been confronted for many years with serious problems of endemic infectious disease. Because so much effort has of necessity been devoted to measures for solving immediate health problems which affect Industrial development, agricultural expansion, and the welfare of the population, the developmental and applied aspects of microbiology have received relatively far greater

attention than has fundamental research. While success has been achieved in controlling major outbreaks of such diseases as typhus, cholera, plague and smallpox, basic knowledge of Infectious diseases and the disciplines which relate to them is generally for behind timt of Western science./ In the past, progress In fundamental medical microbiology is believed to have been almost entirely dependent on information published in Westernut today there is apparently an increasing body of significant basic work in the biological sciences and medical fields, conductedmall but competent group of scientists whose Ideas, objectives, and methods ore similar to those. investigators.

In line with the trend toward concentration of pure research on medical problems in the Academy of Medical Sciences, there is evidence that medical research institutes of that organization will bear the brunt of future baric cxperinenlation while other installations of the Ministry of Health will emphasize programs of applied/ At the present time, however, separation of responsibility has not been accomplished entirely; investigations carried out by even the largest centers of research under the Academy, for example, the Institute of Epidemiology and Microbiology imeni Gamaleya, appear to relate In large measure to solution of immediate problems In microbiology, while studies on pathogenesis of disease and other fundamental aspects ere still under way in the more elaborate public health laboratories at Saratov, Rostov, and Irkutsk, and other locations established originally as centers for anti-epidemic operations and field study of endemic diseases. //

Recent analyses of the status of Soviet medical microbiology Indicate that few significant modifications in fundamental research patterns concerning infectious diseases of humans have occurred during the pastears. / Although the USSR is actively studying almost every disease of worldwide interest end, theof emphasis lies in developing end applying more effective biological counter-measures such as vaccines, protective antlsera and antibiotics; devising better diagnostic and disinfection procedures; compiling epidemiological Information; and determining the means for combatting arthropod and rodent carriers of disease- /Iff/ lk6/ Strong programs of applied research exist io each of these areas. Thus, the Soviet approach to solution of problems of endemic Infections and Inadequate hygiene and sanitation practices has been characterized as one of cootrol, rather than eradication of disease; this concept has been appliedide range of serious human and animal ailments, with results that cannot yet be fully evaluated, but which appear questionable at thia point. / Theoretical research in microbiology has been focused Largely on those problem area* which become most apparent when tbe concept Is placed into

practice: controlled variation ln microorganisms and stability of their properties under adverse environmental conditions; the nature ofwith its many ramifications; host-parasite relationships among the arthropod-borne diseases; and the like./

Within the parameters of the Soviet research effort inthe bacterial diseases are still receiving much attention, particularly the dysenteries, brucellosis, tuberculosis, tularemia, plague, anthrax, and,esser degree, glanders and melioidosis; recent estimates have indicated that more of the medical bacteriology ln the future will be fundamental In nature, and that the volume of research on individual bacterial infections, except for refinements in vaccines, will decrease aa correspondingly greater efforts are devoted to the virus and rickettsial diseases. Studies on bacterial toxins in the USSR ere wi'll advanced; investigations have beensince the; on the mode of action of these substances and on measures to overcome their effects in such diseases as diphtheria, tetanus, gas gangrene, and Botulinum intoxication. Uo/ jAl/ On the other hand, little emphasis has been found in the Soviet Union on fundamental investigation of the human pathogenic fungi, and the limited information available suggests that work with these organisms pertains largely to screening of antibiotics and other compoundsearch for effective therapeutic agents.

Of greater significance from the standpoint of biological warfare, however, Is the definite trend toward more Soviet research emphasis on infectious of virus and rickettsial etiology. 0tl the whole, Russian basic knowledge of these infections is adjudged to be several years behind that of Western scientists, but there ore certain diseases of the so-called "exotic" group, notably atypical encephali itides and the hemorrhagic fever, with which Soviet investigators have had more actual experience then their counterparts ln the free/ Consequently, marked differences exist in the quality of Soviet virus and rickettsial research, although the virus programs hove perhaps been subjected to closer scrutiny. Some of them, as in the case of the neurotropic viruses and influenza, have been characterized as reliable and of good quality, while otheron infectious hepatitis, aa an example, has beennreliable by competent observers. / Ijtg/ In those fields ln which substantial progress is dependent on the application of modern techniques, as in the use of tissue culture methods for fundamental study of viruses or for development .of large-scale vaccine production processes, Soviet scientists have exhibited little proficiency. / liO/lJtV

Many serious disorders caused by viruses and rickettsloe are endemic in the USSR, and sporadic studies of them have been under way

since thes. / Today, however, Russian capability In the medical sciences is still considered to beto overcome completely the economic and public health problems posed by the existence of these diseases. / For tbe most port, Soviet research has been concentrated in recent years on those infections whose high Incidence ond severity cause the greatest detriment to the notion's welfare; influenza, poliomyelitis, childhood diseases, the encephalltldes, hemorrhagic fevers,ever, for example, haveeceived greatest attention- / lpo/ In recognition of the gravity of the problem of virus and rickettsial infections In the USSR, increased research efforts vere apparently undertaken during the mld-^O's and, concurrently, the two disease groups were separated and given the status of independent fields of medical science. / Recent observottons of the importance which is now attached to research on virus ond rickettsial diseases within the Soviet Union lend support to the current intelligence position that considerable Improvement In the stature of Soviet research on these infections will be/

VeterinaryWorld Waronsiderablein scientific knowledge and expansion of over-all research effort have been noted In the various fields of Soviet veterinary science.esult of this progress, levels of proficiency that ore acceptable by Western standards have been achieved in veterinary microbiologicalmino logy, and pathology. Good capabilities for experimental work also exist in related areas- 9J/ Except for research in helmlnth-ology, the field of virology bos shown the most rapid growth. While major aniael viral diseases, with the possible exception of rinderpest, ere not entirely under control, they are receiving much attention, and measures designed to overcome foot-and-mouth disease and hog cholera havetate of development essentially comparable to that of Western countries. / The animalet ion of the USSR still suffers from many different infectious diseases; but current research emphasis appears to be concentrated largely on foot-and-mouth, brucellosis, hog cholera, Newcastle di3eose of fowl, anthrax, the encephalitides, and parasitic diseases. /

In keeping with the Soviet concept of gradually reducing the incidence of infection and parasitic infestation, rather thanore direct approach to eradication of animal disease, veterinary authorities in the USSRigh priority on prophylaxis andmeasures In their control programs. There is little evidence of extensive original research in the development of new products for prophylaxis or disinfection, but those developed in Western countries are readily accepted by Soviet authorities. / In theof disinfection equipment, however, and partlcularlly In the employment of mobile units, Soviet researchers have demonstrated

considerable Ingenuity In developing elaborate equipment andreat deal of importance is placed on the widespread use of such devices in sanitation of infected premises and animal transportation equipment. /

Perhapseflection of the dependence of Soviet scientists on Western theoretical research and technology, development ofvaccines, antlsera, and other prophylactic and therapeutic preparations la less advanced than that of the United States and some European nations. Production techniques, as with product development, are usually adaptations of refined procedures arising in other countries, and despite the emphasis placed on providing adequate biological material for the ambitious an^nol disease control programs, there ore occasional references In Soviet literature to shortages and ineffective products. There is on obvious need for more research to develop effective biologies that will retain their efficacy under the complex distribution and utilization system, particularly in remote areas of the Soviet Union. / That work in this direction Is under way is exemplified by attempts to Isolate additional strains of brucella for live, dry vaccines of greater effectiveness and stability;studies on the use of gamma globulin preparations from immune animals in treating such diseases as rabies and equine encephalitis; and exploration of improved methods of vaccination, as indicated by attempts to devise an aerosol vaccine for swine erysipelas or the dry lapinized vaccine for hog cholera. / The impact: of these experimental measures on the eventual control of animal diseases is not yet clear; and Soviet claims for early success, os in the large-scale brucellosis immunization program in sheep, have not been substantiated. /

As on adjunct to growth ln Soviet virologlcal research, veterinary scientists areeep Interest in adaptation ofulture techniques to both the fundamental study of animal viruses and to production processes for Improved biological preparotlons for the disease control program. Despite the relatively low order of pro-liciency exhibited by Russian researchers in applying the new methodology involved in cultivation of living tissue cells, some progress has

ln modification'of foot-and-mouth virus culture

methods to yield an intraderraab vaccine. According to unverified Russian claims, the modified vaccine is superior to the presentlyaratl0'1 against this serious animal disease. Evidence that tissue culture methods are being Introduced, to some extent, into dasic explorations is furnished by current Soviet work on cytopathogcnlc etiects of the encephalitis viruses in various tissue media, lglj-lfio/

a-that fundamental research in the veterinary sciences, as in the biological fields, is still given less eophesls than practical

application; but thia disparity may be moreeflection of immediate politico-economic pressure to increase livestock" productionalid measure of Soviet competency in veterinary matters. Recent intelligence estimates foreseeualitativeuantitative increase ln fundamental research during the years ahead, with no indication that applied aspects of veterinary oedlcine will be neglected. / Discussions vith Soviet veterinary scientists and review of the expanding volume of theoretical research material Ln current publications appear to substantiate this predicted trend./ There is little doubtucleus of basic research facilities, competently staffed, Is already In existence and that as increased livestock production and other near-term goals are gradually attained, added ecphaslG will be given to veterinary investigationsore basic nature. /

Plants humans andre plaguedide variety of microorganisms which engender debilitating or fatal illness, economically Important plants and food crops play host to specific microbial paraaltes, the plant pathogens. Among this brood group of bacterial, fungal, und virus forms, potentially effective agents can be found for onticrop or antifood warfare against nations dependent to any extent on agriculture for survival and growth. The well recognized diseases of cereal grains, potatoes, sugar beets, and cotton occur in tbe Soviet Union and conventional approaches to the study of these diseases are employed by Soviet scientists, thus, research Is under way on fundamental problems common to plant Infections In general: the influence of environment on the course of Infection, host susceptibility, control measures, and development of plant varieties resistant to disease, but little significant work on the epidemiology of plant diseases Is evident. he USSRredominantly cereal agriculture, and*smut and rust diseases of wheat and other grains are prevalent in that country; but aside from limited investigations recently reported, or planned for tbe future, on identification and characterization of races of the leaf and stem rust fungi, relatively few significant studies on these important organisms, or on the other fungus, bacterial and virua diseases of cereals, ore evident. Much tbe sane situation prevails with respect to the pathogens of other food and commodity crops. Iky/


Aa exemplified by the status of microbial experimentation on plant diseases, over-allsRusslan capabilities in the plant sciences are low, although an ever-increasing capability is expected in keeping with previously noted Soviet efforts to improve conditions for basic research and to enhance the stature of biological sciences In general. Despite the greater government support to programs in the plant sciences which Is becoming evident today, theoretical research progress will be relatively slow because Hlcburlnlsa, which characterizes Sovietphilosophy in biology, continues to be the official scientific/ft

position in the USSR. lj/ l'i8/ Significant increases In overage per-acre yiatbl of several oajor crops can be anticipated in future years, however, froa progress in plant breeding, including development of better adapted and higher yielding varieties ond pest and disease-resistant plants. / Important advances probably will also result from research on pesticides, pest and disease forecasting, development of disease-free seed stock, plant physiology, plant nutrition, fertilizer development ond application, and wee& control. /

An analysis of Soviet scientific papers dealing with plant pathology indicates that more0 Soviet scientists have appeared over the years as authors or co-authors of research papers in this field, but In spite of this rather considerable investigative effort, the quality of Soviet plant pathology research remains generally low, ond feu, if any, noteworthy scientific or technical advances have been mode during the past two decudea. /

Recent observations indicote clearly that crop losses ore extensive in the USSR, and the problem posed by diseases and lnsect3 may be more severe than the Soviets themselves realize. Althoughomewhat better position than plant pathology, Soviet plant entomology research likewise Is not considered adequate to meet tbe needs of the USSR. Greater emphaslfl is given to development and use of insecticides than ty fungicldea and tbe former are employed more widely and in greater quantities. /

Soviet basic research on herbicldal plant growth regulators is extremely limited in quantity and it is generally of low quality. Applied research with herbicides logs Western developments by about five years and generally has been limitedew of the olderwhich were discovered and developed In the West. While herbicldal usage is increasing under official encouragement,mallof the cropped area of the USSR is treated; however, defoliants for cotton ore used widely. / Although the Soviets were aware of. and British Investigations of herbicides as anticrop BW agents as earlyhere la no indication from available Information that parallel research has been undertaken in the USSR. / however, much of the technological and developmental experience gained from research and actual usageillion acres of crops were treateds oppllceblc to any anticrop BW program.

Technological advances in design of equipment for the application of chemicals have bean slow, and present devices are comparatively, inefficient and cumbersome, but oeriol dissemination of control chemicals Is bccomlDg more widespread as supplies of high potency materials increase. Takenhole, Soviet experience in aerial application of

Agricultural chemicals (pesticides, herbicides, and fertilizers) has been rather extensive, even though the percentage of the total USSR crop land treated annually is lov, thus, in spite of the rather.-unimpressive state of tbe supportive basic sciences, this widewith various chemicals under different conditions, affords theonsiderable capability in technology, manpower, and machines which is applicable to BW research and development of anticrop agents.

assessment of research in genetics in the USSRyears has shownradual deterioration in the qualitywork took place6 under tho influence ofpseudo-scientific theories of heredity. dherence to modern theories in geneticwas almostovietbiology have existedtate of duality between theLysenko's theory of the predominance of environmental influencecharacteristics and the supporters of the classicof transmission of characteristics through genes, but theinfluence of Lysenko on Soviet genetics appears to be limitedwith his former domination of this science. /

Present conditions for improvement of Soviet genetic research ore more favorable than ot any time since the Majorthat nave helped to create these favorable conditions are the removal of Lysenko as president of the AU-Unlon Academy of Agricultural Scienceshe return of numerous classically orientedto research positions; the official acceptance of hybrid corn; tbe adoption of polyploidy and radiation as breeding ond research tools; and the exploitation of biochemical and radiation methods in microbial genetics. / In addition, biological and genetic research is being given increased government support. The Institute of Biophysics has been strengthened in its genetic and cytological aspects, an independent institute of cytology has beenew Institute of Radlational ond Physico-Chemlcal Biology has been setew Institute of Cytology and Genetics Is being constructed in Novosibirsk. /

Soviet research in the field of fundamental genetics is expected to become increasingly concerned with the structural basis of heredity and variation within the cell, the physical and chemical aspects of cellular organization and processes, and the effect of external mutation-inducing factors at the" cellular level. However, most of the recent work in basic genetics and in the related fields of cytology ond cytogenetics has been devoted to surveys of Western research effort to familiarize Soviet Investigators with progress inof modern concept. /

Under Lysenxo's influence, studies on microbial genetics received strong emphasis, but the considerable effort which was expendedLittle scientifically sound research on genetic phenomena in microorganisms. For example, review of representativecoveringodd years in one of the most active Soviet research fields, and one in which genetics provides an invaluable tool; namely, the selection of strains of pathogenic organisms for use as live vaccines, suggests that selection methods were largely empirical, with the result that problems of low lmmunogenlclty, Instability of immunogenic properties, and occurrence of untovard post-vacclnalhave nob been satisfactorily resolved In many prophylactic preparations which are in wide use today. / .lecentof Soviet approaches and acceptance of Western genetic concepts have raised the capability for research in the USSR, according to intelligence estimates; and newly Initiated programs have been noted, particularly in the implication of radiation genetics to selection of microbial mutants for improved antibiotics production and more effective live vaccines. OA// IJkJ Future investigations will probably follow genetic approaches similar to those employed in Western nations, and the result shouldarked improvement in Soviet genetics research. /

in medical entomology has made dramatic progress in the USSR since the time of the Russian revolution. During tbe Czarist regime, vector-borne epidemics ran largely uncontrolled through the population. Plague, typhus, relapsing fever, tularemia, encephalitis, and fly-borne enteric diseaseseavy toil-research ln the field of erthropod-bome diseases was minimal, and it was reflected ln only one or two publications each year in the world's scientific literature. Beginning in thes, the People's Commissariat of Health, flanked by the Academy of Sciences and tbe military medical services,ong-term progrea forin public^healtb conditions. As part of the program, the number of trained investigators in medical entomology increased until at the present time more0 Soviet specialists are believed to be actively engaged in research in the various fields of this science-Publications have swelled to the point thatrticles on arthropod-borne diseases now appear annually in the Russianfurthermore, tho quality of the more recent Soviet work is adjudged to be ecuul In caliber to that published by Western nations.


The serious problems of control and prevention of arthropod-borne diseases in the USSR have by no meana been solved; and the vostness of the territory in which these infections are found, the diversity of climate ln the Soviet Union, and the comparatively low level of sanitation have been suggested as factors which preclude their solution In the near future. On the otherecent

comprehensive evaluation of Soviet efforts in medical entomology, as portrayed by scientific publications, shows that the present large-scale investigative activity is not only being sustained but appears to bc increasingapid rate. IMS/ apability for arthropod vector research has been developed in the USSR which is second to no other nation's in regard to number of qualified personnel, research facilities, and training institutions involved. /

The rapid progress in development of Soviet medical entomologyield of science 'has been ascribed, in part,igh degree of central control and tbe consequent infrequent occurrence ofin research among military organizations, public health institutes and others of the UQO-odd laboratories from which publications have originated. / Aside from this, tho sound work being carried out ty groups of veil-trained Soviet entomologists has been Instrumental in the advance of basic knowledge in many different categories of rcsoarch. / Emphasis in the USSR hos been placed or. investigation of mosquitoes os carriers of Infectious disease, folloved in descending order of Interest by ticks, fleas, the house fly, the sandfly, and others. While this relative emphasis is Identical with that devoted to arthropod vector studies by most other countries with similar disease problems, the wlde^ecope of Soviet effort is reflected in publications over the years on atroups of arthropods and their role in somenfectious diseases, allew of which are considered to occur in the USSR. / In addition to the very considerable research on medical entomology, per_se, Soviet scientists are reported to bave strong programs in medical parasitology, ecology, and the study of life cycles among the arthropods. /

Over 4o0 laboratories in tbe USSR have contributed research on medical entomology during the postoars, but despite the large number of installations ^involved,ew con be considered majcr centers on tbe basis of sustained research, the scope and type cf experimentation and the caliber of the investigators: The Institute of Kalnrlu, Medical Parasitology and Helmlnthology, Moscow; Zoological Institute, Academy of Sciences, USSR, Leningrad; All-Union Institute of Experimental Medicine imeni Corky, Moscow; Institute cf Epidemiology ond Microbiology Imeni Gamaleya, Moscow; Scientific Research Institute of Epidemiology and Microbiology for the SE USSR, Saratov; Military Medical Academy imeni Kirov, Leningr-id;he Institute of Xoclogy, Academy of Sciences of Kazakh SSR, Alma-Ata. /

The great emphasis given to entomological research in the USSR today is consistent with the nature and size of the public health problems to be solved; but experimentation on the mechanism of vector transmission of infection, retention of pathogenic organisms within the arthropod host, end related studies ore equally applicable to BW


research. There has been little evidence in the open scientificthat programs more specifically tailored for BW purposes are under vay at present, such as the mass rearing and infecting of arthropods, long-term storage, or dispersal patterns; there are indications that pass rearing and Infection techniques are known to Soviet investigators, however- / The basic knowledge of medical entomology which has been accumulated over tbe years in tbe USSR, the existing facilities for study of arthropods, and tbe valuable experience which Soviet scientists have gained in vector-borne diseases can be equated with an impressive capability toWd development program. Ib6/

Biochemistry andreviews of Soviet biochemical research indicate that the application of biochemistry toexperimentatIon encompasses almost every area of interest and significance to BW. 9jJ 9j/ Work on microbial composition, nutrition and growth, intermediary metabolism, pathogenicity, and related problems is well represented in the scientific literature of the USSR, although the general quality and depth of research are considered to fall below that of Western Investigators. Certain studies reveal imagination and the use of novel approaches; and this is especially apparent in (I) the characterization of bacterial toxins; (ll) investigations of new substances active against bacteria, viruses, and rlckettslac; and (ill) in protein chemistry. For all practical purposes, biochemical research ln tbe Soviet Union has followed the lead of the West end is expected to continue to do so. Nevertheless, as In other biologicalreater volume of higher caliber experimentation in this field has been predicted for future years. From the scope of current Soviet biochemical research, the anticipated expansion of effort, and tbe availability of research findings in Westernthere is little reason to doubt the present and future capability of scientists in the USSR to render the necessary biochemical supportW program.

A broad spectrum of biophysical Gtudies related to microbiology has been found in the USSR. The intense Soviet activity since World War II in research employing biological aerosols was noted previously. Investigations involving the application of ultraviolet and infrared microtechniques to the determination of microbial cell structure and composition have been under vay for several years, and studies using electron microscopy, radioactive isotopes, chromatography, and ultra-high frequency or ultrasonic methods are In evidence from Soviet publications. / The biophysical principles behind development of photoelectric counters, particle size scanners, infrared spectrophotometers, and continuous meobrane filtration devices for detection of biological aerosols have been recognized In the writings of Soviet military authors, although there is no indication that alarm


now primarily concerned with mathematical descriptions of the physical characteristics of aerosols. Including cloud physics; the application of aerosols to agricultural pursuits; and the use of biological aerosols as an experimental tool in medicine, public health and Immunological research. Extremes of quality have been noted ln Soviet work;to the formulation of mathematical theories on aerosol formation and behavior are considered outstanding while, on the other hand, theof aerosols, particularly ln their application to agricultural needs, is often of rather poor quality. Basic studies have encompassed many of the problem areas which arise in aerosollzatlon of microorganisms: particle size distribution, coagulation of particles, and the capture of aerosol particles by various surfaces. An increasing Soviet Interest in theoretical treatment of particle motion, flow, and dispersion has become evident in the more recent writings. / Much of the theoretical work on aerosols can be reconciled with research on cloud formation and other weather phenomena or with the extensive Soviet program of micrometeorologlcal support to agriculture in defining the effects of climatic variables on plant growth and pollination and determining optimum conditions for the use of Insecticides.

Because of the Importance of variations ln atmospheric conditions at or near ground level to the successful testing of BU agents under conditions simulating actual employment, Soviet activities in micro-meteorology have been watched closely. In addition to aerosolhighly competent research on wind flow, atmospheric stability, and temperature variation has been noted in publications for the USSR,ew recent papers devoted specifically to the effects ofteorological conditions cn aerosols have been found. / Soviet scientists also bava been active in theoretical work onturbulence end diffusion. This is in keepingong desire to improve the general accuracy of their regular weather forecasts, although research on turbulence and diffusion at the ground surface is also directly applicable to the behavior of airborne microorganisms. Discussions of recent data between Western investigators and their Soviet counterparts suggest that while the latter erereat amount of competent theoretical research little has been done on actual field measurements near ground levels to substantiate this research. There are indications from these discussions that large-scale field projects on atmospheric diffusion and pollution will be initiated in the USSR /

Evaluation of Soviet work in mlcroaeteorology, including related theoretical research on aerosols and turbulence and dissuslon, has led to tbe conclusion that the proficiency of Soviet scientists In this general field Is about equal to that of investigators In leading Western countries aod that the USSR is capuble of giving adequatesupport to both the research and operational phases of biological

As in other facets of aerobiology, Soviet scientists have been extremely active in atmospheric pollution research. While some work on air pollution, especially the theoretical phases. Is conducted by investigators who ore first and foremost meteorologists, most cf tbe Soviet literature on this subject has been contributed by physicians, engineers, and biological scientists. Whereas fundamental aerosol research, micrometeorological studies, ond experimentation on boslc turbulence and diffusion problems are carried out principally at Academy of Sciences centers, as in tbe Institute of Physics of the Atmosphere, Institute of Physical Chemistry, and the Main Ceophyslcol Observatory and Central Aerologicol Observatory of the Institute of Applied Geophysics, air pollution research isajor rcsponsl bllity of the Ministry of Health. / Development ofand procedures for air sampling is under way at various sanitary-epidemiological stations, research Institutes of hygiene ond sanitation, and within the departments of communal hygiene ut medical institutes of the Academy of Medical Sciences under the Ministry of Health. / Guidance in air pollution investigations is furnishedecently formed Committee for Sanitary Protection of Atmospheric Air at tbe Institute of General and Communal Hygiene. The Institute of General and Communal Hygiene eild the Central Institute for Advanced Training of Physicians appear to be the two organizations most intimately concerned with current Soviet research on pollution of air by Industrial wastes, tbe spread of airborne infectious microorganisms in theend formulation of sensitive methods and devices for detecting small quantities of noxious substances in the air. /

Air pollution studiea apparently are still in an early stage with respect to tho microflora of the atmosphere. While much research effort is being expended on methods of sampling, centralized planning ond directionecent innovation, ond standards for atmospheric purity and performance of equipment hove yet to be established- / That progress is being mode Is evidenced by reports that microbial air sampling programs nave begun in on undetermined number of tbe larger cities In the USSR. / 2ji8/ Intensified Soviet attention to air purification along with the establishment of control

stations for systeoatlc atmospheric observations hove been noted In recent years.

. The specialized study of oerosols of microorganisms hasin scope end volume ln the USSR since World.War II. is much more obvious ln the application of biologicalthe solution of nedical and air sanitation problems than toof tbe organisms themselves; but published works revealinvestigations on the kinetic propertiesunction of particle size; and the effects ofhumidity, and other factors on representative virus,microbial toxin aerosols have/

Experimentation of this nature appears froa scientificbe confined largely to the Institute of Virology loenlMoscow, the Kill tary Medical Academy Imeni Kirov in Leningrad,Kiev Institute for Advanced Training of62/

In tho medical field, Soviet work ln past years was centered on the aerobiology of contagiousrincipally respiratory diseases of virus etiology. While studies on the mechanism or infection orthrough inhalation of bacteria, viruses, and toxins are otill receiving attention, the trend as evidenced by current publications is toward experimentation with therapeutic aerosols, development of aerogenic vaccines, and research on immunity against airborne At the Game time,Journals from the USSR in recent years have contained numerous articles relating to design and construction of simplified chambers which are essential for laboratory study of pathogenic aerosols, filtration systems for purifying hospital and laboratory air, aerosol generating devices, and nethods and reagents for disinfecting aerosolsariety of conditions. // Containers, for studying clouds of microorganisms range in size and complexity from simple glass flasks, intouspension of organisms is sprayed, to fully instrumented, compartmentalized, stainless steel chambers designed for generation of multiple aerosols or simultaneous animal exposure to diverse, controlled conditions. / In certain experiments, tents or Isolated rooms have been employed for dissemination of aerosols. / Chambers described in the Soviet literature have apparently been locally fabricated instrumentsin insufficient volume for general distribution and use;ewly designed aerosol chamber reportedly in production at the Medical Instrument Plant "Teknolog" is expected to become available toesearch institutes in the future and thus broaden their capabilities in the aerobiology of microorganisms and infectious diseases.

Soviet scientists have devoted much effort to the design and testing of aerosol samplers for laboratory end field use. Many of

these samplers are simple devices, crude by Western standards but generally adequate for qualitative work. There is no evidence that an all-purpose soapier has been developed, and Soviet investigators have expressed the need for an apparatus which will effectively collect virus ond rickettslol organisms and bacterial toxins. / Principles of aerosol collection utilized by Western workers have been adopted for study in the USSR; namely, impingement on solid culture media, aspiration through liquids, sedimentation, suction through filters, and electrostatic precipitation. Much of the current research cn air sampling Is limited to comparative performance testing of tbe many different samplers, and inadequacies hove been found In each type developed to date, vhethcr from the standpoint of economy, portability, or efficiency. Portable collecting devices and air samplers mounted on automobiles, boats, and aircraft have received considerable emphasis. / Little evidence of actualwith electronic aerosol counters or alarm systems is available in published Soviet research, but the principles upon which suchis based are fully understood in the USSR. /

Too little direct reporting of basic research on biological aerosols has been found in Soviet publications to permit validof progress in the fundamental aspects of this field of aerobiology. In the use of microbial aerosols to investigate Infectious diseases and to develop prophylactic ond therapeutic measures against them, the experimentation is generally less sophisticated than that conducted by competent Western scientists and results are often poorly controlled. However, the volume and variety of aerosol research presently under way in tbe USSR, the number of different scientific establishments engaged in this work, and the extensive efforts which are being made to develop appropriate equipment and techniques for the study of airborne microorganisms suggest that Soviet scientists ore quite capable of and ere carrying out aerosol research In support of BW.

Industrialhe fermentation industry of the USSR lags considerably behind that of the West in almost every respect; in some phases of Industrial fermentation this lag has been estimated to be someoears In terms of time. Whatever progress has been made Is generally attributable to the exploitation of research and development from other countries and to the adoption of Westernbut the Soviets ore gradually buildingative capability in this/ Industrial fermentation research and development most likely to serveeasure of the capacity of Soviet science toW program involves those processes which employ the submerged culture method, such as the production of antibiotics, organics, certain vitamins, commercial microbial enzymes, and fungi for livestock feed purposes. Of these five, fermentation production of antibiotics Io of greatest importance because submerged cultivation


octhods In the reoolnder are either ln early research and development stages or have only recently been adopted by Soviet Industry. gig/

Considerable progress has been made In production of antibiotics In the USSR within recent years. Yield efficiency is low which is anthat production techniques are less advanced then' those used by Western nations. The total supply of representative antibiotics la -eportedly well below current Soviet needs, and certain of then are apparently still being imported. / The progress that has been made by the Soviets themselves isreat extent the outgrowth of an Integrated system of research organized in various institutes and pilot plant establishments within the industry. Four scientific centers are devoted primarily toresearch and process development, and numerous other institutes conduct research ln this field. The existence in many of the Institutes and most of the antibiotic plants of experimental fermentors for pilot research on new strains of organisms and new types or culture mediaeryand important feature of this system. Many of the antibiotic plants in tbe western part of the USSR have grown through tbe expansion of older existing units. The layout in some of these plants is not modern andis often laprovised, however, in tbe acre recently establishedfacilities in the Soviet Union and in countries to which Soviet assistance has been rendered, planning and design have been carried out according to modern standards and vith more adequate equipment in mind. One of the objectives of the Sixth Five-Year Plan, in addition to greatly Increased output and the production of newer antibiotics, is theof automatic or semi-automatic equipment for greater unit productivity. At present, there are reportedly lU antibiotic plants in the entire USSR, two-thirds of then in the RSFSR. Io general, these facilities ore of about the same site, employing an averageorkers/

Tbe contribution and support that Soviet Industrial fermentation, as exemplified by the antibiotics Industry, might conceivably makeW program encompasses through principal areas: equipment and instrumentation, the possibility of plant conversion from antibiotics to agent production, and trained scientific and technical personnel. Stainless steel Tormentors in which antibiotic-producing organisms are grown, and their controlcould be modified for large-scale cultivation of bacterial and fungal agents, although fermentors specifically designed for vaccine production would appear to be basically more suitable for this purpose. At tbe present time, there is no evidence that Soviet scientists ore capable of propagating viruses and rlckettslae in tissue culturecale which would require fermentation equipment, hence, tbe type of agent which could be produced is somewhat limited. Filtration, extraction, and purification andequipment and technology would be readily adaptable to theof bacterial toxins. Thus, while conversion of antibiotic producicg facilities to BW agent production is possible, the probability of such conversion ia considered extremely unlikely. Many factors including

time, coat of modification, the availability of vaccine and toxoid producing installations, reduction of national antibiotic production, aod serious safety aad security problems favor construction of new facilities or conversion of existing plants more closely related in their activities to production of pathogenic microorganisms. /

The biological and engineering technology developed forprocesses and the experience gained by personnel working in the antibiotic production field would be of value in BU research, even though there ore major differences in prawrfltrPs for growth oforganists and the more fastidious pathogens. izeable group of Soviet microbiologists, mycologists, biochemists, and engineers are engaged in antibiotics development and production; and efforts ore being made to train additional specialists in these categories. Many of these personnel are highly competent and have had extensive experience in various aspects of fermentation. / At the present time, except for tbe technical knowledge vhich this group of experienced workers could impart, the fermentation industry in the USSR offers little in the way of facilities, equipment and processes for growth of microorganisms thot is not more readily available in those segments of the scientific community which produce biologies for medical and public health agencies. The relativeof industrial fermentationhole and the attention which must be given by scientists in this field to problems inherent in the planned expansion for future years Indicates that the capabilities of tbe industry to influence or support BW research is meager.

Antibioticstudies of Soviet basic research in tbe antibiotics field have shown it to be relatively well advanced, largely because of exploitation of Western progress. Some fundamental problems, such as the mechanism of antibiotic action, have not been stressed; but, in other areas, particularly in tbe biosynthesis of these compounds, research programs have been intensified and expanded in scope during recent years, The latter efforts are inwith Soviet objectives of increased production and better quality of presently available antibiotics. / Attempts to develop higher yielding mutant strains of antibiotic-producingalso form an important part of the Soviet work. / Much attention is being given to screening of new compounds effective against virus infections, tuberculosis. Intoxication by bacterial poisons, cancer, and other diseases refractory to conventional / In related medical investigations, some work is still evident on drug resistance in pathogenic microorganisms, but relatively more emphasis has been noted on tbe evaluation of antibiotic aerosols lo the therapy of respiratory Infections and other lung Because antibiotic research In

the USSR Includes exploitation of substances which are not generally considered in the antibiotics category by Western sciences, namely, tissue extracts, serum derivatives, enzymes, and proteins, Soviet literature also reflects work on protozoa and plant and animal tissues as well as on the more conventional bacteria, yeasts, and fungi.

The developmental aspects of antibiotic investigations ore less advanced in the Sovietan in the Western nations. hile Soviet versions of most of the commonly recognized antibiotics are available, the quality of the preparations is open to question in many instances and scarcities still exist. / Production processes for certain of the more recently discovered compounds are still under study, and actualof others has just begun, according to Soviet announcements. / Recognizing that the often Inferior quality of antibiotic preparations in the USSR is related to imperfect fermentation technology and laxity in production control, steps are under way to correct these deficiencies by reevaluation of culture processes and quality control/ Expous ioncapacity through construction of new facilities, modernization of older installations, and integration of research were mentioned previously as part of the present ambitious Soviet effort to become self-sufficient inthe need for antibiotics. /

Intelligence estimates haverend toward more original research, especially in the isolation and development of new antibiotics in the USSR, although the liklihood is not considered great that significant scientific advances will result, and continued Soviet emphasis on exploitation of Western experimentation isowever, this exploitation, coupled with the volume of work which Is reportedly under way now within the Soviet Union on isolation of new antibiotics and improvement of presentsuggests that the Soviet capability for supportive BW research in the antibiotics field is good.

to cope with the many prevalent infectiousin the USSR have stimulated vigorous research programs in lmmunolosySpecific immunoprophylaxis and the establishment of immune contingents in the population have teen extolled by Soviet scientists as the principal means of interrupting the epidemiological process of infection. Hence, Sovietis largely oriented toward development, refinement, end application of vaccines and protective antisera, although fundamental research has not been entirely neglected. // In the latter field, strong emphasis on proof of theories of immunity mechanismsharacteristic of past Soviet studies, end valuable information has been complied on the relation of immunity to functions of the central nervous system, allergicantibody formation, the immune state in parasitic infestations, and similar problems. The application of immunological procedures to theand neurotropic virus diseases has yielded data not readily available In other countries, but few major contributions to fundamental knowledge of immunology have emerged from the Soviet Union in recent years. /

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Protective inoculations for many diseases of BW importance have been developed and given broad application ln the USSR; among them are tularemia, brucellosis, plague, anthrax, botulism, equine encephalomyelitis, tick-borne encephalitis,ever, and typhus. Foot-and-mouth, rinderpest, hog cholera, and other specifically animal diseases which occur there have their respective vaccines. The effectiveness of some Soviet preparations, notably the vaccines for psittacosis andncephalitis, is questionable, and no measures for bestowing-active immunity are known to be available for glanders, melioidosis, infectious hepatitis, and some types offever. / The great emphasis ln the USSR on development of vaccines of viable organisms has yielded useful, live attenuated antigens for tularemia, brucellosis, anthrax, plague, tuberculosis, poliomyelitis, Papputact fever, influenza, smallpox, and rabies, while live vaccines against measles and mumps are Instages. /

Most Soviet vaccines against natural Infection with diseases of BW significance appear to give only moderate protection. Adverse side reactions are common, and none is known to be fully effective under respiratory challenge or to afford protection agninst mutant andstrains. / / As evidenced by tho scientific literature,ong-term program is In progress to Improve the protective qualities and stability of present vaccines, reduce post-veccinal reactions, and obtain attenuated Immunizing strains of low virulence and greater immunogenlcity. U/H/ This effort pertains not only to immunizing agents of recent development, but also applies to preparations which have been widely used for many years, as In smallpox, plague, tularemia, and anthrax. Even the basic entericNIISI polyvalent vaccine, consisting ofnd B, Shiga and Flexner dysentery, and cholera organisms along with tetanusbeing reevaluated. /

Inonference ledeshulova, Chief of the Main Administration of the Institutes of Vaccine and Sera, Ministry of Health, pointedroad and significant research program on multiple vaccines which clearly had been in progress for several yearsumber of public health institutes and the Kirov Military Medical Acadea/ in Leningrad. / with this first recorded symposium on multipurpose vacclneo, the Soviet scientific literature began to revealreafvarlety of new lmaunoprophy lactic preparations vere undergoing experimental testing, andew instances, process development preliminary to/ In some of this work, the KIISI vaccine provided the basic preparation into which additional components, such as combined live smallpox and brucellosis antigensever, typhus, or tularemia

organisms, were Introduced. It Is also apparent that much attention has been given to various combinations of living vaccines of the causative agents of brucellosis, tularemia, plague, and anthrax. elatively few reportedone or another of these has been employed simultaneously with such antigens as.killed Vibrio cholera cells, tetanus toxoid, orvaccine. / Results published so far suggest that studies on combined bacterial antigens are still preliminary in that research objectives relate largely to determination of compatibility, that is, suppression of antigenicity or potentiating effects, when multiple immunizing substances ere administered by different routes and in varying quantities. / The lag period between this research and its publication date is not known with certainty, but there are no indications that production stages have been reached in any combined bacterial vaccines for BW important diseases other than the modified NIISI preparation. /

* In addition to complex mixtures of bacterial cell antigens,effort has been expended In development of combined toxoids; these substances have been studied both as homogeneous toxoid mixtures and in association with bacterial vaccines. // As many seven toxoids have been incorporatedingle preparation.

toxoid and Staphylococcus entcrotoxoid arc represented ln scxae of the combinations in addition to the more commonly found gangrene, botulinun, and tetanus antigens. Despite this volume of work, it is significant thatingle study has been noted on multiple viral antigens; in this one investigation the compatibility of live yellow fever, Jrappataci fever, and smallpox viruses was explored although detailed findings were not reported. Tbe next task in devising multipurpose vaccines, by Soviet pronouncements, isof combined virus, virus-rlckettslal, and virus-bacterial antigens, and among those forpecific need has been expressed are tick-borne andncephalitis, poliomyelitis, yellow fever, and influenza. / In tho meantime, multiple-antigen bacterial vaccines and toxoids have ln certain Instances reached tbe stage which permits tbeir testing on human subjects; the modified NIISI vaccine, brucelloals-tularemia mixtures, and various combinations of enteric bacteria and toxoids fall within this category. /

Paralleling research on multiple antigens and improvement of present vaccines are Soviet attempts to develop more effective ontisera, or derivatives of them; as with the combined vaccine work,attempts are regarded as still largely preliminary in nature. Two

separate but related phases of this expanding effort are apparent from published studies; the first Is concerned with incorporating additional icnmne substances into conventional preparations, usually antitoxins, such as those available for prophylaxis and therapy of botulinusgas gangrene, and tetanus. J The other includes purification and fratlonatlon of antiseraeans of concentrating protective factorsorereferably dry, form of reduced bulk. Examples of diseases to which this research has been applied so far as plague, anthrax, and leptospirosis among the bacterialtbe toxic states found ln tetanus, diphtheria, and gangrene; and the virus diseases of rabies, tick-borne encephalitis, and/ It Is significantearch Is under way ln the USSK to find substitute animal donors for the preparation of Immune serum and globulin to supplement human and equine sources of these products economically. / Noteworthy is the recent finding that cattle destined for beef production can provide high-tltorcd botulinum antiserum if immunized and then bled prior to slaughter. kJ

There is ample evidence that the questionable effectiveness of conventional vaccination procedures In preventing infection through the respiratory tract hasatter of concern to Sovietlor many years. Early claims that plague and tularemia vaccinesigh order of protection against inhalation infection are contradicted by other information from Soviet sources. / Recent publications by scientists of the Military Medical Academy iocni Kirov reveal that the problem of immunity againstinfection is still under serious study, and the results of aerosol challenge of immunized animals by selected animal pathogens and botulinum toxins further substantiate tbe deficiency of present-day vaccination methods in affording the necessary degree of protection. / Vaccine administration through the lungseans of enhancing immunity to plague was explored at the NIIEC during World War II; and3 or earlier, this approach has been investigated at the Military Medical Academy in Leningrad as an adjunct to the aerosol challenge experimentation. / In reseerch at the Academy, the immunizing properties of live, dry aerogenic vaccines of plague, tularemia, brucellosis, and anthrax were studied, along with tetanus toxoid; several hundred animals and over UOO human subjects vere employed in these investigations, as an indication of the depth in which the work was pursued. Aerosol challenge of the animals and assessment of Immunity la the humans by routine laboratory procedureslaim for great effectiveness for the aerogenic vaccine method with live dry antigens. / There are indications that inhalationhas also been explored by other workers in the case oftularemia, tuberculosis, typhoid, dysentery, and diphtheria and that an extension of this research in the USSR to smallpox and yellow fever in humans and rinderpest, foot-and-mouth disease, and. ovine plague

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ia animals is planned. / 2jfl/ Recent published work showspecialized aerosol device for mass aerogenic immunization of the human population against influenza and possibly other infectiono has been designed and mass tested in the Soviet union. /

Another significant phase of immunological research under way on an Increasing scale in various Ministry of Health laboratories, tbe Sukhumi Medico-Biologlcol Station, and tbe Kirov Military Medical Academy io Leningrad is the effect of Ionizing radiation on the immune atate and susceptibility to infection. / Several important facets of this reoeorch are reflected in recent Soviet .publications. One publication pertains to the course of disease In experimental animals suffering from induced radiation sickness and discusses attempts to define adequate therapeutic measures,against tbe bacterial pneumonias- / In related studies, in which therapy was clearly not tbe sole objective, tbe increased susceptibility of irradiated animals to Leptospira, Staphylococci, Salmonellae, the anthrax bacillus, and other representative bocterial species has been explored, along with the toxins produced byand the gangrene and tetanus bacilli; viruses of rabies, poliomyelitis, influenza, yellow fever, lymphocytic choriomeningitis; and possibility other neurotropic agents. /kQ/ Still another segment of this research has dealt with the Influence of radiation in lowering protective levels resultlog from active Immunisation against bacteria and viruses; In that regard, concern has been voiced by Soviet writers for tbe possible inefflcacy of Immunoprophylactic defense against BWdiseases in the presence of sublethal amounts of There arc apparent misgivings about tbe invasiveness of live vaccine strains when active Immunization is superimposed on subclinical radiation sickness, as suggested by studies on the propagation of live antigen of the tularemia vaccine in Irradiated host animals. /

Refinement of live vaccines and development of attenuatedpreparations against those diseases for which none is now available ore expected to characterize Soviet research for the next several years; on the other hand, relatively few advances In fundamental immunology, other than those derived from Western research, ore foreseen in current estimates. * partial success which has reportedly been met in reducing the Incidence of serious infectious diseases by mass application ofprophylaxic measures further suggests that tbe applied aspects of immunology will continue to receive major emphasis, particularly in the development of multiaatigen vaccines, polyvalent antiserum derivatives, ond new preparations for aerogenic/ The extent to which investigations in these areoc and in the

field of radlobiology ere already under way and the directwhich they bear to BW research, clearly indicateoviet capability to conduct immunological experimentation In supportW program is now existent.

Sanitation andof the diversity of ethnic groups in the population and the relatively primitive conditions under which some of these peoples live, the expansion of agriculture end industry to underdeveloped areas, and other factors, theof modern environmental sanitation measures in tbe USSR has lacked uniformity, with tbe result that Inadequate sanitation practices prevail today ia large areas of that country. / Attempts are being made to extend and strengthen the control of sewage disposal, water purification, and milk and food processing, but Soviet statements show that amoeblosls, typbold fever, helminthic infestatloas, and other enteric diseases whose Incidence serves as an indicator of the sanitation level are still major public health problems in both urban and rural communities. / Although faced with shortages of trained personnel, equipment and facilities, Soviet workers are reported by qualified observers to be making rapid strides In suppressing these diseases and other common communicable Infections under an expanding preventive medicine program. /

In tbe USSR, sanitation research, hygiene, and epidemiology ere closely integrated. The freoework for the present day structure of the Ministry of Health was erected3 with the formationar-flung system of sonitary-epidemiologleal stations. reorganizations6 were designed to centralize control of research and administrative functions and to consolidate the programs of isolated laboratories, medicaland detachments within this system. / Inarallel development and expansion of military sanitary institutes, research programs, and supervisory organs was characteristic of this period, but diverging lines of growth were noticeableeparation of military and civilian sonltetion-epidealologlcal responsibilities / Nevertheless, the following years, and especially the period of World War II, saw cooperative interaction between the two forces in attacking problems common to both.

Soviet writers point out that the expansion of public health organizations in recent years and the greater emphasis on sanitation and hygiene research haveegree of uniformity in health services and hove led to stringent and more effective BOnltation codes and standards. / Future plans set forth oth Congress7 called,.for additional trained specialists in

sanitation and epidemiology for schools, industry, ond farming

communities and included provision for opening, hysanitary

bacteriological laboratoriesanitary-epldenlologleal stotlons

and'hospitals which now lack such facilities.

The field of sanitation and hygiene in the USSR embraces problems of disinfection of microorganisms, dlsinfestation of external parasite* and extermination of rodents. Tbe development of appropriate measures for control of each of these contributors to the epidemiology of disease is under way. / Microbiological research has centered around means of chemical and physical decontamination in industrial and agricultural pursuits for which infectious diseases are an occupational hazard or pursuits whichink indisease transmission. , biological air pollution has also fallen within the purview of sanitation research, andeffort has been devoted to development of air sampling devices, aerosol disinfectants, and related specialized/

Soviet disinfection practice utilizes the conventional decon-tamicsnts for laboratory and field work, but some attention is still being given to screening of chemical compounds, particularly halogen derivatives in mixture with other reagents.earch for general purpose germicides of greater effectiveness and wider/ New ways of applying physical sterilization measures, such as filtration, ultraviolet radiation, beat, and electric current have been under study for several years; but tbe scanty published results of these investigations yield no clear impression ofprogress. / There Is little evidence of develoi

reagents and disinfection techniques bave been worked out for air sterilization with the glycols, organic acids, and certain of tho more common germicides, the literature of the USSR still reflects screening experiments on representative chemical substances from these and other categories, and Indication that procedures for aerosol disinfection bave not yet been perfected. /


A review of the critical problem areas In disinfection outlined periodically by Soviet Investigators durings suggests that no adequate solution has been found for certain persistent problems of significance to Btf defense. Foremost among them are the lack of suitable decontaminants for soil, air, and the interior of large

buildings; while vertical surfaces, and structural materials such as brick, plaster, wallpaper and metals stillhallenge to thorough disinfection. Vith respect to specific microorganisms, aside from tbe dysentery group, poliomyelitis, and infectiousviruses and the tubercle and anthrax bacilli ore the pathogens for which effective decontamination methods are most urgently needed at present. / Measures for reducing the hazards ofever, tularemia, psittacosis, and other dangerous diseases to farmers, livestock handlers, and workers in animal products industries have not proven fully satisfactory, as Judged by the quantity and type of research still under wayliminating disease foci by disinfection procedures. /

Public health research intended to solve sanitation and hygiene problems affecting tbe general welfareation is Inherently ouch tbe same lo scope and direction as research required tothe investigators of infectious agents of BW or to devise protective measures against agent attack in wartime. In this sense, ouch of the Soviet work on dislnfestotion, rodent and arthropodand disinfectionual role, regardless of intent or design. The fact that research programsirectto BW defense have been under way ln these fields for many years in Ministry of Health laboratories, two specialized centers, the Institute of General and Communal Hygiene, and tbe Central Scientific Research Institute of Disinfection, Moscow, and various installations under veterinary or military medical auspices leaves little doubtapability to carry out BW supportive experimentation on decontamination and its applied aspects is present ln the USSR.

pidemiological studies followed close io tbe wake of tbe previously mentioned, revitalized sanitation and public health programs of the With tbe establishmentetwork of sanitary-epidemiological stations and socializedfor research on specific endemicase was provided for long-term investigation of host-parasite relationships among the human population, rodents, aad arthropods in natural foci of trans-missable infection in the USSR. j*7/ Much of tbe early work on BW-import ant infections was devoted to plague, tularemia, and other bacterial diseases; but the old-thirties found Soviet Investigators beginning detailed studicB on the rickettsial disorders, and shortly thereafter, on those of virus etiology. /OJ/

The many epidemiological surveys conducted over the years, the assignment of prominent scientists to direct tbls survey work, and tbe emphasis on centralized reporting and evaluation of data have

engendered an adequate knowledge of the occurrence aod IncidenceImportant human and animal diseases In the Soviet Union. The application Of this knowledge to prediction and controland to analysis of tbe effectiveness of lseiunizotlonprograms hasractical necessity,research on tbe epidemiological process; thatpreservation of pathogenic microorganisms inrole of ecological, and other factors, bas been encouragedyears. The rapid advances mode in the fieldentomology and the expanding Interest and activitythe arthropod-borne diseases were noted previously. to formulate effective control measures forrodento to break the chain of disease transmission hoveby research on the nature of host-parasitethe compilation of epidemiological data. Thus,the rodent population and determination of tbe extent of parasitic

infestationontinuous process, and insecticide dustingof small animals is receiving broader applicationand equipment are developed and improved. /

Soviet scientific literature shows that the mechanise ofof tbe bacterial Infections is still undernotably In tbe case of brucellosis and tularemia; twovbicb completely effective control measures bave beendefine. Tbe role of various Wctors ln preservingnature and the part played by wind, water, and other elementsdistribution are typical research undertokingo. /

With the viruses aid rickettlslae, experimental infection androutes are being reexplored in certain of tbe long-experienced

diseases, such as rabies, typhus,ever; but relativelyemphasis appears to fall on less understood entitles offever, tick-borne rickettslosis, and neurotropic virus

groups. Along with work on specificearch for more efficient epidemiological tools of general applicability is noted ln Soviet publications. Among those under consideration are quicker and more refined diagnostic tests and the use of radioactive tracers for delineating pathvays of infection, insect transmission, and distribution of microbes ln natural environments.

Intelligence studiesuture trend away from centrally-controlled antlepideaic measures, with stronger and more independent functions placed in regional research and support Installations; these same studies Indicate, however,ationwide ontiepidemic network will be retained for emergency situations.

Increasing emphasis on experimental epidemiology ond theoretical analysis of epidemiological data ore also anticipated as an of present programs of practical observation ond assessment of disease outbreaks.

The long history of serious endemic disease In the USSR has forced attention to epidemiological problems, many of themomplex relationship among humans, rodents, parasitic arthropods, and infectious microorganisms. In attempting to salute theseealth of knowledge bus been gained on the epidemiology of diseases most likely to be candidates for BU employment; unique experience with exotic infections; for example, the atypical encephalitides ond hemorrhagic fevers, has also accrued to Soviet scientists. / Ofather elaborate or anlzatloaol structure has beea created to supply tbe needed resources; and the researchwithin this structure, along with mllitnry and civilian research expeditions, survey teams, and mobile detachments, through years of activity, can bc presumed to haveonsiderable number of trained specialists in epidemiological matters. / Consideration of these factors leads to the conclusion that the sanitary-epldemlological service In the USSR is entirely copable of carrying out research in support of BU.

to obtaining Western assistance in establishing antibiotic production facilities during World War II, tbe USSR had not progressed far in the general application of engineering principles to rields of biological science. ignificant strides have been made in some areas, notably Inof vacuum-freeze dried vaccines and allied preparations; advances also are detectable on certain other fronts. / Some of the newer Soviet antibiotic plants ore designed and equipped in accordance with modern standards, and the expansion of these facilities envisioned under the Sixth Five-Year-Plan will include installation of automatic and semi-automatic processing equipment In an effort to improve yield efficiency and quality of product. / At tbe opposite end of the scale, industrial fermentation In tbe USSR logs several years behind the West,ative capability, Independent of Western technology, is gradually building up. / The lock of Soviet proficiency ot present in adapting tissue culture methods to production of human and veterinary virus vaccines was also mentioned as evidence of questionable bicenglnecring know-how in one specific area. / In researchirect measure of one other facet of BV-related bioengineerlng capability, previous discussion took cognizance of the greatly Increased scope ond volume of microbial aerosol work since World War II and of the introduction during tbe past three or four years of more

sophisticated techniques In design and construction of testsamplers and/

Evaluation of Soviet bloengineerlng skills would be Incomplete without reference to two other specialized biological problems; namely, "continuous culture" of microorganisms and germ-free animal research. Continuous cultivation techniques and equipmentseful tool for studying the effects of genetic and environmental factors on microbial properties; they also offer considerable potential for the efficient, controlled, large-scale production of organisms. Development of effective continuous cultivation processes, as with other more elaborate biological techniques, places unique demands on bloenginccriag skills. Two recent symposiumsrief insight into current Soviet efforts, but little is known of the actual scope end depth of Russian research in this field. / much emphasis has been found on continuous culture deviceseans of fundamental problems or by way of practicalfor microbial strain selection and vaccine production In the reals of medical research. On the other band, adaptation of continuous fermentation processes to tbe yeast industry, alcohol production, and paper manufacturing is apparently being attempted. So far, Soviet investigations appear to relate primarily to early stages of process development in which culture equipment for Industrial fermentation and the effect of design characteristics and environmental factorsrowth efficiency arc worked out. /


The rearing of germ-freeesearch technology that alsoigh degree of bloengineerlng skill. Is arecent innovation in Soviet science. The isolated biological system providederm-free animal host affords almost Ideal conditions, upon introduction of selected microorganisms, forof immunity mechanisms, the nature of pathogenesis and other fundamental problems of immediate significance to offensive snd defensive BW. The reported trends of Soviet interests in germ-free research and the affiliations of microbiologists believed to be associated with tbe program Indicate that laboratories for such purposes may be operational In Moscow at tbe Ivanovskiy Institute of Virology and/or tbe Institute of Epidemiology andcademy of Medical Sciences, and at the Institute of Experimental Medicine in Leningrad. Several prominent Soviet virologists follow closely Western research on germ-free techniques; their areas of apparent interest include possible Infectious disease problems encountered during space travel, "super-clean" assembly of equipment for space vehicles, and medical situations posed by sealed cabin conditions. The few available reports suggest that germ-freela the USSR aremaller scale than those In Western countries and that Soviet scientists are still preoccupied with

technological refinements of equipment and methodology- They appear to bo well aware of current concepts and applications of germ-frco research, however, and are steadily planning program expansion.

Soviet bioenginecring capability is perhaps subject to more thorough analysis in the field of production of biologies, that is, live vaccines, antisera, toxoids, and related preparations, because the nature, volume, and diversity of products and duration of effortroader over-all view than could be gained froa study of specialized research areas alone, here were reportedly somecattered sanitation and bacteriological institutes in the USSRthese preparations. Inhe institutes of epidemiology and microbiology functioned both as developers and producers of In recentystem of serum and vaccine institutes has been established to conduct research and process development; and to turn out, through its bloplants, tbe moreifferent biological products used in diagnosis, prophylaxis, and therapy of infectious diseases. Under theear plan, quality control and production will be centered exclusively in these Institutes for sera and vaccines and in their monitor, the State Control Institute, while explorations leading to new products will be carried out by research laboratories of tbe Health Ministry and other elements. /

The groundwork for efficient production of biologies in one vital area, tbe bacterial vaccines, vss laid durlog the early years of World War II by military scientists of the Scientific Research Institute of Epidemiology and Hygiene of the Armed Forcesho developed methods and equipment for mass growth, harvesting, and dry storage of livo bacterial antigens for brucellosis, tularemia, plague, and possibly others. In tbe post-war period, conventionalequipment which formerly had been used at various production sites was replaced to some extent by metallic fermentors, high-speed centrifuges, large-volune freeze dry apparatuses, and supporting devices of the HIIEG type which are better suited to Industrial methods. Vl/ Current Soviet standard operating procedures for vaccine production yield little direct evidence of widespread use of large volume equipment;uggestion that an important segment of the total vaccine supply is prepared ln bloplants still encumbered with outmoded processes and equipment; / Large reactors are not unknown in the USSR;|

JJJJJJJJJ ; the probability exists that first priority use is enjoyed by the antibiotics industry andhortage of the latest and most efficient equipment is felt in some vaccine producing plants. /

Among other Isolated Indications of weakness In certainbloengineerlng in the USSR la tbe inconsistency of quality inproducts, that is, Instability, loss of potency,vaccines, diagnostic aids, and antibiotics and the relativequality control mechanisms. ituation may be

alleviated eventually by steps now under way to prescribe and enforce uniform standards of quality, reevaluate and improve procetees, and exert more stringent control of stops in production. ealth of experience has been gained over th* years In tberoduction field, and Soviet scientists are considered to possess the competency to expand and extend these accumuloted ski Us to other areee of bloengineerlng. There are many significant gaps inon Soviet strengths and weaknesses, particularly in regard to virus and rickettsial vaccine production, large-scale toxinand purification procedures, and development of multiple or combined Immunizing agents and protective antisera beyond tbestage. Future emphasis on mass production methods in these gap areas can be expected from indications in current Soviet writings.

Trends intbe predominant view of recent years i* that Soviet research In tbe biological end allied fields, with some few exceptions, has been qualitatively unimpressive by Western standards, the USSR possesses an over-all scientific and technical capability to carry out BW research ond development. The degree of capability has been difficult to establish accurately from past information, because finite knowledge of the direction In which Soviet BW programs are moving Is exceedingly scanty. It is still not possible to give absolute values to the relative effectiveness of research support to agent development, production, testing, weopons design, and the many other distinctly different facets of BW; but It Is important that the trend is toward more emphasis on basic research in the USSRoncurrent lessening of the applied aspects. The various factors leading to Improvement of the atmosphere for biological investigations have been identified in termsroader research base, more adequate facilities, better trained scientists, stronger official support and coordination of research, eccepteace of sound theories, freer exchange of Information with the West, and others. This strengthening of the biological sciences can be equatedteady improvement in support copabilityeriod of the next aoveral years in major scientific areas applicable to BW.

In medical microbiology end epidemiology, tbe pronounced emphasis on endemic virus and rickettsial diseases should bring into focus several candidates for consideration in antipersonnel BV agent development. Among the many possibilities are the Soviet-designated Omsk, Crimean, and hemorrhagic nephroso-nephrltls types of the little understood viral hemorrhagic fevers; Infectious hepatitis, and tbe

arthropod-borne dengus-like virus infections; tick-disseminated rlckettsioses of the ontigenically related spotted fever group, that is. North Asian tick typhus and Eoutonneuse fever and the incompletely studied mite-borne "vesicular" and tick-carried "paroxysmal" rickct-tsioses. Arthropod-transmitted cnccphalitides, such as spring-summer encephalitis, lymphocytic choriomeningitis, and the still largely unknown rabies-related- "Dikovanie" disease of the Arctic offerinteresting possibilities. ackground of information applicable to BW agent development can be expected froa efforts to characterize the pathology of these various diseases, define routes of transmission, develop immunological, disinfection and therapeutic measures, and design processes for production of microbes In theor vaccine plant. Concurrent with investigation of etiologic agents, considerable data should be forthcoming on their arthropod vectors regarding retention and viability of pathogens in the respective vectors, duration of infectivity, frequency of disease transmission, and other Information essential to use of arthropods in theof BW agents. The marked Soviet progress of recent years In exploring medically important vectors and the stature of entomological researchhole are compatible with this trend.

Much the some position can be taken with respect to animal disease research ln the USSR. The relatively greater emphasis expected on virus diseases, as opposed to bacterial infections and the rapid growth already seen in veterinary microbiology suggest that further opportunities for development of suitable anti-animal BW agents will arise; this can be said not only for the major infections, such as hog cholera, foot-and-mouth, rinderpest, but with certain low Incidence maladies of important animals, such as sheep and fowl pox, Newcastle disease of chitkens, vesicular exanthema of swine,ost of others.

There are no indications that progress in research on the plant pathogens of cereals and other food crops is sufficient to stimulate development of these potential agents for BW use. This Is in keeping with the generally low Soviet capability in the plant sciences and the absence of past evidence of more than marginal interest in anticrop warfare. The limited and qualitatively poor work on new herbicides portends no significant effort toward development of these compounds as agents, although the rather extensive and expanding application of pesticides and herbicides in the USSR may contributerowing capability with the older, mass-produced chemicals,

broadeningmongnthrax, bt

available material toto include additional candidates fromalready expended on plague, have ia all probability provided

enougJi basic data to sustain full-blown agent development withiseases. Studies on glanders, melioidosis, and certain of the other less, frequently occurring infections, if under way ot all on abasis, aro seldom reported. Along with the latter disorders, cholera, llateralloois, the spirochetal fevers, and the more commonly found tubcrculoots, typhoid, and dysenteries, all of which hovefor BW employment, arc under investigation to one degree or another; but little evidence exists of research dlroctly pertinent to their development os offensive-;tooftsv-.

The great volume of work in the USSR on bacterial toxins, not only on formulation of isnunopropbylactic preparations, but also Instudies on toxin action, may reflect to some extent the low standard of sanitation end lack of uniformly adequate medical care; however, the resulting wealth of information gained on botulinum, tetanus, diphtheria, end staphylococcus toxins could arked Influence on selection of candidates for BW explorations. Recorded Soviet interest in wound botulism, respiratory challenge of immunity vith this toxin, and aerogenic Immunization vith tetanus and possibly other toxoids ase in point.

As with the fungal parasites of food and commodity crops, the pathogenic fungi of humans and animals offer certain unique which have prompted their examination by tbe West for possible bw use. There io an almost complete absence of any evidence of similar research ln the Soviet Union; but tbe rother limited scope of public health investigations and the low order of fundamental work on medically Important fungi do not Justify suspicion that these potential agents willignificant role In Soviet BW agent development of the near future.

Without necessarily effecting the scope of agent research,several noticerfble current trends cay veil shape the direction of such programs in the USSR. Among them are research on dry microbial products, especially live, dry vaccines administered acrogcnically; development of multiple-antigen vaccines of bacteria} toxoids, and viruses; and studies on susceptibility to infection or intoxication following radiation damage. Soviet experience in the application of drying technology to vaccine production has extendederiod of several yearn; the Improvement and increasingly prevalent use of live, dry vaccinae affords an excellent background for similarof fully virulent BW agents and entative conclusion that in refinement of dissemination methods, emphasis might well rest on use of bacteria and toxins and possibly virureo nnd rlckettoioo in the dry form. From present lines of research on Incorporotion of various living antigensingle inmunoprophylectic product, and

subsequent analysis of the effect of one ingredient on another inrotective response,hort step to the study of lnfoctivity of combinations of virulent organisms vhen employedin BW. In this regard, the intensive Soviet effort in multiple vaccine experimentation could conceivablyove tovard agent fills comprising mixtures of toxins, bacteria, and other forms, with greatly enhanced invasiveness or potentiating properties. Recent findings of the increased susceptibilityariety of potho-genlc microbes when ionising radiation damage has been incurred by animals also point up an obvious and possibly fruitful; of research in weapons development; namely, the concurrent challenge of body defenses vlth radioactive materials and biological agents, either by consecutive exposure or by virtue of the induced radioactivity of the agents. There ore indications of Soviet interest in this dual weapon concept end further explorations would be ogical sequence to radiation Injury studies now under way in the USSR.

Ihe postwar trend toward more thorough study of biological aerosols and the development of suitable chambers, samplers, and ancillary equipment and techniques for facilitating aerosol end aerogenic vaccine investigations, indicates strongly that BW dissemination of airborne infectious particles has already received serious consideration and probably will be studied with increasing vigor from both offensive and defensive viewpoints. The reported periodic air sampling in some of the larger cities of the USSR, together with tbe newly promulgated responsibility for systematic air pollution sampling by sanitary-epidemiological stations not only demonstrates concern with defense against BW attack, but couldase line for collecting data of value in offensive large-area coverage (LAC) calculations on aerosols.

There is little question but that experience with large-scale processing of bacterid vaccines, and probably toxoids as well, and the extensive facilities for their production in the USSRapability for turning out almost any desired quantity of BW agents by one or more of the various methods required. With rogord to virus and rickettsial agents, apparent Soviet dependence at this time on egg or animal production techniques could provectrictive of the amount of available Infectious material. tion of microbes in selected tissuesotential means of overcoming this limitation, but the previously noted lack of Soviet competency so for In fully exploiting these methods suggests that any mpetus to mess reproduction of viruses ond rickettsiae in thefuture will not be drawn from tissue-culture

Among Soviet research trendsossible impact on BW defense programs is the increasing utilization of biochemical

biophysical methods to improve microbial detection and Identlficotion techniques and diagnostic procedures. Published date reflect rather preliminary explorations in this broad field, but refinement of presently available methods for luminescent microscopy, fluorescent antibody reactions, rapid fermentation testing, and-particle-size analysis could provide the foundation for future biological alarm systems or automatic detection equipment.

Perhaps foremost In defensive significance is the very investigative effort in immunology, particularly the aforementioned trend toward developoent of new vaccines and antlsera containing multiple immunizing or protective substances, respectively,ariety of virus and rickettsial forms, bacteria, and toxins. While such undertakings arc extremely long-range research projects, formulation of effective combined imraunopropbylactio preparations vould lend support to Soviet objectives Of improving public health and strengthening BW defense by building up immunity to prevalent diseases in large cegnents of the population. Experimental vaccination via the respiratory route, while not yet extensive in tbe USSR, is also worthy of special attention froa the standpoint of tbereater immunity which aerogenic vaccines may bestow and the case with which mass Immunisation could be accomplished.

Resources for

Attention has long been focused on the Scientific Research Institute of Epidemiology and Hygiene (llIIEG) as the center of antipersonnel egent development and probable directing agency for the field-test installation oo Vozrozhdoniy* Island in tbe Aral Sea. Because of the possible roles of irilEC and the island proving ground in offensive BU experimentation, lt is important to present prevailing vlevs ofsurrounding the Inception of this association, to record and evaluate any new data bearing on these two facilities, and to assess their status as mainstays of the Soviet BV program.

Tbe sequence of events which eventually led to recognition of theIsland complex as the primary BV intelligence target actually began, according to present thinking, on Oorodoalya Island in Lake Seliger, Kalinin Oblast, In thes. Oorodomlya'a importance lies not so much In tha work carried out there as in tho link which this Island establisheduccession of Soviet research institutes on the one hand, and Vozrozhdenlya Island on the other. All collateralof value pointing to an association between Gorodomlya and Vozrozhdenivalsland^cQggsfrom German Intelligence of the World War II

tbe clearest and, until

he strongest evidence of Vozrozhdcniya's involvementV field-test site. Two other reports from past years mentioned Vozrozhdenlya, or an-^sland in tbe Aral Sea, in this regard without giving further. The location of an institute for foot-and-mouth disease studiesorodomlya Island was taken over by the Ministry of Defensen event which hajj been well documented. The Institute was abandoned ond partiolly destroyed early in Vorld Wor II; on cessation of hostilities, the Island was convertedissile research instoll-

alleged to have begun BW work JL7/ The existence of on institute by this nomcf^ IIHBBeaafaefaYafl mW" confirmed

In the only known report of Corodomlya's program,said to be studying animal infectivity, the effect ofon biological agents, rapid detection methods, andfor buildings and terrain,umber of human and BW simulants were stated to have been employed at Volakthe Volga 'rhc mystery of

Corodomlya'o activities and the difficulty in Identifying personnelat the inotitutemaybe in port attributable to the reported arrestofome of his staff7 at the peak oftrials on Vozrozhdenlya Island. It Is not knownny ofBW researchers perished in the widespread purge of scientistsof that era. erman reports hoveauthority cnreplaced

of the Gorodomlya Island institute s ontinued the t n Vozrozhdenlya Island forew months

tific literatureater date reveais tnat during thisnvestigated the spread of tularemia in natural' foci of infection in the course of on epidemic of the disease in humans; he also studied the various clinical forms of tularemia, including upper rcsplrotory infections, and explored chemotherapeutic measures. j

dicate that this work was conducted at the Scientific Control Institute ineni Tarasevich nnd the Institute of Exporirocn.tal.'Medicine jpenl Gorkiy.

gorodomlya Island during the-interval between the ^episode7 and its abandonmentn the wosionhallenge. Klrsch's data fromar spoke of continued use ofand for BW research riehVuP*lo*tne outbreak of war in that year. / From an historicalntirely plausible that Corcdamlya Island housed the SanitnrMKbnicei Institute (STI) durin&.this period. STI was the site

-formalears have not been

It is consideredenamed the Sanitary Technical Institutend that BW agent :h. including experimentation on Vozrorhdenlya Island, was pursued

and others, at the Gorodomlya

lplaccd STl "near Leningrad' Gorodomlya Island liesiles from that city.

The terms STI and NIIEG are employed synonymously in Sovietliterature, and such statements asbe vaccine STI, developed by tbe Scientific Research Institute of Epidemiology andf the Soviet leave little doubt that tbe Sanitary Technical Institute vas the laced late predecessor of KIIEG. ag/

The exact date on vfaich the Sanitary Technical Institute vasHIIEG is not knovn with certainty, but it appears toshortly after the evacuation of Gorodomlya Island. Inaccinereferred

to os "STThereasHJJHW^pre5entc<'

"ITIIEG"ommission to explore the potentialanthrax vaccine

for general-use. ;

Subsequent work on other >acterlaltheMQ'a is uniformly referenced as HIIEG in origin. W

es. ranch of the Military Medical Academy imeni

id had been transferred to Kuibyshev9 to accelerate aining of medical personnel for the expanding Soviet army, cation of this Academy branch within the city is not known but. presumably it shared quarters with .one of the afore,-ts. The Military Medical Faculty ofa may tbe Academy branch The latterts own rightelatively,period', Iginating at the Kuibyshev Military MedicalW The sbortniived existence'-,pf search center suggests-that'it iaerged vith .TechnicaliawAf. personnel to.Kuibyshevg.The cpnsolida't!

; 0

There are conflicting views on tbe probable course of events which led to HIIEG's relocation in Kirov. Possibly the institute on Gorodomlya Island was evacuated to pre-existing military research facilities in Kuibyshev Three scientific establishments have been associated with Kuibyshev through postiWorld War II reports. These arc the State Medical Institute; the Institute of Epidemiology and Microbiologyn existence as earlyilitary Medical Pacuity. / The Military Medical Faculty, as, vas apparently separated physically from the others, Amt affiliated itself vith the State Medical Institute for teaching Kirov in research ith certd; mentioned' veil bell since is

organization then, according to this view, vus redesignated NIIEG and purauedumber of years the broad programs of vaccine development and agent research exemplified by the literature of thefO,s.

A merger of STI and the Kuibyshev Military Medical Academy ashas not been substantiatetatement made* 6in Kuibyshev.

on to say that lOTEG's existence in

that city was cceraon knowledge' among Soviet scientists. Two Soviet publications15 pointed toctual location in. the Kirov Scientific Research Institute of Epidemiology and Hygiene (HIIEG)ry vaccine .nd ".accinations with strainn the USSR have been carried out by tbe Kirov Research Institute of Epidemiology and Hygiene"

It is possible, ^too,vant to reveal the true

location of the HHB3. Supporting evidence is found in the consistent failure of Soviet works over the years, with the three importantnoted previously, to show geographic origin of HIIEG research or to print city of residency of HIIEG personnel, as is commonly done for others in attendance at scientific gatherings. In this regard, NIIEG is omittedecent Soviet survey of historical and present-day establishments in Kirov. /

This type of endeavor is seen in the extended vaccine tests by HIIEG scientists at the Saratov Veterinary Stationhe assistancetbe Moscow meat combine by an HIIEG team5 in setting up entibiotic production facilities; and in the organization of vaccinefor suppliers of these materials. be Kuibyshev HIIEM, for example, is reported to have been turning out vaccines ins as part of the mission of such institutes announcedVl/

If it is concededlocation of HIIEG

was inaccurate for whatever "cause, it isconcelvabT* that STI was shifted from Gorodomlya Island directly to the city ofvKirov without an Intel period,of activity in JCuiby8bev,^or.vlth*-bnly-;'atfshort stay, at best.f


The site of operation within the city of Kirov and the duration of HTTJC's .activities present other critical problems which bave not been completely resolved. With respect to the first, every indication points to NIIEG's occupancy of research facilities of tho Scientific'Research Institute of Epidemiology and Microbiology (MIHM). TIEM was organized in Kirovo supersede the SanitaryInstitute which bad existed there hl/kkl/ The HI DMypical laboratory for infectious disease research, epidemiology, vaccine development, limited biologies production, sanitation and allied matters, which emerged during the9 reorganization of the Ministry of Health. Thus NIJEM pro grams are closely related to certain of those carried out by in's. This similarity in research would permit Joint use of laboratory spaceime when the destruction of World War IIigh premium on research facilities, for instance, work on improved vaccines, production methods, and biological drying technology, all openly described in the scientific literature from KIIEC, might readily have been conducted on the premises of the WllfW, with the more hazardous or security-cloaked experimentation taking place on Vozrorhdcniya Island. This arrangement wouldlausible explanation for NIIEC's existence, in teres of military interest in disease control, and would concurrently afford the necessary cover for BW-orientcd research.

ility of v.esearch' begun ments HIIEC the

Institute fied esta and in

The exact Kirov address ofs in the case of KIIEG, has not been released in publications emanating from the institute noristorical description of the city's scientific establishments. Ul?/ It is clear from the literature, however, that MXXBI'f programs were underway during much of the same period that NITXG was known to be functioning in Kirov. Work on measles prophylaxis was discussedlymposium held at the NIIEM;erological studies on glanders were openly reported7 under'ausplces of NIIEM and the Kirov Agricultural/ and further research on measles and diphtheria immunization appeared in The glanders experimentation shows the possi-eretive use of facilities by NIPM, IfllEC and the Agricultural thisI,! BsTaTsaal ' HIIEC completed dryerological testforglanderstudy / umary of develop-of/rote from Ions of allergic phenomena in animals infected withmong other bacteria. / de Agricultural at No-ktyebr'.skaya Ulltsa, adjoining on unidenti-Oktyobr'skaya which nrobablv housed the HIIEM

y>:for -lflXES. klf/k}


A gradual curtailment of NIIEG'a activities probably took place in tbeQ'n andc. eorganization of health services in the Soviet Union also occurred during the some period. Much of NIIEG'e published work vas oriented, either directly or Indirectly, toward public health improvement and the velfare of military personnel, and this work was well known to the Soviet scientific communityhole. NTIEG's undertakings in bacterial vaccine development were cited, reviewed or criticized on many occasions78 by writers not connected with the 'institute.


miEG'st endeavors becsae know tlve groups duringt0's

public health commission which convenedo



consider .tBeTSsslble uses of tbe STI anthrax vaccine; and,rum commission adopted ia EC's instructions for manufacture of the tulartrnlajaceine. During the same year, the Academy of

on vaccine technolo,

HIb IJIIE0 An execrpj Durln

/ Discussions of the Scientific Council jrfc'jeven uisclosed, in part,ournal/ Beyondealth of evidence of cooperative experimentation between nfltltutes of the Health and Agriculature Ministries and industry.

a Russian periodical illustrates this very clearly, nWpast five, the Irkutsk and Rostovc entiplague

1 the HIIEG-Sovlet Amy have Joined in the study of tularemia.prophylexia tularemia vaccine. QkElbert^ M. M.nd.thclr covorkors are especially

received aSsis-erchrocuring tularemiaSflivaccine.

over the years M ' Veterinary Administration of theof Agriculture and subsequently analyzedoint session in Some of the other experimental products of NIIEG, notably thevaccine, vere undergoing evaluation by scientists of civilianagencies. / Aid giveneem of NITEGmicrobial fermentation and drying technology to the Moscown setting up facilities for penicillin production isin which this institute vas involved. personnel were associated simultaneously with

the NIIEG and some other scientifii

there are indications thot NIIEG, despite its militaryfulfilled certain functions which placed it in the same general category as the Institutes of Epidemiology and Microbiology (MIIEM) of the Ministry of Health. Biological establishments of the armed forces were sometimes considered the equivalent of IJIIEM's. hanges in program objectives and revamping of the organizational structure which effected the NIHM's could be expected, then, to modify NIIEG's status in some The close associationetween military medical and civil public health institutes In the World War II period is demonstrated by the fact that all sanitation and epidemiological matters were placed under the Jurisdictioningle State Defense Office et the onset of/

teofdh mission,iologies 'to the Canons Jb.Qtt,thet nfttfie 3ost-war

After therastic reorganization of public health services took place, beginningive-year plan drawn up7 by the Minister of Health. / he Sanltory-Epldemlological Stations were given primary responsibility forublic sanitation, and related research in an effort to reduce duplication of work and to unify administration oflaboratories, dispensaries, and medical detachments. uring the seme period, the Academy of Medical Sciences, foundedas consolidating fundamental research by incorporating many of the major biological and medical institutes into its organization. The first phase of modification of public health systems Is claimed to havelthough, certain specialized institutions, which had temporarily retained Independent status, were finally absorbed into the sanitary-epidemlologicol framework. he NIQM's were also revamped, and those with -the greatest capacity forproduction became Institutes of Vaccines,andhe remainder were stated to have retained the NHEM tipecializing In such functions a3 live vaccine development, ho/ Soviet-planning,ventually will revert.-coraplcLelyrocessroduciion, andiquaiity^cc Institutes of Vacc'lnes-l/ military rae^lcol- Be


but little la known of the specific changes which occurred among its research institutes. /

The realignment of functions vhich affected the NITEM's inrob-flbiyy had its impact on NIIEC as well. The design of productionfor new vaccines, development of equipment for the scale-up from laboratory to large volume production of biologies, and drying technology, all engaged in by NIIEG, are typical problems reportedly taken over by the Institutes for'Veccines and Sera. / In subsequent years, additional changes appear to have altered the status of HIIEM'o In somehat the Kirov NIIEM may have been similarly affected Is suggestedoviet summary of activities of the AU-Unlon Association of Epidemiologists, Microbiologists, and Infectionlsts published. .o branch was organized In the Karelia-Finnish SSR and the branches of Ulianovsk, Kirov, and Dzaudzblkan bave discontinued their work." That Kirov NIIEM scientists were former members of the association seems likely, since no other biological institute of ita kind, except KIIEC, has been associated with tbe city.

7 until some tine in tbes, NIIEG and NT TENshared facilities otktyabr'skaya Ulltse In Kirov. Despite the absence of unclassified publications to attest their work, ffllEG'sprobably continued conventional research on the prophylaxis and therapy of militarily important Infectiousrogram whichand provided cover for agent development on Vozrozhdenlya Island. The absence of publications on the br.cterlal forms afterand the

irus diseases as shown by their administrative and professional positions of later years, suggests that viruses may bave replaced bacteria end toxins as the. primary research tools of NIIEG during this period. The technology of biologic productioniwhlch had occupied much of NIIEC's time in'M5's was pro-bably assigned to other Institutes during the reorganization of public health/sergdees. With this change in program emphasis ond the closing down'or consolidation of certain KTIEM's, tbe installation otktyabr'skaya 'could have been relinquished by NIIEM and NIIEG to otherna^proolnent NIIEG researchers transferred. This move cannot bebut2 reorganization of NIIEM's In tho USSR '

Inning of_ the transition. The reappearance of in the middle ands and tho Oktyabr'skaya of security measures characteristic Let establishments strongly imply-that .the'premises were

Agricultural Institute atktysbr'skaya either partially prompted, or followed, the move by HIIEM and HIIEG, as the Agricultural Institute began to expand its curriculumnd student enrollmenttudents per year1 to0/

The fate of HIIEG after its probable move and the location ofwhich now conceivably directs agent research onare unknown. Frco detailed information onndthe possibility cannot be excluded that BWnow takes place solely in tbe island's

Military Medical Academy imcni Kirov.Tbe Military Medical Academy incni Kirov in Leningrad is the primary Soviet educational center for military physicians. It offers advanced specialty courses and refresher training and provides extensive research facilities for members ofodd departments, or chairs, of medicine. Doctrine for troop care and employment of medical forces under wartime conditions is formulated at the Academy, and the development and testing of military medical equipment constitute an important part of the program. / The Academy is said to exercise jurisdiction over military faculties and their research units in various civil institutions of tbe USSR, these faculties being considered extensions of the Academy. The Academy also serves as aand coordinating agency for military organs of tbe entire Soviet Bloc in matters of defense egainst biological, chemical, and atomic weapons.

ilitary programs in this field, particularlya'tion^ appear to have been emphasized by the Militarynay have taken over certain respons-

Aerogenic -vaccine researchogical livefjdry parenteral preparations completed{that the* Academy is directingeries of field experiments aerosols was carried outThe fact,that a

Much'of the.Academy's work in the past has dealt with themilitarily important diseases: cholera, dysentery and typhoid,and aiithrax. / Expeditions from Leningrad were among theinvestigate the newly recognized tick-borne encephalitisil period. While no direct evidence ofwashe general applicability of its microbialto BWjled to classification of the Academyuspectis now the leading Soviet institution for,and nay be involved in certain offensiveThe lacketectable associationMilitary:Medical Academy and NIIEG longleartheir respective programs. Since publication of vaccine research from

island Branch, AU-Union Institute of Experimental Veterinary Medicineranch laboratory of the AU-Union Institute of Experimental Veterinary Medicine (VIEV) vas established8 on Lisiy Island, Kalinin Oblast, shortly after an official warning to Soviet veterinary organizations to develop countenaeasures against antilive-stock BW agents. Circumstances surrounding the origin of the Lisiy Island installation, its abandonment1 during the German invasion, and its reactivationor foot-and-mouth disease experimentation ledonclusion6 that the VTEV branch had almost certainly beenoth offensive and defensive antilivestock BW research. Lisiy Island's operations apparently included the acquisition of foreign strains of the foot-and-mouth disease virus and possibly included studies on the experimental transmission of the infection in domestic animals. hese operations constitute early steps In the screening of candidate agents; but-they are also necessary phases in development of effectiveital part of defensive BW. Such effort can actually beas'either offensive or defensive, depending upon the nature of ancillary information.

Considerable *mbllclty in professional veterinary journals attended irSV tbe brench laboratory and its reestablishment in *t of foot-and-mouth disease research was made known This, action is not consistent with SovietKplding .any-.reference to activities on Vozrozhdeniya

ieartest site>.and to NIIEG's location and true had been opened2

_ There is no ovidence, however,rofessional association )Ctween personnel of Lisly and Gorodomlya Islands during the three-year period of their coexistence. Norelationship be established between scientists of the Lisly branch and the NIIEG or Vozrozhdenlyn. If Velikanov's microbiological work on Gorodomlya Islandoot-and-south dlseoae os one phase of Soviet offensive BW studies, there is strong indication thot ant ilivestock experimentation vas actually under.way by the Ministry of Defenseears prior to Lisiy Island's activation by the Ministry of Agriculture. / The lock of known coordination or cooperotive research between laboratories onlyiles apart suggests that programs of two installotlons, presumably involving some of the same diseases, were deliberately maintained as separate The explanation of Ministry of Defense research on Gorodomlya as offensive in nature and that of the Agricultural Ministry on Lisiy_ as mainly defensive in scope Is plausible.


foot-aad-Houth disease studies hove been und^rIntermittently for years on Lisiy Island. Hog cholera research also has been included in ths program. Uoi/ The foot-and-mouth vaccine in widest use today intheSovJe^Jnionwoa developed in ig'tol"

(work on Lisly Island was directed primarily toward inmunoprophylaxis of this serious disease rather than to its offensive potential.

German aerial photography of World War II vintage revealed that theonch laboratory is neither extensive nor impressive.

,Even"though'tthe laboratory is situatedooden islandits location near Vychniy Volochek does not providelTg^JMJpbcl^sion ideal for offensive BW activities, such asIsland in the Aral Si



This information also demonstrates that udequote study of diseases of large animals ore almost certainly available on the island and suggests that research of purely offensive design is more apt to be carried out in the isolated Aral Sea laboratories than on Lisiy Island. These various factorslear impression that the VTEV branch installation on Lisiy Island, under direction df the Ministry of Agriculture, is engaged primarily in conventional animal disease control work applicable to BW defense although its contribution to offensive developments, if any, is nlnuaal.

Central Scientific Research Testing Institute of MilitaryA study of Soviet resources would bc Incomplete without reference to IJIISI-KA, the Scientific Research Testing Sanitation Institute of the Red Amy, or, as it Is currently designated, the Central Scientific Research Testing Institute of Military Medicinelthough much remains to he learned about this institute, the similarity of its earlier programs to those of the Military Medical Academy imeniecognized center

present day BW

for twe dm

Experimental Sclei Military Sanitary


research, and the movement of scientistspest years,loseBW defense research in tbe USSR. confidence as far back Sanitary Institute of that erarogram devoteddefense, toxicology, and military sanitation. change in nomenclature2 brought forth imSI-HOCA, theResearch Testing Sanitation Institute of the Workers andArmy, the title by which lt was known, with minor variationslate This was tbe lost year for which publications withdesignation are available. / be results ofexpansion of research toide range of militaryapparent. Early) still was concerned withmatters as aircraft cabin illumination, sanitation methodsunits, development cf footwear and first-aid kits, and packingsupplies. / ublications reflectedin microbiology, such as, research on bacteriophage therapydiseases, improved identification of bacteria insteam sterilization and water purification methods,of sanitation equipnent. / During the nextmuch attention vas given to the so-called tfllSI vaccine foras well as to practical measures for disinfection,control of rodents. / There is also indication this period process developmentry smallpox vaccineout The hTISI epidemicloglsl


conducted research priorn the transmission of foot-and-mouth disease to humans. /

A close working relationship evidently existed between HIISI and the Military Medical Academyirov in Leningrad. This association probably dateshen, following the redelegalion of military nodical responsibilities from the Conmissarlat of Health to the coimlsser-iet of Army and Navy affairs, departments of military sanitation vero established at the Academy, and the Military Sanitary Institute (later NIISI) vas created. Research on tetanus toxoid initiated at the

Academy/ This suggests an iterln transfer of programs endpersonnel to the latter Institute and implies that NIISI vasa part of the Academy. Vaccine work vas apparentlyduring HIISI'sAbbV^HHbbbbbV--noivc

human trials of the nev enteric vaccineree the AU-Union Institute of Experimental Medicine (VTEM).

:to details are available on theesearch at NIISI, although vaccine experimentntion appears to have been de-emphasized. Tbe relatively fev published papers denote primary interest in Improving sanitation and radical facilities for troops ln the field. / The most recent references to TaNIIIVM's activities Imply that current proGranseuch the saae, vith the important addition of studies on radiation Sicbnes3. / Sanitation and epidemiological natters were also undcx.-vsy at tbe Kirov Military Medical Academy ln Leningrad durings, perhaps accounting in part for the apparent association, and in sono cases cooperation, between IHISI and the Academy. / Still other organized groups, even less well known than NIISI, conducted similar undertakings in military sanitation and medical fields during the sa-ae period, denoting that problems of this general type were attackedreed frontultiplicity of laboratories under Military Sanitaryauspices. Among such institutes vere the Scientific Research Laboratory of Sanitary-Chemical Defense, the Medical Institute

I and the Aviation Scientific Research Sanitary Institute

Intelligence Interest In NIISI and the other sanitary institutes, aside froa the early association with the Military Medical Academy, hinges mainly on the supposition that these institutes comprised an oracnizationalhlctii.,the Sanitary Technical Institutehe or ofjIlEC, was an integral part.

of the transition of HIIEC from STI pointed to tho letter's probable origin in Gorodomlya Island* Although substantiating data are lacking, it has been postulated that STI may have been formed first at NIISITI scientists began workingthat separation igency occurred during the NIISI reorganization7 to

lot lata

of the Military Sanitary Administration organizational complex has not been uncovered to date, although it is explicit in Soviet writings that both NIISI and STI were subject to some degree of control by tlic Sanitary Administration. /

The location of the present day TaNIIIVM lo unknown; the specificwhich NIISI became TaNIIIVM has not been determined either, butantedatedthe exact site of NXXSI's early work

has not been determined specifically, although the little available evidence


ie lap;son or these events is, first, that NIISI evolved from theInstitute of Medical Education; this is at odds with the earlier discussion which showed from Soviet statements NIXSI's Immediate credecessor to be tbe Military Sanitary Institute. The latter nay be synonymous, however, with the Sanitary Hygiene Institute by whichas eventually designated-Secondly, JTJSj is very likely to bave been located in the vicinity of Leningrad,

The redcsignatlon of NIISI as the Central Scientific Research Testing Institute of Military Medicine (TaNIIIVM)hange which began some five years ago in nomenclature of certain Ministry of Health Installations. Within major medical Institutes so-called Central Scientific Research Laboratories reportedly are being organized as investigative centers, eachtaff of specialists In medical and biological fields for coordinated attack on difficult research problems. upporting system of branches located in hospitals and other scientific facilities will follow, If current Soviet planning is fulfilled. kOk/ The implication is clearimilar attempt to concentrate scientific effort nay be underway among the military agencies, suggesting that NIISI, nowCentral" institute, might be vested with on Increasingly varied and more important part in military research relating to biological, chemical, and radiological warfare.I

Military Veterinary Scientific Research Institutehe Military Veterinary Scientific Research Institute, also referred to in Soviet publications as the Military Veterinary Microbiological Institute, was founded It originated froa what was probably the first organized military veterinary research group in the USSR, the Central Military Bacteriological Laboratory. Tbe latter, known synonymously as the Central Microbiological Laboratory, was established3 to combat the widespread outbreak of glanders among horses of the Russian cavalry. / Glanders control at that time was the responsibility of the Veterinary Administration of the Ministry ol' Internal Affairslthough the Military Veterinary Service of the conventional arced forces Joined the MVD in undertaking control measures. These measures consisted of establishing anry laboratories; training workers in glanders eradication at the Central Microbiological Laboratory, and later at its successor institute, Willi; and preparing diagnostic reagents. The Wfill supervised research progress of the district laboratories aad served as an advisory organ to the Kilit&ry Veterinary Administration. / Cooperative fieldas carried out with veterinary agencies of the Agricultural Ministry in later, during an investigation of infectious equine anemia. Few papers are available from WMII to chart the course of its existence, and none reveal3 it3 location. An article on poison vornwood was published, and a

^published6 on the stability of glanders diagnostic preparations. / The last known research appeared9 on standards for tetanus toxoid. / The professional fields of interest of Willi's

reveal other areas of activity; equine infectious anemia, bovine pleuropneumonia, equine encephalomyelitis, rinderpest, anthrax, and tuberculosis. /


A veterinary encyclopedia0 refers to the Central Veterinary Scientific Research Laboratoryanner to suggest that WHII haditle change prior to that year. / An article on the irnunization of horses against heaosporidiosis^ carried the new designation as its institute of origin, but this is the only known publication to date from the Central Laboratory. / It is likely that the cove toward "Central" institutes noted in the Ministry of Eealth and the Defense Ministry's Military Medical adninistration was extended to the Military Veterinary Administration as veil. /

experimentation in the BW field test program and suggest that some aspects of Soviet agent development involve the Infectious anlmol discuses and, thus, require the services of military veterinarians. If aexists between Vozrozhdenlya Island and WWII it has escaped detection so far. While nothing is knovn specifically of WNII's facilities for BW supportive research they probably offered the military seclusion and experienced scientists needed for such work.

Moscow VeterinaryThe Moscow Veterinary Academy is closely associated with tbe military veterinary service historically, although its present subordination has not been clearly defined. This Academy was reportedly foundedrom union of the Moscow Military Veterinary Academy of the Armed Forces and the Moscow Veterinary Institute. hoir of Military-Veterinary, students from troop units.

i union with the Moscow Veterinary Institute, wna separate from WNII, because the two institutionspublished in the open literature. / o thes, papers describing Interests of the Moscow Veterinary Academy appeare^infrcquently, but the subject matter is pertinent torr.iclcs on rinderpest, bottiElhm intoxication, and methods diagnosis of hog cholero exemplify this point. rcfessiona! fields, that Is, animal viruses, glanders, anthrax, .so may_ be reflected la current work at the Academy. /fll veterinarian who reportedly lectured on FW to his military students for several years after World War II and who claims to follow the Soviet pacta re closely stated recently that military academies for veterinary medicine ore donducting most of the FW ond CW research. / The accuracy of his statement remains to be verified for there are no indications that the Moocow Veterinary Academy is affiliated with the test program on Vozrozhdenlya Island. The Academy presumably possesses resources which could be called upon in advancing antlanimal BV,

Military Academy of Chemical DefenseThe Academy of Chemical Defense, formerly called the Military Chemical Defense Academy imeni Voroshilov, was founded1enter of study for officers of the chemical service. / Said to be housed inouildings on Bsuaanskayn Street in Moscow, the Academy reportedly offered Inariety of courses dealing with chemistry and the technology of chemical weopons andraining cemp for practical experience with these weapons. / Accordingecent intelligence study, the Academy's curriculum now includes all aspects of CBR warfare. / Bacteriology was among the subjects studiednd BV defensive research was conducted both at the Voroshilov Academy and the Scientific Research Institute of Chemical Defense. / The Voroshilov Academy probably


also waa among those having facilities devoted to EW experimentation during the same period. Zg/QC/ There are implications that the Academy was associated with early steps ln_settlnnW program in the USSR. Academy graduates ProbablydM^.cuIy designated Biochemical Institute of the Red Amy at the time the first BW research assignments vere received Tbe Biochemical Institute subsecuently carried out bacteriological work of undetermined nature andadre for the Gcrodomlya Island laboratorieshlch^MBJM reportedly directed field tooting on Vozrozhdeniya Island

Ho published microbiological work haa been found from theAcademy or the Scientific Research Institute of Chemicaltwo references ere availablecientific Research

_.ier an

affiliation exists among this Laboratory, the Institute, and tho Academy is uncertain. There is no evidence of present involvement of tbe Chemical Defense Academy in BW experimentation, although concepts of biological veepona employment and defense against them arc probably considered by its students. / The Academy is one of the military resources that could be utilized inW weapons system.

The AU-Union Institute of PlantSome of the research and agricultural practices being carried on In the USSR are plainlyto BW and could be exploited toevelopmental program. The All-Union Institute of Plant Protectioneningrad, was created9 to provide an eGrlcultural insect end plant disease registration service. / It was commissioned5 as the main institute for study of cereal rusts; anderbicide laboratory vas added to foster research on chemical methods of cropove which led to the present day vork onype compounds of interest to BW. VJZR's Laboratory of Mechanization of Plant Protection has developed and introduced into production an assortment of sprinklers, dusters, aerosol generators, and similar devices for the mass application of insecticides and fungicides to croplands. VTZR is the most important plant protection institute in the Soviet Union, having primary responsibility for the -nvestigatloo of crop diseases, herbicides, and aerosols for agricultural employment. Its research on tbe environmental aspects of plant infection and disease spread io significant from the standpoint of selection and evaluation of anticrop agents. VTZR's chemical control work has been done in association vith the Scientific Research Institute of Fertilizers and Insectofungicldcs (MIIFIF) in Moscow: it has also Joined forces with the All-Union Institute of Plant Industry <VIP) Leningrad, for the study of disease resistance In crops. The VXR isood position to contribute to an anticrop BW program because of Its special function within the USSRollector and supplier of foreign

ond native crops. 9V The work which VLR has conducted on disease-resistance is Important, because the innoculants used In routine disease-testing are often identical vita anticrop agents. Assessment of the vulnerability of foreign and native cropsgents could be carried out at VIP vith little need for overt security nessures. The vide geographic distribution of experimental stations of both VTli and VIZR provides the varied conditions necessary for extensive BW experimentation. In addition, VIR's highly specialized staff of scientists Includesho could provide the ralcrcaeteorological support necessary for such testing.

Vozrozhdenlyaozrozhdeniyo Islandin Aral Sea is believed to have been establishedW weapons test site Although the German World War II intelligence service reported the use of this island for agent dissemination, no satisfactory description of the iretaliations and its facilities was obtained until

site probably is in^etsct^ol?ss

is almost ideally located for BW test purposes. Second largestroup of over 3CO islands, it lies in semi-isolationiles from the nearest shore of the Aral Sea. / Only two islands, both small, ere found in tbe immediate vicinity of Vozrozhdenlya: Konstentin Island,iles to the south, and Komsomol akiy to the northwest, whicharrow spit of land believed to be Konstontin, on the other hand, probably is associated with the probable test program on Vozrozhdenlya, although the role it ploys has not been determined. bavbaw Island lies northeast of the proving ground Tnthe<Hrection of the city of Aralsk, probable supply point for Vozrozhdenlya Island. Barse-Kelnes reportedlya wildlife sanctuary in thes,ilitia post of the MVD is also said to be boused on this island. / The Aral Seo is situated in the midstparsely populated seaidesert region, but its watersigorous fishing industry, among other enterprises. j*0/ Processing plants, canneries, and fish hatcheries found along the shores of the Sea support this industry. Small shoreline and Island settlements provide villagers for the fishing fleet, reported to number eboutommercial vessels ofoon displacement. / teamship line offers scheduled transportation between Huynak Peninsula at the extreme southern end of the Aral Sea ond Aralskk6'h,on the northeastern shore. Assorted smaller boots and barges also ply the waters between Aralsk and the delta area around MuynokCO'E) where hydrological projects have beenrr<yTrnr Air travel is made available by civil oirfleet bases ot Muynok, Aralsk, ond Nukus Meteorological assistance to the fishing industry is reportedly supplied by island weather stations in ccesaunicotionenter ot Alma-Ata. / In view of these varied

by the localrespassers, usually st much treatment and lenort of callchedules are not arc banned.

activities. It Is not surprisin; established around Vozrozhdenivi

estricted travel zone has been Island. Ihe island has long been known dted area. ave allegedly rcceivod

s shown ugh actual

Installation on Votrozhdcniya Island is clearly under armed forces

_ Identity of the military forces in charge has not been established. There are barracks on the island which could accommodate up toivilian or military personnel.

Earlier intelligence reports indicated that the Soviets were conducting BW tests there.

For some years, speculation and rair.or evidence pointed to the city of Aralskrobable supply base for operations onsland-

Irregularly shaped Vozrozhdeniya Island measures sceneiles long at its longest point andciles Wide at Its widest point. miles arc useable, Several observations can be made on the adequacy, of thisnstallation for testing BW weapons; cnnd environmental .limitations imposed on various types of testing; and on tho probable categories of weapons which night have been employed in tests.

expense of water downwind from the island, and the surrounding desert regions provide considerable latitude in the type of weapons which can be studied. Local climatic conditions ore influenced by both tbe desert end the aea, leading to extremes of temperature, humidity, end cloud cover,actor which affects BH agent viability. / This situation Is fortuitous in tbe sense that agent effectiveness and munition perfcriaaacevaluatedide range of environmental conditions. The extremesozrozhdeniya do not preclude tbe testing of biological materialsear-round basis, although surarer dustnd winter bUsz&rds nay bait operations for limited periods. uqq/ Thus, no natural restriction on employment of agents against nan end animals is imposed; bnett-ri a,iruses, and rlckcttsiae, or their arthropod carriers car. all be studied. ITovcver, the island is notTor tne study of enticropgents. Tbe clay soil, which suypoits only sparse growth of native flora,


tie scanty annual rainfall,nches, sake cultivation of

host plants virtually impossible vithout extensive irrigation. / Although fresh water wells are probably found on Vozrozbdenlya, the supply of sufficient water for irrigation of other than small garden plots wouldormidable logistics problem. There is no evidence that untl-crop agents or weapons have ever been used on the island.

Other than Its various effects on the test program, tbe climatic and geographic environment of Vozrozbdenlya presents other logistic burdens0 persons and large numbers of experimental animals are to be supplied adequately. Bousing for troops and animals, supply warehouses, maintenance shops, fuel dumps, and vehicle storage sheds vould have to be furnished. The animal pens and fenced enclosures suggest that large domestic animals are utilized In tbe program,equirement for considerable quantities of hey and fodder which tbe island cannot produce. iles away, has been mentioned as the mainland depot for Vozrozhdeniya, furnishing materials, equipment, and anl-nalo for the test program. The Arulsk airport may conceivably be used to receive supplies destined for Vozrozhdenlyn, although no evidence to that effect is available. That the island, itself, does not have an airport means either helicopter or light aircraft and/or water transportation is employed. inony spot on Vozrozhdeniya vould permit the landing of supplies and personnel from light planes and helicopters. /


Islandotential for eelf-sufficieacy asresearch, development, and testing. The necessary physical plant administrative offices, aalaal facilities,ground, and the persoanel and materials to conduct the It seens likely that agent production in the quantitie: experimental purposes scconplished

Vo::rC2hdeniya itself, roint; required to oris clan issemination devices could be propagated in such fashion, but the island isajor production site.

Meteorological support for field vests could come from routine broadcasts of weather stations in, the area,trosphericde on the island. It is conceivable that cost current* activities are accomodated on Vozrozhdeniya and Konstaotin Islands. Large-scale agent aod weapons production are important exceptions. Fifteen hundred personnel vould appear to be excessive for field testing alone. It may be that screening ofandidate agents, laboratory development of those selected, design of prototype weapons to disseminate then, end related phases of the program are conducted exclusively oa these Aral Sea islands.

i 1

has been mentioned! shelteringe01

In no case did the statements include specific evidence; rather, they appeared to be based solely onr o: fleeting impressions.

procedures end equipment areart of microbiological research. There Is do reason to question the suitability of Vozrozhdenlya for other types of testing, chemical warfare (CW) testing in particular, becuuse many similarities are found in field experimentation with airborne biological and chemical agents. Nonetheless, tho island has never been connected with other thanctivities. Fishing villages were abandoned and their activities discontinued before the island vas taken over for BW purposes.

Biological Warfare Agent Productiono Soviet facility specifically designed for mass production of BW agents is known today. ingle plant for propagation of several different infectious microorganisms would not be easily managed from the standpoint of safety; hence, it is considered likely that the USSR, rather than invest In one large Installation, would employ smaller separate establishments, each topecific agent. Because of security considerations, production for BW purposes is also apt to be superimposed on pre-existing plants known to be turning out conventional biologies or antibiotics. Because the cost of converting antibiotic plants to production of infectious material is generally high, bioplonts end other facilities under the Ministries of Health and Agriculture probably offer the greatest potential in this/ The Soviet military forces are not known to maintain any installations suitable for agent production in quantity.

NIIEG was not believed to be equipped for lerge-scalo production, but the methods which lt devised were utilized for live vaccine production by other agencies. / During theUO's,0 liters of HIlEO's anthrax preparation were reportedly producedcer period by the Kashin bioplant and others, demonstrating the capacity available if such facilities are exploited. In fact, Soviet live-vnecine achievements show that little difficulty would be experienced In producing pathogenic bacteria In quanitities sufficient for overt BW employment on almost any scale desired, but the capability for virus and rickettsial mass propagation is believed to be limited by reliance on egg-embryo methods. l4j/ Fementorsgallon capacity have been introduced into industry in the USSR, but there are indications that standard biologies, even the live bacterial vaccines, ere still producederies of small-scale operations in the bioplcnts. / This suggests that heavy equipment necessary for efficient production Is in short supply.

Live vaccines, whose namifocture differs In only minor respects from that of viruleot BW agents, ore currently prepared In Ministry of Agriculture establishments under auspices of the Veterinary Adninistration'3 Central Scientific Control Institute of Veterinaryhe Ministry of Health also possesses on extensive system of production sites. Includingr core Institutes of Vaccines and Sera supervised

by the State Control Institute Of Medical Biological Preparations in Moscow. Innstitutes of Kpidcmiology and Microbiology, production is still curried cut to varying degrees. hether one or more of these sites has been earmarked for current military use is not known.I

Personnel Implicated inmong its resources for biological, weapons developments, the USSR can count on an impressive number of military physicians, microbiologists, and veterinarians whose publishedreveal tbe requisite proficiencyxperimentation. Civilian scientists froo various fields provide additionalact illustrated by representative research compiled In appendix A. Relatively few individuals have been directly implicated in the BW program. Somecientists, technicians, and administrators are linked to offensive phases through association with the Scientific Research Institute of Epidemiology and Hygiene in Kirov. In many cases the technical specialty of these persons is obscure because their affiliation with NIIEG is known only through group avards and prizes given durings.

The list of NIIEG members probablyevelopmental Lean comprising specialists In nlcrobiel laboratory research; tho technology of production; agent field testing; instrumentation, and administrative chores, such as finance, logistics, and personnel matters, iihcthcr this team is still largely intact is not known because certain key researchers are no longer identifiable with IIImong them.

Research on defense against BW, and possibly on certain facets of the offensive program, is the provincearge staff of the Military [Medical Acedeoy imenl Kirov in Leningrad. Someicroblologists are engaged in important studies on biological aerosols, equipment and techniques for detection of pathogens, combined vaccines, aerogenic immunizationnd the epidemiology of little knownlBnlficantworkIs led by scientists-!

military institute, NIISI, now designated the Central ScientificInstitute of Military Mediclni-

HII3G. members, are now affiliated witheveral figures on the faculty of tbe academy have authored articles on

eries or papers on vaccination procedures, the civil defense structure, and rapid detection methods ln the United States and appear to huve analyzed Western publications relating to BW. / This suggeststudy. vulnerability to biological attack is under way at the Military Academy in Leningrad.

Status of Agent Research

Role of NIZEC (Bacterial BWThe Scientific Research Institute oi" Epidemiology andiEG) is best known in the Soviet literature for its contribution to the development of live, dry vaccines against anthrax, plague, tularemia, and brucellosis. / This emphasis ledelief in intelligence circles that microbes of the four diseases have been given primary consideration es antipersonnel BW agents in tho USSR. ll information bearing on this subject today attests to the soundness of6 position as it relates to those specific pathogens. It seems probable, however, that IHIEC's program was more diversified than previously realized; vith additional information now available for study, tbe scope of tbe institute's activities can be seen in sharper perspective.

Vaccine development wouldlausible explanation forxistence end, at the some time, serveover operation for agent testing on Vozrozbeniya Island. The major steps inive vaccine ore very similar to those involved inicroorganism for BW employment, that is, selecting strains, determining optimum growth conditions, devising the equipment and culture media for large-scale propagation, and defining methods of harvest end storage. Simultaneous programs of agent and vaccine development are entirely feasible, and data acquired frca one are generally applicable to the other; therefore, the published vaccine work from lillEC servesough measure of progress in agent research, particularly vith regard to bacterial pathogens. djigja^ultu^ by IHIEOi in

nthrax strains

Bybe STI anthrax vaccine was undergoing animal trials in the field; reference Soviet literature to "manufacture" and storagelague vaccine by NIIEG in the sane year has been These actions suggest that plague and anthrax were probably the Tirst bacterial diseases selected for full-scale development. The introduction of Pasteurella tularensis apparently came shortly thereafter, for progress ln drying the organism was reported as early/ An experimental tularemia vaccine was placed in storage for qualitycontrol testsrocess technology had been worked out and evaluation of the product was under way in human volunteers. /

That fever

.cles on thlo disease reached the "open literature su(yjc3to either thatvas not as thoroughly studied by NIIEG's scientists as plague, anthrax, and tularemia, or else more difficult problems were encountered in its development, yielding less finished research to report before all publication^ stopped

From other

Soviet sources, lt is clearive, dry vaccine was eventually formulated for use in animals, if not humans. Official Ministry of Health instructions for the manufacture and control of this product have been distributed. / , the four bacterial vaccines and, by analogy, the agents of anthrax, tularemia, brucellosis, and plague had successfully undergone phases of screening, laboratory evaluation and process development preparatory to mass production of viable, dried preparations. That this work vas largely completedecaden impressive accomplishment. When the other programs vhich verc under-wcy simultaneously at NIIEG are considered, there is every reason to suspect that the institute's complement of workers was substantially larger than the0 far Identified. Onlyf these ore known frco theirto be leading researchers; yet, in addition to vaccine technology, several other diverse problem areas were dealt with. Among them were/ penicillinhemotherapy of infectious/ pathology of tho infection process and bacterial/ and techniques for rapid detection of Little of the actual ogent research is spelled out in NIIEG's papers, even though the BW characteristics of plague anthrax, brucellosis, and, tularemia presumably were under studywith theof vaccines against then.H oaaaaaaflaaBHoeseB7 that NIIEG's research bad application beyond production of vaccines and that this secondary application had military/ There Is sufficient evidence to denote probable emphasis on properties of tbe bacterial pathogens in tbe dry aerosol form. NIIEG is known to hare developedree re-drying unit which bears tbe Institute designation. / Tularemia and plague organisms were reportedly among the first to be tested onVozrozhdeniyalsland. Infection of animals with

although this aerosol chamber has never been described. / On other occasions the protective power of the plague ond tularemia vaccines tuna; noted against exposure through the lungs to "pulverized suspensions of virulent culture." The joint effort of NIIEG and the Rostov and Irkutsk Antlplaguc Stations durings also involved patholocical studies of pneumonic plague and "primary tularemialmost certainly yielding data important to NIIEG's program.

Research cf the lQ'yO's was still concerned toxtent with respiratory Infections cuused by plague end tularemia, as exemplified hy Immunological, potholological, and therapeutic studies in Ministry of Health/ The four diseases emphasized in EJITEG's experimentation, arc among those regarded by Soviet scientists es most probable BV/ they are also the Illnesses against vhich current aerogenicend polyvalent vaccine development programs ere primarily/ Thus, many indications point to intensive Soviet development ofotential atrogram which probably culminatedell-deflned technology for lorgc-scale production by the middle oro's. The degree of success attained in capturing within the finished product essential BW agent properties of virulence end stability under conditions of dissemination is not known.

There is ample evidence of attention by the Kirov scientists to microorganisms other than those described so far. Work on unrelated bacteria, bacterial toxins, and viruses is reflected in the literature from NIIEG and in the publications of investigators associated at one time

or another with the institute.

NIIEG's dessicetion methods bc applied to developmentive, dry tuberculosisaccine. / Reports, which reeched print, showeccinehe NIIEG designation was subsequently prepared from the BCG strain, on cvirulent form, end that Its immunological effectiveness was being evaluated. Nothing is known of NIIEG's vork on the organism itself beyonc*

B^Mon bacterial allergies that animal infectivlty studies had been conductedhis suggests screening of its possibilities as an/ The apparently successful application of drying techniques. microbes in quantities sufficient for live vaccine use Indicates that the method is probably also edequate for preserving living virulent cells; but. underwent the full-fledged development visualized for plague, anthrax, tularemia, and brucellosis is still equivocal.


ravaged the equine population, and in extensive eradication program was undertaken by the militaryhis move led to establishment'of tbe Military Veterinary Scientific Research Institute of the Armed Forces. Its staff investigated glanders, among other animal infections, at leastespite Soviet claims that the disease had been eradicateduch eerlier date. Melioidosis is said not to occur in the USSR, although there Is substantial evidence that its opidemiology has been explored, / Considerable information on glanders and melioidosis useful to BW has been gained by Soviet scientists. The viability period of the organisms In soil, vater, body exudates and excretions, and cadavers Is known; transmission routes of M. pseudomallei to humans from rodents andave been studied; and statements to the effect that infection can occur through the respiratory passages suggests investigation of that aspect. / In addition, the two diseases ere included in Soviet listings of probable

its vhose use by aerosol can be expected. / There is no

that KIIEOaccine progrea or. either microorganism; [stated7 that nothing new on glanders prophylaxis bad been iTorthcomlng inears. / Itatter of conjecture to what degree mass propagation and preservation techniques worked out for the other bacterial pathogens at KIIEC were applied to glanders or melioidosis,

I lnfectivity studies on M. moll el are consistent vith agent screening and, possibly, tbe laboratory evaluation stage. ecent Soviet reviev of iMlioidosls took cognizance of BW-related research on this disease in .the United States and set forth problems to be solved inefense against its employmenti/ Among the tasks enumerated vere the application of fluorescent serological techniques to rapid diagnosis, development of an aerogenic vaccine, therapeutic provisions for respiratory and radiation-complicated infections, and deep-vat cultivation methods for volume production of the organism. If this reviewalid picture of the state of knowledge of melioidosis in the USSR, the development of M. pseudomallei as an agent has not edvanced fer. It is unlikelyublic health writer, as was the reviewer in this case, vould be fully aware or progress in offensively oriented work; but his recognition of the serious gaps in defensive information possiblyow order of research In general, because tbe intensity of effort in offensive and defensive BW investigations is often parallel.

The typhoid organism does notoxin in the accej

sense; but the narked emphasis in NIIEG's publications on the mechanism of allergic reactions to typhoid antigens, as veil an to the true bacterial toxins, suggests the possibility that interest lay In isolating from Salmonellaoxic fraction, or endotoxin, analogous in systemic effects to the well-known exotoxins elaborated by certain other/ The enteric group has net beer, considered by Western scientists to be useful for BW purposes, but typhoid and dysentery are two diseases, among others, against which the USSR believes defensive measures should be They and tbe paratyphoids arens tbe infections allegedly disseminated during the Vozrozhdcaiyt Island field trials ew exceptions, work on these diseases reported in Soviet Journals is not strongly suggestive of either an offensive or defensive support program. An article submitted for publication5 described one of the earliest recorded Investigations of an aerogenic vaccine. It pertained to Immunization by administering typhoid vaccine and dysenteric toxin through the lungs. / oviet veterinarians employed eerosols of representative paratyphoid species to infect sheep, calves, mice and rabbits, establishing in some instances an enhanced susceptibility oC ajiurals to these organisms by the respiratory route. / In parallel experiments by cer_bcrs of the sane group, fluorescent

antibody techniques were used to detect typhoid and paratyphoid coatanlcstio-of meat products from artf flcltlLly infected animals. / Typhoid microorganisms have olso been utilized in exploring tagged antibodyfor identifying pathogens in military surroundings. l/ Other serological tests, carbohydrate fermentation, and physical separation methods have been adopted experimentally in recent years, particularly by armed forces workers, for quickly detecting typhoid, dysentery, and tbe paratyphoid microbes. Tbe effects of radiation on lEBUOlty to paratyphoid diseases is another patter of recent concern. / Despite this flurry of activity, there is no firm evidence to date that tbe enteric bacteria have been chosen fcr offensive BU development in the USSR; but it appears likely that they ban undergone some form of agent


Political refucee3 frcre the Soviet Union contend that botulinum toxin wns one of the earliest candidatesnt development, chosen primarily because of its potential effectiveness by ground, air, or voter dispersion. Unconfirmed reports stateurification process and suitable disseminating media were two major problem encountered in the preliminary investiGatlons; bystudies on agent properties vere


UW research in< >'n, established aa extci ;ivc program of botulinin

prophylaxis and therapy- i3 still cited

by present-day Soviet authors. /old to hoveases of botullnun Intoxication in hunans, and his computations on ccaparatlvc fatality rates among treated cases and untreated controls are

one of the fev hints of suspected hunon experimentation related to BU in

the USSR. /

Botulinum toxin and the other exotoxins produced in tetanus, diphtheria, Gangrene, Staphylococcus food poisoning, Stechybotrys intoxication, ond sone forms of dysentery offer hypothetical advantages as BW agents. Because they ere not communicable, their employment can be visualized In tactical military situations for vhich the infectious diseases ero ill-suited because of the hozcrd from the natural spread to the armed forces which use them. Within certain time limits, the duration of toxicity can be controlled by readily available decontamination equipment or environmental depredation processes. The most serious drawback to BW application df> the toxins,roup, is their unknown degree of effectiveness whend into the body by otheraturul portal ofoxicity when inhaled as an aerosol. There are many indications, however, of Soviet concern over the possible use of these substances, especially botulinum toxin. 9j The latter is almost Invariably discussed in BW defense training literature on agents. Military researchers have instituted en aerosol program for the avowed purpose of. immunity in humans against respiratory infections with botulinum and other less effective bacterial Anong the factors whichtrong Soviet defensive, and possibly offensive, interest in botulinum toxinW agent are the search for rapid diagnostic techniques and polyvalent botulimm toxoids and antisera;/ the reported plans for immunizing contingents of the population against/ and the eerosol work.

Soviet authorities on botulinum polsonlnc state that the toxin produces illness following administration under the skin, orally, and vie the respiratory system. lUO/ Reference has been nade in Soviet literatureuman patient with pulmonary botulism. / Studies on ective and passive immunity to airborne toxins at the Military Medical Academy iraenl Kirov show that Inhaled botullnun toxinsnd fl cause fatalin mice and guinean these Investigations the possibility of death from orally induced disease cannot be completely ruled out. igher level of active or passive Immunity was found to be needed for protection against respiratory exposure then for parenteral routes of entry. / In nature, the oral intake of toxin Is responsible for most cases or botullnun poisoning, but Soviet writers note that experiments have demonstrated "wound botulism" in men. ,

It has been cleimed that toxicity

is several thousandfold more pronounced by the respiratory route than by mouth. he possibility of initiating disease by combining toxin producers such as the tetanus and gangrene microbes with fragmentation munitions, that is, bombs and artillery shells, ha3 also been described in Soviet writings. It is considered most likely, however, that toxins vould be selected for BU development on the basis cf their relative degree of absorption through tbe lungs in keeping with modern concepts of mass dispersion of toxic or Infectious material by air; ingestion. In the case of botulimis or Staphylococcus toxin, wouldonus effect. By thi6 criterion, botulinum poisoning would probably be the agent of choice. The effectiveness of airborne diphtheria, tetanus, gangrene, and other toxins is unknown; and little evidence is available of Soviet attempts to determine this factor. Programs comparable to the botulinum aerosol work in Leningrad have not been detected.

included tetanus among the diseases tested for BW properties by the Gorodomlya Island grouput he did not specify whether

toxin or tbe intact organisms were used. 1

from the Military Medical Academy in Leningrad revealed ln IS forears they had beenry tetanus preparation and other undisclosed toxoids for Immunizing animals acrogenically. These workerselief that aerogenic Immunization will eventually be applied to diphtheria, among other human and animal diseases mentioned. / An attempt was made to protect against Shiga dysentery by administering toxin through the respiratory tract- / Combined toxoids under development in the USSR for parenteral use generally include, "rut arc not limited to, components for tetanus, di "

The cl

lods vere successfully completed8 for unidentified triand tetravalent anaerobic toxoids. / Several references pertaining to aerogenic ijnmunization point up the probability that emphasis will be placed on the dry toxoid forms as is the case with the bacterial vaccines. / ueo/^Ug/ Ho data are available on which to judge corresponding Soviet progress in obtaining active, stable toxins. Because the technology of producing toxins and toxoids is similar, partially purified products almost certainly have been prepared as one step in toxoid manufacture, but there Isjjio evidence that the bacterial toxins nave been crystallized in tbe USSfe? "

Tlie pathogenicity of bacterial toxinsroup has received considerable attention in the Soviet literature; for example, there are signs that botulism pathology came under serious study as early: vith continued present-day empbasis|

In selected Instances, the"action- of toxin mixtures-is seen to he under investigation, although details of the work are still lacking. / Current experimentation in the USSR on radiation effects on immunity mechanisms and microbial infectivity has been extended in limited fashion to bacterial intoxications. An increased sensitivity to toxins reportedly exists ln tetanus, some forms of gangrene, and Staphylococcus poisoning following irradiation. / Ho comparable data are available on botulinus toxin.


outbreakewly recognized disease occurred in the Ukraineesulting in the reported death of0 horses beforeeasures were devised. The causativeemmorrhagic toxin produced on decaying straw used for animal fodder, was finally attributed to the fungus, Stachybotrys alternans (Stachybotrys otra). / Intensive study of conditions for toxin formation and alleged success in extracting and crystallizing the active principle suggested the possibility of Soviet exploitation of the material for BW purposes, particularly since reference to the toxin in scientific publications from the USSR declined markedlyO/ Soviet sources state that the disease is common in humans as well as horses. / Figures on its prevalence are lacking and the manner in which this ailment is transmitted to humans, and its effects, have not been well studied in the West. Ingestion of contaminated cereal grains and the handling of moldy hay are believed to produce human symptoms similar to those seen in horses. / There is no real evidence of development of Stachybotrys toxin as an instrument of EW,orage poisoning" was included0 Soviet text of defense of domestic animals against chemical warfare. /

Whereas attempts to cause illness in cattle with the toxin were previously unrewarding, according to.Soviet writings, an epidemicCO animals was recorded in the Ukraine. / This extension of the disease,ariant of it, to cattle under natural circumstances could conceivably prompt an evaluation of Stachybotrys toxin as an entilivestocx BW agent; that exploratory research may already have been conducted is suggested by the earlier use of cattle in defining the spectrum of animal susceptibility. The recent literature reveals that work is tnideriway at the Koscow Veterinary Academy on the influence of nutritional factors in toxin elaboration by this fungus. /

One other type of intoxication has been described by Soviet military scientists inay as to raise the possibility of BW interest. Tbe disease results frca infection with Toxoplasma gondii, an intracellular protozoan parasite of animals. In the USSR, the illness is reportedly communicated to humans through contact with the domestic animals or by

5 - ,

conouming raw animal products; the systemic infection is said to be accompanied by excretionoxin which affects the central nervous system. According to Soviet studies since World War II, the causative agent can be transmitted experimentally by ticks or by contact with "all mucous membranes and slightly injured skin." / Whether the organism has been propagated successfully in vitro is not known, but the transmission studies suggest that sufficiently purified cultures ere available to carry out extensive laboratory investigations.

eri-Tientation to virology is not

Viral and Rickettsial BWublications originating at NIIEG give no hint of virus or rickettsial research at the institute; yet, certain of its investigators were well grounded in virology, es other articles demonstrate.

The transition fromccomplished quickly;

ln Kirov wes active to some extent in the field ofHo indications are found of the-.type of viral or rickettsial organisms with which the NIIEG workers were familiar, other than encephalitis, foot-and-mouth disease and



Iteasonable conclusion that such rooenrch would process slowly until after the technology of macs-propaGating the bacteria of rincue, anthrax, brucellosis, and tularemia was fimly established. It 'ollovs that any real emphasis on virol diseases probably came in the lateo's, ands, before NIIEG's leading investigators were re-asslcned elsewhere. Thus,pan of several years, conditions at tbe institute were presumably favorable for obtaining data on viral and/or rickettsial oGcnts for use in IN. On the basis of Western experience, the screeningumber of potential agents can be accomplished in the courseery feu years, but development of moss production processes cencrolly take longer than the time apparently available to NIIEG before its postulated reorganization

Military elements in the USSR today openly acknowledge little effort in lnboratcry research which would add measurably to development of viruses and rickettsioc as EW agents. By ond large, this work is carried out in 'nstitutes of the Health Ministry. / Clinical end epidemiological aspects have aroused military interest for many years, and medical service teams hove been in the forefront of programs to combat newly recognized virus end rickettsial infections. The discovery of boutonneuse fever foci in the Crimesetationwide survey which to that time bod received scant ottention.

Bginning in the

veterinarians In rorc

from the Military Medical Academy explored the tick-borne neurotropicnfections and spotted feverlikc;uring the same pei eoidemioiosy of viral hcrrorrhaglccre investigatinc the equine encephalomyel

recent years, the medical service has Siven some attention to* choriomeningitis,ncephalitis, and clinically related but ill-defined encepballtides. The verious arthropod-spread irus and rickettsial disenses arc still serious problems in thef the actual research on then has been taken over by the health acencies. / In the course of epidemoloCical studies, data have been complied on possible routes of agent transmission to humans and animals, other than the usual arthropod vector involvement, vhich couldearing on BU planning. "Artificial peripheral infection" of sheep and moats with tick-borne encepholitlo has been successfully tried, end the inhalation of contcminoted dust or airborne droplets in hemorrhecieever, Venezuelan equine encephalomyelitis, and allied diseases hasentatively incriminated in ceses of human illness. /

Attempts ore under

way to devise reliable diasnostic ond prophylactic procedures, to clarify means by which orcenisns of the tick-borneistributee In nature, end to understand their biolocical characteristics and differences in an isolated environment, that is, by tissue culture.

These efforts apparently arc not far advanced, notwithstanding the passage ofodd years. Soviet investigations on the less eowon rickettsloses, viral encephalitides and hemorrhagic fevers,hole, are generally felt to be in relatively early stages as regards one or more important aspects of epidemiology, prophylaxis, or therapy. / Soviet knowledge of theseasV.iy progressed to the point that the ctiologic agents could be employed effectively in BW.

The possible significance of viral and rickettsial diseases to warfare is recognised in Soviet writings. / The viral encephalitides. Including Russian spring-summer, Japanese B, and the equine varieties; typhusever rickottsiae; and psittacosis and yellow fever viruses are classed as likely agents. Influenza, Rift Valley fever, mumps, and dengue are said to be doubtful candidates. / The incompletely understood hemorrhagic fevers arc not often mentioned with regard to EW. Typhus rlckettstae were probably the earliest neobers of this group to be studied in the USSR. / With the advent of an adequate vaccine and measures for protection of troops against louse infestation, research on this disease had beenelatively low intensity; recent work apparently relates largelyearch for improved vaccine strains, limited effort toyphus antigen into combined Immunizing preparations, end evaluation of radiation effects on the experimentally induced There is no solid evidence that characteristics of tbe causative microorganism have been assessed under laboratory or field conditions simulating BW employment.

q fever isublic health problem in the Soviet Union, and considerable research was conducted ins on its epidemiology, notably transmission routes and preservation under natural conditions, and on environmental disinfection procedures. he Military Medical Academy hasild interest inever antigen with the NIISI polyvacclne, but nothing suggestive of agent development, or even undue concern vith defensive measures, has been found in tbe case of Coxlella bumetl. I/

The ornithosis viruses supposedly became endemic in the USSR only in recent years, but their study goes back at leastenter for research on psittacosis and allied diseases has been organized at the Institute of Virology in Moscow, and intensive work on psittacosis virus aeronols is now under way. With thehamber, information on tbe behavior of infective clouds has been collected, but the extent to which results ore exploited for BW experimental purposes is still unknown. Using liquid mouse-lung suspensions and white mice as the test animal, preliminary studies determined such factors asemperature and humidity effects, particle size range, and optimum exposure time. / Techniques and equipment for aerosol sampling were devised concurrently. / Supplemental investigations have been


conducted on infectlvlty and Growth of the virus In various animal tisimes and In tissue/ therapy with antibiotics on aninals exposed via the respiratory/ the relative pathoflenicity of different virus/ psittacosis epideaiolocy; gOfl/Slfr/ end resistance of the nicrobe to diverse physical and chemical disinfection techniques. / The most recently recorded work purportedly shoved that psittacosis virus is released throurh the respiratory tract during systcnic infection in monkeys inoculated intretracheolly. / Hunan infection with psittacosis virus arises most often from close contact with diseased birds, and transmission by air is veil established. From this standpoint the aerosol research under way in the USSR noes beyond the practical needs of epldcmlolccy While still consistent with public health interests, the program supplies data obviously pertinent to BW agent development. Because standardization of experimental variables appears to be the prime objective of the aerosol investigations reported to date, the over-ell effort Is Judged to be preliminary, end not yet capable of yieldinc information translatable to employment of psittacosis virus under field conditions.

Yellow fever virusotentially Good antipersonnelgent which does not occur naturally in the Soviet Union, and evidence is scarce of any extensive research on the disease. Only review articles on yellow fever*are found in Soviet scientific literature, although foreign Journal data are examined closely by Soviet workers. jj/mfSSf Fron 5tudlea of Western documents, the conclusion has been reached in the USSR that yellow fever virus should be regardedrobably EW agent whose employment in aerosol form, in addition to transmission by rosqultoes, can be expected. Vf/UQ^/ Cta thine is known of research on the offensive aspects of this virus, end few instances can be cited of defensively oriented work. Only recently bave attempts been made to incorporate live yellow fever virus into experimental combined veccincs, and these studies are apparently still concerned with compatability of anticen/ As far as is known today, ocrosenic immunization trials have not included this particular virus, althouch yellov fever Is ononc the diseases foruccessful respiratory vaccine is predicted. / Preliminary investigations of radiation effects on virus infections reported7 included yellow fever, but no follow-up research has been noted. jg6/ The experimental application of rapid detection techniques, disinfection procedures, end related defensive measures seen In the USSR for other potential events has not been extended openly to yellov fevor; but the recent review articles by military scientists and indications of future researchounting Soviet interest in this virusnt. /

There is little cause to suspect that ecent research is in progress on other representative virus and rickettsial diseases, even though some of the viral forms areisproportionate amount of Investicativc effort. Poliomyelitis and influenza fall within this catecory, probably because of the widespread immunization prosrsms prompted by the appearance

of Asian influenza and discovery of more effective polio vaccines. The influenza organism probably also servesimulant for the more dangerous human viruses in working out techniques and equipment for aerosol experimentation end mass human aerogenic vaccination. / There are several recent instances in which this virus has been utilized by the health agencies to evaluate chamber design, aerosol dispensers, collectors, and detection or disinfection procedures. WS/Sg/Kb/ Ko evidence is at hand that military scientists are similarly enEaGedinttie virus aerosol field, even with influenza, and the work reported so far froa public health institutes primarily concerns methodology.

Smallpox virus isogical candidate agent for airborne delivery, but Soviet exploration of the BW potential of this entity is not freely exhibited. Along with some other diseases, smallpox hes been singled out for future aerogenic vaccine investigations, implying atefensive interest. Little current research is evident with the virus aside from re-exomlnatlon of conventional vaccine strains and limited efforts by military workers to combine the live antigen with other prophylactic preparations. /

Rabies and the rabies-like diseases are being studied from the standpoint of epidemiology and Improved prophylaxis, yielding from time to time information of possible BW value. Strains of viruses serologically related to rabies have been collected in Arctic regions, 3uch as, the "Dikovanie" or "polar madness" viruses. These, along with other little known encephalitiacs of animals in the far north,eservoir of potentially new agents for exploitation. / With respect to rabies,ecent paper described virus penetration of uninjured mucous membranes of the nose and eye in animals exposed to droplets of infected brain tissue. / Research of this type is not known toW objective, although the data could be so utilized. There are no indications at this time that the rabies virus and related organisms have been Subjected to evaluation as agents ia the USSR.

Unique BWThere is no Indication of Soviet development of unique biological agents, such as, microorganisms differing markedly,esult of laboratory treatments, from those of the same species found in nature. Research on live vaccine strains has been directed toward selection of avirulent forms rather than organisms of enhanced virulence. Ihe manipulation of genetic mechanisms toathogen refractory to the immunity bestowed by conventional vaccines probably does not lie within present Soviet capabilities. Intentional development of microbial tolerance for physical and chemical disinfectant measures is not described in any available Soviet work, although an example of increesed antibiotic resistance in plague cultures has been recorded. / The simultaneous use of several biological agents to facilitate infectioTend confuse diagnosis Is visualized in Sovietn only one instance, however, does the literature reveal andeliberate mixed

infection, namely, superimposed brucellosisever. / on the physiological action of toxin mixtures vas noted While the exposureof^animals to combinedndeaturechallenge work at the Military

Medical Academy, the aerosenic vaccinations carried out at that establishment so far have not included mixtures of living bacteria. / Contemporary research on polyvalent live vaccine is expected to provide information of eome value on concurrent Infection, particularly with respect to either suppression or potentiation of one disease type by the others; hut the absence, of the virulence factor in these living antigens isto experimental results as far as development of BW agentis concerned.

BW Agents and Ionisingonsiderable emphasis ln Soviet writings is placed on ionizing radiation as an adjunct to biological agentactor interpreted in intelligence circles as possibly indicative of research on combined Rtf-BW weapons. ovel thinking is apparent ln the Soviet concept of incoTporatingisotopes of lov radiation levels into living, infectiousHHbHM|

The combination of biological agents with less probable. Radioactive radiation, as recent Investigations have shown, does not affect the growth, proliferation, or pathogenic characteristics of the pathogens of various infections. The microorganisms are cultured Just as easily on media containing radioactive substances as on ordinary media. It has been proved that radioactive isotopes of chemical elements ere assimilated by the microbial cells and enter into the composition of the substances from which the microbial body is built, while not curtailing or eltcring its vital activity. At the same time, radioactive radiation vitally affects human and animal orgenisms. Independent of the method by which the organism is subjected to the action of radioactive substances,esult of external,or the ingestion ofharp reduction in the activity of the natural defense mechanisms, and evidently their barrier functions above all, wast is possibleomparatively smell degree of contamination by effect radiation will be sufficient to allow pathogenic microorganisms to penetrate the organism more" /

Within the past year, the preparation of radioactive anthrax bacilli and influenza virus has been claimed by Soviet scientists. / Whether the intensity of radiation in these instancesS sufficient to depress body defense mechanisms is uncertain. Almost all Soviet work on (i) proliferation of live vaccine/ (ii) susceptibility to infection by representative bacteria andA73/ he lowering of immunity levels after exposure to radiation has been conducted with total irradiation at or near the lethal dose. Kence, there is no assurance that the problem has been overcome of combining cendidetc BW agents with isotopes

which will decrease host susceptibility without impairing microbial

pathogenicity. evidence is totally lacking of any success in combining

biological agents with radiological or other injurious materials, such

os, chemical agents, as componentsinished weapons system; recognition

of the value of such mixtures in varfare is clearly showndocuments


fungal bwthe potential employment of pathogenic fungi is mentioned infrequently in soviet bw literature, although on oneriter surmised from his study of the literature that the western powers maintain an agent development interest in two members of the group, coccidioides imraitis and blstoplasma capsulatum. ilitary scientists at niieg and the medical academy ir. leningrad have not openly exhibited concern with either offensive or defensive problems involving the fungus diseases. there are no indications that specialists in mycology vere assigned to niieg; moreover, published research from both that institute and the medical academy, although broad in scope, does not disclose any evidence of experimental programs over the years on the medically important fungi. much the same can be said for the military veterinary agencies, with the previously noted exception of stachybotrys alternans intoxication. the effectiveness of coccidioidomycosis, histoplasmosis, and related diseases as bw implements has never been fully established. because of the low-grade chronic illness usually resulting from such infections, the causative organisms are not considered ideally suited to present-day varfare. there is nothing to suggest that these microbes have been given bw agent status in the ussr.

arthropod-vector bwhe use of arthropods to disseminate biological agents to humans and animals is well understood in the soviet union; measures to combat disease vectors released on the populace, food crops, and livestockrominent place in bw defense instructional materiel. from the offensive standpoint, unverified reports allege that encephalitis-infected ticks and plague-contaminated fleas were airdropned during field tests in the ussr just prior to world

war ii. /

7 bw trials, is knovn to have beertexploring

the transmission of tularemia by ticks, mosquitoes, borseflies, and fleas during the same period. confirmation is lacking that this and similar research of thes was actually sponsored tor bw purposes; nevertheless, the acceleratedublic health on arthropod-borne diseases by|

undoubtedly provided much background data which could be utilized in selecting candidate vector agent combinations. / methods of mass-rearing representative arthropods and techniques for artificially infecting the larval forms by membrane feeding vere perfectedi.3- / this accomplishment permitted controlled studies on flight range end dispersion, viability, and the fate of microorganisms introduced into either

natural or unnatural vectors. It paved the way for data on the follovinc unusual host-parasite relationships,thers: for theever, tularemia, poliomyelitis, and sprinc-summeror the horsefly, anthrax and/ for the mosquito, tularemia and spring-summeror the bedbus, plague and/ for the tick, plague andnd for theever and tularemia. / Experimental transmission is still under way in the USSR, but current work appears to be directed more toward the role of ticks as carriers of encephalitis, brucellosis,ever. /

A compilation of Soviet research of the type equally applicable to public health and BW arthropod problems was Includedecent lntellicence report. /

Although propasction of various arthropods in the laboratoryajor research objective ofs, little has been learned of Soviet establishments for mass rearing. / . entomologists have had only limited access to these facilities. / From the standpoint of published work, the outstanding organization in this field is the Institute of Kalaria, Medical Parasitology, and Hclmintholocy, Ministry of Health, Moscow. The amcd forces are not known to maintain on Installation for furnishing arthropods, but the apparent need for considerable numbers of vectors in experimentation at the iiilitary Medical Academy suggests the existence of an internal supply source. / One ?hase of the Academy's program provides the only clearly discernible instance of present-day military research possibly relating to the BW use of disease carriers. eries of field trials on flea eradication with hcxochlorane smoke was carried outpolygon" atear the Aral Sea / This work is consistent with the Academy's mission of BW defense, since portable aerosol smoke pots with the limited effective ranse of those utilized ir. the tests appear veil suited for decontaminating the imediete vicinityuspected biological -unition. The extreme isolation of the site chosen for these trials also points up the possibility that infected fleas or other arthropods were used, conceivably in conjunctionelivery device. /

There is little evidence on vhich tooviet choico of arthropod carriers for BU purposes. Relative research emphasis over the years follows the pattern seen in other nations, that is, mosquitoes, ticks, fleas, horseflies, and sandflies in descendinc order. / Final selection would probably be dictated by thents to be employed, but the versatility of mosquitoes and cortain ticks in spreading disease su3Gests that these two would receive otrons consideration. Pronounced concern in the Soviet Union with bloLocUal aerosols is Indicative of primary Interest in airborne dissemination; presumably erthrouod release of agent wouldecondary role in development of BW weapons. horough evaluation of the

state of Soviet entomological iuiewledcc warranted the conclusion9apability docs exist in the USSR for solving the many technical problems involved in such development;o date, however, there is no firm evidence that vectors of diseaseignificant part of the EW effort.

Antillvestock BWEstimates written in recent years reflect the intelligence view that BW research in the USSR includes biological agents against livestock. / Two animal infections are singled out as those most likely to have been considered, foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) and rinderpest. Several factors were apparently influential in shaping this position: FMD was studied intensely at the Lisly Island Branch laboratory of the All-Union Institute of Experimental Veterinary Medicine, an establishment whose activities are believed to have been oriented at one time towardMD virus was among the first candidate agents investigated on Gorodonlya Island, the directing installation for Vozrozhdenlya' field trials, according to the Hirschn appraisal of Soviet research on rinderpest concluded'i that much of the effort could be applied directly to development of the causative virus for/ and, lastly, the extreme vulnerability of livestock or. the Worth American continent to FMD and rinderpest vas felt to argue persuasively for selection of these diseases. ore recent examination of SMD research In the USSR reaffirmed the earlier position that the Soviet antianimal program probably gives high priority to development of this virus for agent/

JITTEG's agent development program is not known to have considered animal targets, although some of the institute's researchers vere officers of the veterinary service.

Certain infections which HIIEG explored, presumably from the standpoint of antipersonnel SW, also fall within the antillvestock category, such as, anthrax and brucellosis. The technology of producing microorganismsuiteble state for use against hunans docs not very markedly from that concerned with animal populations, even though tbe node of delivery and agent dispersion may differ widely. Hence, some aspects of NIIEG's work conceivably could have supported an antilivestock program. The part in BW, If any, played by veterinarians of the Military Veterinary Scientific Research Institute (WlfII-KA) and the Military Veterinary Academy has not been resolved,ether authorities on livestock diseases affiliated vith the armed forces veterinary establishmenteservoir of knowledge and experience on hog cholera, rinderpest, botulism, glanders, and the equine encephalltides. There is no Information to date linking either WNII-KA or the Veterinary Academy with 'fllEC and Vozrozhdenlya Island. It seems probable, however, that any field testing of animal agents on the island would involve veterinarians of the armed services, because the Aral Sea installation Is under military Jurisdiction. /

The expenditure of manpower and resources for veterinary researchcivilian agencies, centered largely in institutes of the Ministry1 culture and the All-Union Academy of Agriculturel Sciences,be compatible vith the disease problems which exist in the USSReffort is directed toward control of the economically importantcholera, anthrax, brucellosis, and Newcastle/ aof research capability has been displayed with these Openly exhibited activity on rinderpest, clai-icd tos now largely limited in the health agenciesof enough vaccine touffer zone of immunethe border of countries in vhich the infection is still Exchange delegates from the United States, having toured mostcivilian veterinary research centers of recognized importance infound no indication8 of other than legitimate animal The current Sovieteepening interest in measures for defense ofEirborne nicroorganisns; ahas not been


of experunentsoi^seroanlisT^laboratory eninels, sheep, and calves to Salmonella organismsewly developed plexiglass This work apparently is designed to check out equipment and techniques preliminary to rore extensive studies, probably on highly pathogenic microbes; tha paratyphoids employed so far may bo considered as simulants for these pathogens. / Some of the same investigators are elso applying tbe latest innovation ln bacterial detection methods, fluorescent antibodies, to rapid diagnosis of anthrax and the/ Thia technique is under examination concurrently at tbe Moscow Veterinary Academy for identification cf hog cholera virus. / It is felt to be indicative of Soviet thinking in terns of effective livestock agents that the present experimental aerogenic vaccines far humens will be extended, accordingoviet prediction,or defense against other infections ofnd of animals, rinderpest, hog cholera, foot-and-mouth disease," /

The existence of animal pens end fenced enclosures on Vozrozhdeniya Island strongly suggests that large domestic animals ere utilized in one or more phases of the EW test program. Swine, sheep, goats, cattle, or horses, for vhich pens, rather than wire cages, would be required, night serve several useful purposes, even though specific identity of types cannot be node on the basis of presently available information. These purposes include agent infectivity studies; evaluation ofof munitions or other disseminators; production of small quantities of agent; and production of iroune sera, gama globulin, blood for culture media, and other biologies used in research. Conventional Soviet work on highly contagious zoonotic diseases Is conducted without the strict geographic isolation imposed in Western nations; because of the logistics

problems inherent in Vozrozhdeniya's location, the presence of large animals on the island is almost cerleinly indicative of sensitive experimentation, in all probability related to BW. With the exceptionew diseases, such as, hog cholera and rinderpest, small laboratory animals or mechanical devices are generally satisfactory for aerosol viability and cloud-travel calculations, determining agent dispersion patterns from experimental disseminators, and similar phases of development. Economy of operation would probably dictate use of livestock onlyriticol phase, such as final testing of agent infectivity on intended target animals under field conditions simulating actual employment. Accordingly, the presence of large domestic animals might well be indicativeate stage has been attained in development of one or more zoonotic agents In the USSR.

A firm conclusion regarding the diseases undergoing field trial cannot be reached without knowledge of the kind of animals used, but certain general, observations may serve to focus attention on the more likely candidates, natural host-parasite relationships make certain animals better suited than others for studies on specific diseases;ew infections only one type of host animal Is susceptible. In most cases, however, considerable lattitude is permitted in substituting test animals, since goats, sheep, cattle, horses and swine are susceptible in varying degreesultiplicity of potentially good BW agents. Anthrax, hemorrhagic septicemia,ever and pseudorabies (Aujeszky'sor example, could be studied in either cattle or shcepj and in some instances goats and pigs; sheep and goats are readily infected with the glanders bacillus, even though the organism isathogen of horses only. Aside from the possibilities inherentituation such as this, the presence of swine would point to vesicular exanthema, hog cholera, or African swine fever, since these diseases are not reproducible in typical form in other domestic animals. Likewise, the occurrence of sheep might indicate interest in blue-tongue virus or Rift Valley fever. Cattle would undoubtedly be chosen for experimentation on rinderpest and malignant catarrhal fever for the same reason. The cow is also ideal for experimentation vith EMD, although swine, andesser extent sheep and goats, are mildly susceptible. The equine encephalitides in nature are predominantly spread by arthropods to horses. The relative affinity of these viruses for large animals by respiratory exposure, or some other BW-related mode of transmission, is obscure; the susceptibility of various small laboratory animals would probably preclude the use of horses, vhich, in any event, do notrime target for antilivestock warfare against the West. Thus, it is obviousather wide range of infectious diseases could be investigated on Vozrozhdeniya Island through proper selection of livestock for agent development, and no clear insight is had into Soviet preferences solely on the basis of agent studies vhich might possibly be under way.

Animals can be exposed to biological agents by routes other than airborne. Inoculation of fodder, for example, is an effective means of

spreading disease, especially In clandestine employment. Tissue products from infected livestock, aro admirably suited to tills purpose, since fully virulent microbes, not always obtainable by artificial propagation, are harvested from the natural host animal. Hog cholera, FMD, and rinderpest exemplify the disease states in which infective blood, exudates, and minced organ tissues can be collected in satisfactory yield to provide either material for dissemination or microorganisms for further experimentation. It is interesting that the Hirsch report on Sovietoted that blood drained fromcattle vas dried to furnish an agent fill for biological bombs in the World War II period. Anthrax spores now can be mass produced for BW purposes without using nnlmal products, but FMD, rinderpest, and hog cholera viruses still require animal tissue for reproduction in virulent farm. Artificial tissue culture suffices for propagatingtrains of FMD and hog cholera microbes, but rinderpest is not successfully handled by this technique. Egg inoculation is not generally satisfactory for harvesting viruses of any of these diseases. Tissue culture competency in the USSR at present Isow order, as previously discussed; it seems likely, therefore, that large animals on Vozroihdeniya would be utilised not only for assessing the virulence of selected agents, but also for production of experimental quantities of the viruses of ore or more of the three aforementioned diseases. Existence of livestock facilities on Vozrozhdenlya tend to support the intelligence position that rinderpest and FMD have been given consideration as BV agents in the USSR. These facilities are also consistent with on active Interest in the hog cholera virus.

nt3It vas pointed out previously that no evidence exists of Soviet interest in developing anticrop bw agents, even though Western intelligence regards it as "possible" that en anticrop program is under vay. / Lacking specific information, one must resort to vulnerability concepts in order to predict the course of action vhich the USSR would probably pursue in agent research. The rationale for this approach is that developmental work would almost certainly entail the planned exploitation of vulnerability of the most important. crops. In theor example, wheat io considered to be most susceptible to attack from black stem rust and potatoes to late blight. Elsewhere In the "free World there are notable examples of vulnerable strategic crops, such as rubber in the Far East and coffee in Central and South America. In some instances smell-scale clandestine attacks ere considered toighly destructive potential, not only to the crop, but to the entire economy of areas so threatened. In contrastlcrop agents relyignificant extent on secondary and tertiary infections for their real destructive effects. This means that exceedingly small quantities mayar-reaching impact. For purposes of this discussion, consideration is given only to agents which could cause severe crop losseselatively short time, usuallyingle growing season.

Tho biologic nature of the cereal rust pathogens, such as fungi infecting wheat, oats, rye, and barley, is such that they lend themselves ideally to use as agents of biological warfare. Cereal rus.ts can be obtained readily by growing the pathogens on susceptible cereal plants under ordinary field conditions and collecting the infectious spores with vacuum-type harvesting equipment. Therefore, agent production is Halted only by the acreage devoted to it. Further, cereal rust spores are sufficiently stable under ordinary environmental conditions to make storage, delivery, end dissemination feasible. W attack employing cereal rusts could be highly damaging. grain crops if carried out on an extensive scale under optimum conditions. It must be recognized, too, thatmall-scale attack might cause appreciable damageeriod conduciveapid bulld-up of the spore population.

On the basis of the established epiphytotic potential In the United States, several other fungus pathogens are also possible choices for agent development in the USSR. Potato late blightood example; but present control measures available to the farmer and several critical Inadequacies of the pathogenU agent makear loss likely selection than the cereal rusts for opcrnttonacaUainsi) tneMJnlted-Otatcc. Soviet writings on potato late blight are extensive, indicating that their own problems in control of this disease have hot been solved. Work with potato late blight appears less well developed In the Soviet Union than in tbe United States and the UniUd Kingdon, and Soviet knowledge of its epidemiology is appreciably less exact. An anticrop agent research program probably would Include fungus rusts against maize (corn) and cotton, and anthracnooe and bacterial blight against cotton. Soviet experience with nalze diseases, however, Is rather limited. Such pathogens as tobacco blue mold and sugar beet leaf spot are possible but unlikely choices for use against tbe United States. Tbe very extensive publication in the USSR on cereal smuts iseasure of the backwardness of plant protection, and illustrative of continuing trouble vith these diseases, rather than an indication of Interest ln snuta as anticrop agents. Viruses ore not considered feasible for attack against crops, at least in terms of their use for quick, decisive operational effects. Much the same is true of insect pests and noxious weeds.

For several years, the USSR has produced highly potent berblcidal chemicals ofype and utilized them to control weeds in cereal plantings. / Small aircraft ere commonly used to disseminate herbicides as small-droplet sprays at low-volume rates comparable to those adopted In the United States for weed control purposes. Although Soviet use of herbicides has beenuch smaller scale than Ln the United States, there are current Indications that considerable effort is being devoted to research on synthesis of new herbicides and to the production and utilization of greater quantities of these compounds. Chemical agents are known to the Soviets which could effectively destroy either broad or narrow-leaved crops-

While it is doubtful that auch materials currentlyhreat to Tree world crops because of logistical considerations, they could assume real importance ln Halted war operations. Furthermore, the Soviets ore known toignificant number of agricultural aircraft equipped for the effective dissemination of such chemical materials.

Trends in BW Agent Development. Steady improvement, both qualitatively and quantitatively, can be anticipated ln most biological fields supporting the BW effort. The implications of this situation are threefold:ore rapid rate of over-all progress in agent end hardware development; refinement of infectious materials already under consideration; and greater variety in the type of biological weapons available for experimental purposes. Tbe pronounced emphasis on virus and rickettsial diseases now displayed ln tbe USSR, both in human medicine and in the veterinary sciences, could bring forth additional candidate antipersonnel and antllivestock agents. The clear intention expressed in the Soviet literature to proceed from bacteria to viruses and rickettsiae in developing aerogenic vaccines,ccombined immunizing preparations, disinfectants, air sampling devices, and rapid detection end diagnostic methods narks an apparent broadening of interest with respect to tbe feasibility of employing representative agents from these two pathogen groups. The adoption of modern technology for propagating viruses and rickettsiae was seen to have lagged in the Soviet Union; however, success in the use of tissue culture for the contemporary poliomyelitis vaccine program, aid for FMD among the animal vaccines, should intensify, the application of this method to other microorganisms of BW importance, particularly with regard to production in volume-

A broad conjectural view of agent development in the USSR, beginning with the activities of Velikanov's Institute in theequence of steps, or phases, which culminated in the elaborate test pregran probably undertaken on Vozrozhdeniya Island. During the early years, in thereliminary, end perhaps haphazard, screening of potential agents was conducted. Botulinum toxin, one or more of the animal viruses, and several bacterial pathogens of humans vere investigated in the laboratory and disseminated In primitive field trials at the Aral Sea installation. With the establishment of HIIEC serious efforts were made to assess the BW properties of selected candidate agents. In what may be categorized as phaseariety of infectious bacteria and their toxins vere screened for effectiveness in aerosol form against experimental animals. In phaseechnology was devised for processing large quantities of at least four of thesetate suitable for agent purposes: anthrax, plague, tularemia, and brucellosis. Presumably some, or all of then, vere Investigated on Vozrozhdeniya Island during this period. In tbe late loJtO's and'I EEC's attention vas diverted,hird phase, to screening of potentially good virus agents for use against man; and in this era the institute's scientists gained the experience In virology which enabled certain of then to move subsequently into supervisory positions in vlrological research establishments. Little significant

progress vas made in development of viral agents before SHEC vas supplantedtlU-unldentlfied agency vbose current program places emphasis on viral and rickettsial fores for use egelnst humans and ar.irals.

At some point in this speculative but plausible series cf events, the union of candidate biological agents to dispersing devices vas apparently node on Vozrozhdenlya Island.

Continued attention to aerosol technology and the properties of airbo: pathogens, the recently established prograns of systematic" sampling of natural air microflora, and the high order of competency in theoretical aspects of the movement of air masses Indicate no lessening of emphasis on the respiratory exposure as the primary means of employing BW agents. At the same time, resources for exploiting the arthropod vectors of disease are such that an alternate veapons system utilizing these carriersikely possibility for the future, if not already in being. In keeping vit the poor capability of the plant sciences and the low level cf medical research interest in fungus pethogens, there is no discernible trend in tbe USSR toward development of the fungi as agents of human, animal, or plant disease.

Status of Weapons Development

According to information collected by Cerman World War II on investigation of delivery and dissemination methods vas begun at about the same time that Soviet research on biological agents got under way. / These early studies reportedly began vith BW agent simulant field trials at Volsk polygon5 and vere extended to Vozrozhdenlya Island. Among the several neons of releasing infectious material purportedly explored during the period vere "fogircraft; equipment for medium and lov-altltudc attack; contaminated metallic darts Tor airdrop against troops; arthropod-carrying bombs; and various devices for covert distribution of microbes. Reasonably detailed descriptions aro available for certain of these Items, but In no case has the actual existence of any of then been substantiated. Pear-shascd aluminum vessels for use on aircraft vere designed to hold eitheriters of bacterial suspension, yieldingquare miles of oerosol coverage (typeriters of dried anthrax spores (typerea coverage not specified.

Soviet planning for externally0 liter containers ofgue bacterlUB vas also mentioned. Beyond thi i, experimental glass aerial bombs designed either to shatter on impact or to explode above the surface vere reported, as vere ampoules of dry agent for inclusion in artillery shrapnel Munitions. For contaminating water sources vith typhoid and cholera, gelatin capsules, ice cylinders, and theubean automatic release mechanisa were supposedly developed. With the possible exceptioncter BW aircraft belly tank said to have been captured by tbe Germans and employed in their own tests with simulant agents, apparently none of these weapons was ever observed or examined outside tbe USSR.

In keeping with Soviet policy of complete silence on matters pertaining to offensive BW research in the Soviet Union, no outright admission of interest in biological weapons has been found in official statements. Tacit admission can be inferred,

Lvc to sow oespsir

ard horror and to plunge tbe peoples of the earth Into the Dark Ages with their terriblehey forget that biological war, like atonicis suicide for the country that begins it, since tbe means of bacteriological attack ere veil known and can in short order be dircctcc

against the aggressor who has taken up this terrible sword.

'in on authoritative book published8 on protection of the civil population in modem warfare, tbe following assertion was made: ". . he existence ofhemical, and bacteriological weapons in the hands of imperialists and the threat of their use are causing uo to prepare actively for defense ngainet air attack. One of the forms of this preparation is the study by the population of the battle properties of mass attack weapons and of the existing methods oft the present time, not only have the military properties of mass attack weapons been well studied, but methods of defense against all modern means of attack have also been worked out." 6l-

Soviet writers are thoroughly familiar with the classes of weapons to which BW agents theoretically can be adapted for delivery: aerial bombs and spray systems, balloons, missiles end rockets, portable aerosol generators, mines and artillery, and "diversionary,'* or covert, equipment. In addition, references to large-area-ccvcragc (LAC) techniques have been noted in terms which probably reflect

Soviet thinking rather than the usual quotations from Western articles:

p to one ton of Infectious material car. be sprayedingle airplane. Considering the large volumes of material, dispersed at one time (they amount to ten and more tons per operational flight) it wiU be ncccssery to prepare quantities in the range of thousands ofhe bacterial or viral suspensions containing millions of active particles per milliliter will be pumped like beer from huge tanks through cooled pipes into the 'camp cellars of death.' From there the selected combination of bacteria and viruses (in the formurbid liquid) will flow to the tanks of aircraft that will be equipped with an apparatus to maintain constant temperature while the suspensions are delivered to the site of their aerosol pulverization. This will be effected late in theo that by sunrise the disease carrying particles will have reached the ground, enveloped the streets and seeped into the" / It is notable that agent dispersion with each of the aforementioned delivery vehicles, aside from certain covert devices and arthropod weapons, is dependent on the generation of an aerosol. FromSoviet articles it seems clear that the performance of uirborne tological agents in the field has been investigatedacterial cloud retains its effectiveness for long periodsrrow streets, and cul-de-sacs, ravines, forests, orchards, thick grass, underbrush. .t penetrates into houses, buildings, animal and commercialnd settles on the ground . .hese particles can be raised by the wind and contaminate the air. In favorable weather (the absence of rising air currents and slight wind, the speed of which does not exceed four meters pern localities where the movement of air Is slight (yards, narrow streets, blind alleys, gullies) the bacterial cloud can maintain its injurious properties for several hours and sometimeshe injurious properties ere preserved for the longest period of time by sections of the locality contaminated by spore or toxins." /

In those phases of the SW program where the confines of the Aral Sea obviously are limiting, the USSR has resorted to open water for aerosol testing. In one instance, announcedimulant agent cloud was allowed to penetrate the interiorhip,aval vessel, in order to evaluate decontamination measures. In November of the same year tracer aerosols of an undetermined nature were purportedly sprayed over the Balticiles off the Swedish coast; ship-borne sampling devices are said to havedistributedide area during the early morning exercises ofours duration.

The dispersion of BW agents by munitions having powerful explosive charges, that is, land mines, mortar and artillery projectiles, has not been thoroughly explored in Western countries. There is sufficient information, however, to suggest that the tactical employment ofor toxins with certain of these weapons has been attempted in

the USSR. Severe! statements found in Soviet publications imply that eerosol coverage from, short-range air or ground bursts has been. Between Worldnd II lt was shown experimentally that even nlcrobes vbicb do not form resistant spores readily tolerate conditions created in the use of firearms. Microbes have survived in an artillery shell, particularly of tbe shrapnel type, and even on tbe surfaceullet. This has given us the expectation that biological agents can also be carried by artillery shells . .omparatively short distance, the ejection of microbes is possible by means of mortars. Recently long-range rockets have also been designed for this purpose . . he use of special artilleryery much complicates tbe rapid recognition of the fact of an attack because these shells can constituteertain small portion of tbe shells ordinarily used which would mask tbe use of tbe biological weapon." It is interesting with regard to the detection factoriring plan for Soviet artillery described4 Included SW rounds interspersed with atomic and CW proJectilcs._ / iologicaL weapons written7r tbe'.cdical _Acadeny,ubsequent review of the article bylmHout tbe following points which are strongly suggestive of actual experience:any microbes possess high stability to temperature, even such binh temperatures as arise in tbe explosion of artillery shells andt Is knownemperature of0 degrees is created by the explosion of artillery shells and the effect on microbes ofemperature would be destructive; nevertheless, vith the short thermal reaction due to the1iological, agents ore apparently protected by the medium in whichcrobcs arc suspended." Morgunov wrote that the slurry form of sn czent fill is more infectiveried product, although tbe dry agent is preserved better and can be used in artillery weapons whereas tbe Liquid culture cannot. Toe disparity in infectlvity can be overcome by fine grinding of the dry mass, according to him. / The previously mentioned revelations of fl former Soviet officer with respect to biological artillery munitions4 was the Tirst indication of the possible existenc such weapons since the German World War II reports. /

These various pieces

of information were interpreted7 as demonstrativeefinite Soviet Interest in BW agent delivery by artillery fire. / Tbe range of artillery types to which tbe Soviets night adapt experimental biological munitions is wide. Among the improved models emerging since World War II,m. fieldn. howitzers;m. morters. Field rocket launchers,m. have also been described. / Wo data are available on which to predict the probable choice of those weapons to disperse BW agents in tactical situations.

From Colonel Hirsch's documentation of BM weapons development in the USSR, it seems likely that early efforts were concentrated on relatively snail-volume containers, such as, 'ther-ter "BR" tanks for aircraft dissemination. Plans caUoJl0 liter vessels eventually, according to his sources. Recent PQSAAF training material otntes. the airplane spray tonka consist of thin-walled metal reservoirsapacity0 liters or more." / The author may well hove had Inodified version of the VAp, ZAP or HKJIAP aircraft tanks0 liter capacity developed for chcnlcol agents. / The containers of this series ore not aerodynamically suited to delivery by modern high-performanceoct recognized by Soviet writers:

he high speed and altitude of modern jet planes end the powerful antiaircraft defense combine to restrict the use of airplane spray tanks." ore suitable externally counted apparatus has beens unknown. It is entirely plausible that aerodynamic problems may havehift In emphasis either to (a) internal containers of exceedingly lorge capacity for LAC employment by Jet eircraft, or (b) cluster munitions for bomb bay release. Ho evidence is available to date that LAC dissenlnttonbeen designed in the USSR, such os, equipment capable oficrsing more than one ton of infectious or toxic material.

Soviet rotating cluster bombs and their component bomblets, although intended primarily for CW agents, are probably adaptable to delivery of microorganisms. / Several types and sizes of these munitions have been identified. Including spherical metal or glass bomblets generally conpareble to experimental models developed In the West for DW purposes./ In speaking of biological weapons one Soviet author. As regards the design, bacterial aerial bombs should obviously bc similar to that of chemicalonsequently it can be assumed that the basic componentsacterial bomb are the bodyeservoir for the bacterial formulation, explosive charge, stabilizer and fuze (impact or time type)." 6ll

Other means of aerosol dissemination are known to tbe Soviets in addition to bombs, artillery, and spray tanks for conventional aircraft. The possibility of using compressed air end piston driven devices has been mentioned in their publications. / Portable and vehicular spray equipment for toxic agents is believed to be available to the armed forces, while various biological aerosol generators yielding particles in the appropriate size range have been described. / ealth and agricultural agencies have also developed dusters and sprayers for dispersion of liquid and dry insecticides from helicopters. Military usage of light planes for releasing insecticides has been mentioned, as well'

ecent intelligence study pointed out the probability that certain similar Items of equipment have been modified for employment ofnd'CW serosols. / Perhaps the greatest utility of these items vould be found in portable generators or harmless-appearing devices for disseminating biological aerosols covertly. It must be ussuraed that progress has been made in- devising efficient methods and equipment for clandestine attack, and that Nothing as primitive as the Ice cvllnders reported by Hirsch is 3till undei'

The current intensity of uw weapons activity in the Soviet Union is unknown. The existence of the probable proving ground on Vozrozhdenlya Island is, in itself, the strongest evidence that biological weapons have been developed, at least us far as experimental stages. Analysis of the facilities on the island suggests asvell balanced program encompassing munitions for both tactical and strategic employment, deliverable by either ground or airborne equipment. The relative status of the various possible types has not been learned; and there are still no firm indications that biological weapons have been standardized,nd distributed to units capable of usinfc them. I

Reserve officer students in the biological4 were reportedly assignedBW branch" of the military services for training.

Current Research Identifiable with Offensive

Little research known to be under way in the USSR today can be construed as oriented solely toward offensive BW. On the otherreat deal of reported work, in addition to its value in problems of public sanitation, medical science, and defense of the nation against possible attack, could have offensive applications, any investigations of this nature have already teen cited as pertinent to agent and weapons development because of their historical identification with personnel and institutes believed to be involved in one or another phase of BW. In this section, selected information will be pinpointed in order to focus attention on recent activities having an easily recognized bearing on the offensive aspects of the Soviet program. These are found almost exclusively In the field of aerobiology.

According to7 edition of the authoritative Soviet Great Medical Encyclopedia, the primary objective of medically related aerobiological studies In the USSR is knowledge of immunological mechanisms involved in

aerogenic infections arising from enemy Hew developmentsequipment5 have materially Improvedfor this tygf$ of research; at the sane time, conditionsdata of offensive value have been established. of the Central Institute for Advanced Training ofreported initial -studies on aerosol chamber methodology inan intestinal microorganismodel. |conductedof the influenza viruses at the Kishinev Medicalthe sane standpoint. esign worked outchamber was fabricated and put into operation at the Institutein Moscow / Created specifically fortheas been employed extensively for studyinginfluenza, and possibly Venezuelan equine Researchers of tbe Institute of General andLmeni Sysin apparently are sharing the chamber facilities ofInstitute. / Inanapparatus for exploring the kinetics of bacterialand droplet form atKiev Institute for Advanced ccrtair:ltechniques

nfluenza virus experimentsmaller cbertber improvised at theof Infectious Diseases. / Some of the most significantwork has been recorded by scientists of tbejIlHtaryimeni Kirov inhamber

ostensibly for immunizing animals via tbe respiratory routeeansagainst airborne pathogens and bacterial toxins. and Salmonella typhi -murium probably served as slmulantsformicroorganisms in the published version

P. avis is closely related to P. tularcnsis and P. pestis, the 'causative agents of tularemia and plague, respectively. lMHasff followed up with an assessment In mice and guinea pigs of active and passiveprocedures for counteracting aerosols of botulinumnd b. Tae ultimate objective is to "evaluate immunity in humans against respiratory affections with botulinum and other less effective bacterial/ Since botulism does not occur in nature in the pulmonary form, this experimentation is one of the clearest examples of purely bh-sponsored work. The generation of toxin aerosols, even to challenge immunity, cannot be completely divorced from the offensive side, because backgroundmust of necessity be gained first on biological decay, effective dosage range, optimum particle size, appropriate exposure periods, and related variables. ike manner^ the current aerogenic vaccine program of the Military Medical meant overcome deficiencies In conventional ijamunization procedures by developing protective antigens to be introduced through the lungs; in challenging immunity bestowed on animals by this meens data are obtained concurrently on aerosolizing virulent plague, brucellosis, tularemia, and anthrax organisms. / The documented.employment of aerosolized vaccine strains of these four microbes in human volunteer trials is similarly motivated.

although tbe information being collected has less value for offensive purposes because the subjects .have not, ass is known, been exposed to virulent cells. / This-rather ambitious program has been under vay at the Academy sinceor earlier, according to Soviet writings; extension of aerogenic vaccine methods to virus diseases of man and animals has been visualized. / In the meantime, attention is apparently bein^ devoted to refinement of the bacterial aerogenic preparations, particularly with regard to penetration and retention of antigens in the lungsunction of aerosol particle size- /

Veterinary scientists are also active in the field of respiratory vaccines, and the information gathered in these programs almost certainly

cds to the fund of knowledge of offensivehavelexiglass chamber for studyingdomestic animals. / First exposing nice and rabbits, endand calves to aerosols of Salmonella species, comparativeinfective-dose levels were established. Presumably thebe extended to microbes causing the more serious animalevidencerend toward aerogenic vaccination as ais the recently reported dissemination of fowl plague viruserysipelas vaccines by/ In two other instancesofs refers to aerosol studies which can beproduce data of offensive significance. Without siwlng7 conference in Saratov mentioned an accountcharacteristicsof^pneuiTX>nicplague arising from / InScientific

Research Institute of Vaccines end Sera on the minimum infective dose of tularemia organisms for pigs via the lungs and other portals. /

Current work of the Military Medical Academy on penetrationof aerosols in the lungs points up the critical importancesize to'development of microbes es BW agents. The Sovietsa variety of generators for laboratory-scale aerosols,Chicago atomizer developed in the West for creating biologicaluniformly small particle size. / Thehamberda compressed eir sprayeryieldingercent of the particlesin size. / flHtfof the Medical Academy stated thataerosols in scne^xperiments consisted of particles Inorange. HHemployed anisseminator foranimals end livestock with Salmonella eerosols; the particleobtained within his chamber vas not specified,istol atomizer" andulverizer" veredisseminate his fowl plague virus vaccine, but specific data onso generatedwereno^civen. / The aerosol chamberrecentlyKiev, the Institute of Virology's IVK-1

chamber, and fr%mmm%uamJirA^^nt at the Military Medical Academy arc probably equivalent to sirailer pieces of apparatus designed in the West as

hi i

precision end versatility. In general, tbe Soviet literature ebon that prior0 coaporatlvely little microbial sere-sol work vus accompli shed;tudies dealt mostly witt the mechanics of air-sampling and techniques for isolating and identifying airborne/ In later years, emphasis on aerogenic infections, biological aerosol properties, and environmental effects suggests that technology and methodology have been improved to the point that

data should proceedaster rate. Whilel

others, compiled encyclopedic documents onormation and behavior some time ago, it is paw current Soviet microbial aerosol research is sti

of major vuriablcs on biological decay.

of the Institute dfGeneral and Communal Hygiene imenl Syoin, who has published widely on aerosol sampling methods and principles of the spread of airborne disease, reported0 on chamber studies with dry and droplet aerosols of the relatively innocuous Micrococcus albicans for the purpose ofhumidity and ter.perature effects.

[botulinun aerosol workock of sophistication in thattoxin was employed end little apparent attention was paid to partlclc-slxc measurements and other controls. / It was noted previously, too, that tbe psittacosis aerosol research under way at the Institute of Virology is still largely preliminary since the main objective at this point is probably stabilization of experiments! variables. / Superficially, this indicates that Soviet knowledge of biological aerosols vfclch could be applied to weapons is relatively retarded. At the sane time, conditions for effective aerosol disseminationatter of individual concern for each candidate microbial agent, and generalities on this subject are usually invalid. It Is also conceivable that-Soviet scientists ore satisfied with fewer refinements in biological weapons, and, hence less concerned with high percentage viability, exact particle size, and related properties in their aerosolized agents.

Whereas laboratory investigations pertinent to offensive BW can some-tines bo recognized from tbe published biological literature, similar screening of source material for evidence of oerobiologicol activity in the external environment is far less rewarding. Indications of large-area coverage (LAC) testing in the USSR are practically nonexistent. 8 Baltic Sea exercises in which aerosol tracer clouds were reportedly released and then studied by ship-bome samplers may be significant, but the nature of tbe aerosol cloud, that is, whether simulated chemical, biological, or atonic, and the distance involved have not been ascertained. JU8/ Theoretic^ research which also appears applicable to CBS warfare vas described ^vt^mtrnW

it the Institute of Applied Geophysicshey computed characteristics of the distribution of nonspecific aerosols at long distances downwindelease point. hf2/ As earlyampling of the atnosphere woo begun over Moscow to establish normal background counts of airborne microorganisms, information useful in detecting BW attack. At

altitudesoot and under,0 bacteriological analyses were conducted and the results apparently correlated with prevailing atmospheric conditions. / , the Lvov Scientific Research Institute of Epidemiology, Microbiology, and Hygiene developed its:;own techniques for aircraft sampling of the atmosphere, andreliminary publication describedlights performed to obtain vertical bacterial profile/ econd article advised thatdditional flights had been cade inamples taken at various altitudes0 feet. / The authors' ratlonele for undertaking the latter study, and the manner in which it was organized, suggest the possibilityAC testomewhat reduced scale was actually under way in that month: uestions concerning the dissemination of microbes In the atmosphere arc not yet sufficiently studied, especially not under meteorological conditions of the seasons. These questions arc of Rpecial 'nterest in regard to the transmission of microbes at longn order to study the microflora of the high altitudes during the winter period, and to investigate the character of air masses, wepecial research." Microbial counts were correlated with recordedobservations end with the movement of air masses taken from chartseather station, apparently located In the vicinity of Lvov. The. Our observations have also revealed the effect of meteorological factors on the resistance of the bacterialnfers that an easily recognized microbe,V simulant, was releasedontrol on which to Judge the deleterious effects of humidity, solar radiation, and other variables. ase line figure forotal number of organisms present initielly, the date on such effects would be meaningless. In speakingorrelation between bacterial numbers and moisture content of the atmosphere at various altitudes, this explanation wasApparently, due to increased gravity, sedimentation of bacterial aerosols of condensed water vapor cecurs fasteracuum." From the facthe period ofconducted at the latitude of Lvov was characterized by predominant arctic airnd considering that sampling was done specifically at the junction of two different air nesses near that city, the implication is plain that one objective of the research was to trace the movement of airborne organismsrontalritical feature of the LAC concept.

Status of Military Defense

Soviet countermeasurcs against biological and other mass destruction weapons arc basedomplex organizational structure. The major elements are the armed forces, including medical, veterinary, and chemical troop units; the public health agencies; the civil defense system; end certain paramilitary groups of which DOSAAF is representative. Local anti-air defense units (MPVO) form the backbone of the civil defense organization, drawing on the resources of the medical, epidemiological, and sanitary-hygiene services of the Ministries of Healthefense. DOSAAF is primarily concerned with indoctrination and training of the populace. Sanitary and epidemic control of the military environmentoint function of medical units and chemical troops within the armed forces, the former havingfor prophylaxis, diagnosis, and therapy of disease and for providing the necessary sanitation equipment. Chemical troops carry out decontaminatic: and protective procedures, participate in CBR defensive training of personnel, and assist tbe medical units in detecting attack with biological weapons. Tie 'eterinery staff is concerned with animal diseases transmissable to humansth protection of food supplies. The research foundation for development of defensive tools employed by the civil and military components is furnished by the scientific communityrominent part being taken by the service academies and military research institutes. The Military Medical Academy imeni Kirov and the Central Scientific Research Testing Institute of Military Medicine probably ploy leading roles in this respect. At one time KIIEC was similarly involved, although its current status is unknown.

The administrative mechanism for coordinating BW defense of the USSR dates from World War II days; continuity of effort was ensured to some degree by the founders because, in the words of the Great Medical Encyclopedia, ". . .This defense is'bascd on the existing peacetime system of sanitary hygienic and antiepidemic measures." t was notowever, that CBR training in the military forces vas formulated in its present scoce, with greater emphasis on atomic and biological weapons than in thej In like manner, the public of the USSR was given little significantn ABC warfare prior / How, instruction in principles of detection, protection, and decontamination is said to be an integral part of the annual military training cycle, and unit commanders have been madele for its effectiveness. / In some cases the program is actually supervised by the commanding officer of the CW troop/ This arrangement is to be expected because under Soviet concept' individual and collective methods and eouioment for CW protection also serve for BW and radiation defense. The gas alarm reportedly is used toW attack, and detection kits apparently contain dual-purpas* sampling devices,

According to intelligence studies, the Soviet army is thoroughly trained end veil prepared to defend against mass destruction/ ^Og/ =ecruit training has been described in which the use of protective clothing, assies, and decontamination equipment is solidly instilled during the first three months of service. Practice alerts and lectures supplementhe extension of this type of training to array field maneuvers and naval sea exercises has been reported. / BW defense^ormspar^ofear curriculum of officer candidates for the CW branch,et_ul he had received periodic orientation in CBR / Therendications, however, ThstBVdefensive training for the mass of Soviet troop units has gone much beyond the mechanics of safeguarding tho individual soldier. Demonstration of biological agent effects, the employment of simulants, and similar elements of realistic training are not known to have been introduced. On tbe whole, theof instruction and practical application Is considered sufficient to legradc the impact of biological attack if advance warning were available. The ;egree of effectiveness of counteraeasures, however. Is dependent on certain other factors, among them the status of immunity; the type of BW agent used; the efficiency of detection, identification, and decontamination procedures; the availability of protective garments end shelters; and tbe timeliness of therapy.

Soviet troops are not known to have administered uniformly prophylactic antigens for microorganisms deemed to be the most promising candidate biological agents. The basic formulations against typhoid, the paratyphoids, baclllary dysentery, tetanus, smallpox, and cholera are given routinely. ZJxOj It seems likely that units deployed in regions of endemic disease receive vaccines forendncephalitis, and possibly tularemia, brucellosis,ever, as is reportedly practiced with civilian/ Presumably, the large-scale immunization programs for influenza and polio-myelitis have been extended to the military forces- Soviet statements show clear recognition of the value of ImmunizationW defensive factor:he essential role belongs to specific prophylaxis in the system of anti-epidemic neasurcs'Torhe establishment of immune contingents among the population assumes great significance in considering such diseases as brucellosis, tularemia, anthrax, and botulism;" j/ . the necessityarisepecific epidemic situation of simultaneously Immunizing people with numerous antigens in variousarge number of infectious diseases." / Such thinking has almost certainly provided the impetus for current research on multiple, or combined, antigens, polyvalent antlnera, and aerogenic vaccines- Combined vaccines, except for the trivacclne and the NIISI preparation against enteric diseases and tetanus, probat have not yet reached the stage of generaljl/ As regards the status of respiratoryaHR commended , -despite general acceptance of the high degree of effectiveness and evident promise of the method of inhalation immunization, it has not to date obtaloed' extensive practical application." / The lack of tailored vaccine strains, production techniques, and equipment uniquely suited to mass application of the antigens demonstrate the stlll-experlmental nature of this approach. est-model aerosol apparatus for dispensing Influenza antigen to large groups of people was developed recently by the Health/ There is little

question but that the widespread use in the ussh of conventional vaccines against tularemia, brucellosis, anthrax, and plague has generated acapability over the years such that prophylaxis as available for the armed forces should the demand be felt. ecent Soviet statement Indicated, however, that plogue vaccine production may have been curtailed because of the low incidence, or absence, of the/ The extent to which botulinum toxoids of various types and effective antigens for roost of the virus and rickettsial diseases could be supplied is obscure.

Much work Is conducted on improvement of existing preparations, even among the bacterial antigens, with respect to antigenicity, duration of IffPiunity, and reduction of the Incidence of adverse physiological reactions toearch is under vay for new tularemia cultures Tor irnunity against highly virulent strains;etter antigen is sought for the present plague vaccine as regards respiratory protection and side/ and the STI anthrax vaccine is being rc-oxamlnediew toward fewerularemia and brucellar live antigens, although usedass scale, also yield undesirable side effects, and several full-blown cases of brucellosis arising froa iamunitation have been/ Antigens for glanders and melioidosis have not been successfully prepared. In tbe virus an- rickettsial field, adequate vaccines are not yet available for infectious hepo^tis and the hemorrhagic fevers; and little effort to provide prophylaxis against Coxsacklo, echo, and ndeno viruses is/ Even though mass vaccination has taken place In endemic areas with the mouse-Drain tick encephalitis antigen and tbencephalitis vaccine, tbe results are questionable. The latter preparation is considered unsatisfactory, and the morbidity from use of the tick-borne spring-summer encephalitis antigen hasearch for an improved egg-grown vaccine and the withholding of some production lots from distribution.While the egg-propagated antigenever gives adverse reactions, too, it is felt to be generally effective; such is not tbe case with the experimental psittacosis vaccine. / Little Is known of the yellow fever antigen prepared ln the USSR,isiting Soviet scientist claimed9 that manufacture hodtopped because of unsatisfactory production/ The Soviet program of immunization against infectious diseases and the biologies program in general is far from adequate. ack of confidence in the quality of products and skepticism of the efficacy have beenV It is said, for example, tbat BOG' tuberculosis vaccination was discontinued in Poland because of the hazard of the Soviot/ Recognizing that improvement is badly needed, Soviet administrators nov are re-evaluating the entire production/ Dissatisfaction over the purity of bacterial toxoids has been expressed; tbe Shigella dysentery antigen was reportedly deleted from vaccinesnd the stockpiling of several antisera, in addition to the experimental Omsk hemorrhagic fever antigen, is to be stopped. Sjl/jjU/ Othor drawbacks within the heulth agencies were described recently as poor record-keeping, lack of space for conducting Immunization, unfomillarity with procedures and

the part of medicol technicians, ond insufficient storage facilities, for exoosure occurs by the respiratory route.

fro- representative land ur.its and naval/here are

thathssis has teen given to procurement

or quickly assembled shelters. it appears, rather, tha. relur.ce

placed too great extentombination of protective clothing, covered

frenches or sner conventional

to degrade/ only recently has mention been

s her^lcltly wed, lichtveigbt^shelters, complete vith air filter arc

ventilation system, for housing each platoon in an infantry company.

such items arc not yet believed available to the military forces as

anathi. recent description may only reflect prototype development and sen lee

testing of experimental models.

for decontaminating the locale of suspected B'Jclothing, weapons, and equipment subjected

chemical troops of tbe ground forces reportedlyariety of nulti purpose mobiltand portablebSQJvesselsssthave wash-down/ decontamination teams8 portable spray apparatus, and are supported by?machinery has been developed for dispensing chloride of to "hralns terrainhower and laundry trailer andhave been described in soviet writings. / standardsorationrecommended capacities for the different types of equipment are known, ana

procedures for eliminating vogatstivc and spore forms cf BW agents from various fabrics and materials have been prescribed by the Ministry of/ Detailed instructions for applying disinfectants in the proper concentration to terrain, vehicles, and buildings ore alsoin training literature for general public/ Inasmuch as reagents for biological decontamination are relatively inexpensive, identical in some instances to CW agent decontaminants, available in large quantities, stable, and require only simple dispersing equipment, there Is no reason to doubt that adequate supplies ore on hand for use by Soviet troops. Chloride of lime, formalin, and calcium hypochlorite, the chemical: most commonly cited as biological disinfectants in the USSR are deemed satisfactory for mass application, BW defensive purposes. No Indications have been noted of efforts to counteract agent clouds before the organisms have settled on environmental objects. Military scientists in Czechoslovak! have been experimenting with chlorosulphoniceagent used to geners; smoke,eans of disinfecting airborne microbes over openhe work reported8 vas still highly preliminary, but Sovietundoubtedly have access to any data acquired since that date.

The donning of protective clothing, the initiation of decontamination procedures, and selective thorapy arc dependent for effectiveness on timely warning of exposure. The warning function is purportedly performed for the military forces by observation: teams, organic at company levels, cooprisir.-speclalists in CBR/ Portable kits containing soil, water, and food sampling equipment, therapeutic preparations, and diagnostic aids have been described for teamehicle-mounted epidemiological laboratories canned by mobile detachments of the medical service probably carry out the required analyses for agenthe number of detachments operatingiven zone Is unknown. It appears unlikely that such unlta would be formed below division level, ond possibly they are attached only to field amies oro th- event of disease outbreak, the division medical staff can establish isolation areas and commandeer field hospital facilities,oviet naval officer stated9 that shore installations supporting the Baltic fleet maintain mobile hospitals in reserve solely for counteracting unconventional

The methods employed routinely by the Sovie^forcesforagents are still not known

on technique

olysaccharide bacterial fraction onto erythrocytes; thesethe presencepecific antiserum,ositive reaction He claimed that antigens corresponding toocan be identifiedoelieving thattechniques offer the greatest promise forat the Military Medical Academy

haveH procedure to representative enteric bacteria;

plague, tularemia, brucellosis, and anthrax organisms;ond mixtures ofy concentratingfrom air, fluids, or soil vdth membrane filters, andimprovedin ot ions cftn te perfon^din^Qjijiutes toours.sensitivity the is

such that several missions of microbial cells must be collected toositive reading. Other experimental approaches utilized recently ore selective adsorption of intact bacterial cell mixtures with chemical. reagents, and flourescent antibodyrote9 of their attempts to identify typhoid,rucellosis, and anthrax on contaminated military equipment, and fromOtcr, and variousl/ The fluorescent antiserum slide-procedure vas reportedly capable of detecting celleutcrillion per milliliter, although atillions cells vere needed for absolute accuracy. Difficulty in positively identifying anthrax was encountered, according to their data. Again, membraneere employed for the concentration process. Aside from .aforcmcntioned reference to unidentified rickettsial species in

(investigation,with hog cholera, the

viral and rickettsial ogents^andbacterial toxins are not actuallyto have been used in rapid detection explorations by military/ Scientists of the civilian health agencies have been active in recen: years on

positive tularemia cases can bo found within "several hours,"results cameith regardtoxin

Epidemiology, Microbiology, and Hygiene devisea^aprocedure for measuring the "phagocytic index" of blood in animals injected withJ/ Variable results were obtained when toxic serum and eluates of contaminated food were employed to challenge the method, and the technique roust be considered imperfect at this stage of development.

Llitary Medical Academy evaluated the

world literature on rapid detection of pathogens and published9/ Those ore significant from the standpoint ofSoviet research may take in the future. As regardsthey believe the fluorescent antibody technique offers thebecause it can be applied directly to contaminated materialsthe necessity of pure culture isolation. Noting thatinoculation must presently be done to seperate viruses,toxins, they predicted that tissue culture will be widely- usedof its simplicity and rapidity. This step has beenwlth_the poliomyelitis virus, according to thethe potential value of continuous culti-

vation, selective media, and infrared spectrophotometry for Identifying specific microbes, but they ogreed that nonspecific measures, such as, alarm systems, are of greater importance. Tho paper demonstrated that Sovie military scientists are fully aware of the latest experimental approaches explored in the West for developing instruments to indicate bw attack. Scanning for particle-site discrimination, photoelectric recording of an upsurge in the number of airborne particles, pyrolysls of protein in the air, and electrostatic precipitation, are among the methods cited. The Great Medical7 referred to electronic devices for calculating the number and distribution of particles or dropsacterial cloud; however, no evidence for the existence of automatic detection instruments jr. tbe USSR has been/ Frca emphasis seen on other aspects of bw defense in recent years, it seems highly probable that alarm systems are unde active investigation as one phase ofver-all program. onference of tho Academy of Medical Sciencesuick identification of specific organisms was pointed out as the chief problem in studying the microflora of the externaleed was expressed for direct isolation methods for the viruses, and beyondechnique universally applicable to all pathogens. Dependence on animal or egg Inoculation to isolate viruses and rickettsiae, or to confirm the presence of bacterial toxins, isajor limitation of the present Soviet ability toW attack. Prom all indications, the accelerated identification techniques now under study for these potential agents, as well as for tha bacteria, have not been perfected and ore not yet applicable to use in the field. Reliance Is probably placed on classical laboratory isolation methods and pure cultureituation consistent with agent identification in terms of days rather thanew hours.

ensitivity level of identification techniques devised- is so low that some form of concentration is required torganisraslear-cut positive reaction. Filtrution, Impinge'- aerosol particles, and subculturlng are among theor this purpose. The requirement for collection of cells- : volumes of water and air hasroad field ofn filtration and sampling equipment,

Zz. searching for simple equipment, Soviet scientists huvc turned tofilters of nitrocellulose or gelatin for collecting pathogens irz- sir and water# by/ Bacteria can be impingedCSU1 cellulose disk, stained for microscopic viewing, or culturedfilter/ Gelatin (gel-foaa) filters are solubleliquid media, ensuring that most of the trapped organisms recovered. These soluble products are reportedly used at theVirology for sampling psittacosis and influenza virus ti.-tsils, and for influenza studies at the Kiev Institute ofomparative date are being compiled on the

lies and disadvantages of membrane filters when tested against other: amplers, os well ss on differences among various kinds of/ Limitations are encountered vith membranes, too. They

e fragile, often yield erratic counts, sometimes inactivatethe dissolution process, and, in the case of gelatin, provideof nutrient which may not be desirable,een placed on membrane filtersccording to Soviet

first for voter purification analysis, and later for virus research -iiiampling. Mans production was reportedly under way as early as

nd unspecified present-day equipment for collectingunder field conditions by various agencies is utilize membrane filter components. Military medical researchers stated6 that simple, reliable methods for sampling aerosols still do not exist, the inability to trap viruses, rickettsiae, and toxinsignificant/ Efforts are apparently under way to develop

Status of Civilian Defense

of Soviet civil defense in recent years are in essential agreement that an extensive, well-organized system has been formulated. Based on an edmlnlstrative structure established during World War II, but actually doting back "to.-thes asolicy of military education for Soviet civilians, the defensive program has reportedly indoctrinated overercent of/theTcdult population in one or more phses of CBRetvorkyog locally organized groups ia said to

spun tho entire territory of the USSR, each capable of rapid mobilization in the event of attack, and of carrying out the special tasks for which it is/ Civil defense voa oriented in earlier years toward conventional air attack and CI/ weapons, but atomic and biological defensive measures were Introduced/5 onward it became apparent to close observers that civil defense activityhole was being intensified;3 the highest peak since World war II was reached in training efforts. anuary7evised program under way to Indoctrinate all persons over i6 years of age, its foundation beingours of instruction in CBR defense. Completion date was set for8 in large cities and8 in smaller population centers and rural/ The DOSAAF Congress8 proposed an extension of thehourollow-up stage of practical application to encompass/ The progress of this ambitious undertaking is difficult to assess since eyewitness accounts, vhich differ markedly from official pronouncements, indicate training to be spotty and unevenly applied. Many persons purportedly have received no instruction at all, while select Industrial groups are given periodic lectures and demonstrations, Interspersed with practice alerts. Protective clothing and masksid to be stored at work sites for the use of key workers. raining is initiated through recruitment of members for DOSAAF, an organization estimated to haveillion persons on its roster From oblast to oblost, marked differences ineat snd, hence, extent of training, are found. Variations ranging fromoercent of the adults have beenlow progress is criticized In the Soviet press, snd student apathy and poor quality of teaching have been/artial basis for this lack of interest probably lies in the arbitrary methods employed for choosing instructors. In sore instances vork perfomance rather than background knowledge is the criterion for selection. rief period ofin CBR defense, newly designated instructors are expected to organize and indoctrinate fellow workers on this complex/ It appears probable that the 'training program so far has not lived up to expectation, and that relatively few Soviet civilians have sufficient depth of knowledge to bc considered thoroughly indoctrinated and effective in CBR defense.

The status or progress in providing collective shelters for the population isontroversial matter. rogram ofwis startedith the intent that air-raid shelters should be Installed in all future public buildings, factories, schools, and apartment/ Greek, Spanish, and German repatriates from the USSR report that basement shelters were being erected throughout thes In Soviet/ The shelters consist of reinforced concrete or brick cubicles whose ceiling and walls are formed by the building foundation; utilities, ventilation systems, and sleeping facilities have supposedly been completed'in some of theu.Tjj/Tgg/ These structures apparently conform to the first of the three basic types described in civil defense publications, the other two being earth shelters and permanent sofety areas,

There is no confirmation of large-scale construction of heavy shelters in or near Soviet urban centers for protection of the population, or of any significant ninter of bunker-type/ It appears likely that the collective shelter program is still largely in tbe planning stage,ev well-protected areas probably have been equipped for the protection of high authorities lnarallel approach, the codification of underground rail systens to provide public safety apparently has been no moreroject was supposedly initiated7 to revamp the Koscov subway for atonic defensethe work is claimed to have been finishedut

ere unable to find any Indications of the

/ Cjuslified observers report no evidence of crucial civil defense Interest in the larger Soviet cities as exemplified by construction activity, overt training, posted evacuation plans, visible shelter signs, and mobilisation of medical/

Ifliilc DOSAAF cadres apparently have sufficient protective clothing for instructional purposes, it Is questionable whether the populacehole is adequately equipped.he civilian gas mask Is probably available in quantity only for defense workers and key personnel of essential/ cotton and gauze masks for protection of the respiratory tract ore roconrwnded forcivilian use. / Firm data ore lacking on tho exte: to which MPVO -teAMapre. outfitted with multipurpose garments, but members ;ubjectzation to carry out designated emergency taska

probably have priority in the issue of ouch equipment. It seems likely that individual sets are maintained in ready storage for teams in critical areas. DOSAAF publications show that protective clothing hos been developed specifically for active participants in defense, based on the relative degrse of need. etisposable paper mantle, rubberized or plosticized stocking* worn over ordinary footwear, ond rubberized yloves. Theae item3 ore intended for protection of exposed portions of the body against gross infection by bacterial agents In loeel antiaircraft defense groups working outdoors. acket vLtb trousers or protective overalls of rubberized fabric, rubber boots, and cotton cop; it is designed for prolonged exposure in on infected area during roconnalononce or decontamination. Setrotective apron of rubberized or plastlcized fabric, rubberized stockings, ond rubber gloves for teams handling disinfection equipment. Each outfitas mask, presumably the GP-4. Individual ontichemical kits hove also been described; disinfectant-soaked tampons supplied in the kits are used to wipe theace, or other parts of the body contaminatedU attack. / There ore no Indications that equipment of this nature has been produced for the benefit of the general public, however, or that tho government intends to make it availableassive/

There is no reason to believe that civil authorities areore fovoreble position than their military counterparts with respect to rapid detection of BW attack. The first indication that biological agents are present could come from civil defense teams though, depending on whether KPVO or military units are operatingiven locale at the time. The responsibility for BU sampling is apparently shared by amed forces medical units, mobile sanltary-epidcmiologicol detachments of the MPVO medical service, and reconnaissance petrols of Since the civil defense agencies Icon heavily on the peacetime epidemiological service of the Health Ministry for support, Soviet planning calls for analytical procedures on suspected materials to be conducted by local sanitary-epidemiologicel/Soviet article on BW defense announced thatmobile sanitory-epidemiological detachments ond groups have been formed in sanltary-epidemiological stations whose duty will be to organize measures and eliminate bacterial foci when theyj/ One such mobile detachment was reportedly Instrumental In diagnosing an outbreak of influenzailitary garrison / Presumably these newly organized teams will function In time of emergency under the supervision of MPVO personnel. This move is apparently one of several doslgned to bolster the Soviet defensive capability, which concurrently raising the level of public health. For example,h Congress of the Communist Party not only decreed nn increase in the number of sanitation specialists, epidemiologists, ond physicians within the health organs, but recocnended that modern, fully equipped bacteriological laboratories be Installedanitary-epidemic logical stations and hospitals which hod none at that/ Certain of the sanitory-cpideniological stations hove Joined in the program of systcmaticolly sampling the atmosphere for background microbial counts- This participation is strong evidence thot some sanitary-epidemiological Installations, and probably their mobile

dctachaentfi re movcdedamplers. These devices,

biological agent collect ion if attack were known to be intending or to bavi actually occurred. Just as ln the case of military medical units, the KPVO groups and the sanitary-spideaiologicol establishments are not believed to have indicator systems or automatic alarms to warn of this contingency. Tht recent training literature for civilians still stresses detection of BW attack by observing characteristics of munitions and symptoms of Illness in humans or/ Leading institutes of the Ministry of Health ere pursuing research cn rapid identification of bacteria, toxins, and virus nnd rickettsial forms, but there Is nothing to suggest that quick diagnostic procedures have reuched the point of applicability to the detection problems of sanitary-epidemlological laboratories. At thisr development. It is to be expectederiod of many hours, or even several days, would elapseW instigated outbreak of airborne disease could by plainly recognized.

Epidemiological problems are investigated at the working level bystations whichetwork across endemic lsoase areas of the USSR. These stations also provide the technical assistance end equipment for disinfection and Insect or rodent control vhor outbreaks occur locally. Decontamination crews are suppliedeans of transportation and portable apparatus of various types to clean up the environment of patients with serious communicable illnesses. / The reagents employed for disinfection, like those used by the armed forces, arc available in quantity; presumably the mobile equipment is identical to,odification of, that furnished the military services. It is not clesr to what extent tbe activities of these disinfection organs arc Integrated with the KPVO, but it seems likely that civil defense supervision of their functions takesmergency situationsashion analogous to tho aforementioned epidemiological investigations. Despite the abundance of inexpensive reagents, tbe simplicity of equipment, and the availability of general medical knowledge on how these tools should be used, improvement in the disinfection services is citedritical/ The high Incidence of diseases attributable to faulty sanitation demonstrates that education of the populace io an important first/ BW defense literature spells out the manner in vhich decontamination should be handled by civilian workers where limited foci of infection exist, but the massive contamination possible with modern delivery systees raises serious problems for vhich solutions are only now being/ Disinfection of air,hemical agents for inactivating resistant anthrax spores, and special methods for killingever, and other candidate BW materials in external surroundings are Important research subjects In recent programs of sanitary-epidemiological stations, veterinary Institutes, and porticularly, tho Central Scientific Research Disinfection Institute lnhe Military Medical Academy imenl Kirov is exploiting its aerogenic vaccine experiments to formulate hygiene procedures for disinfecting body surfaces of volunteers exposed to aerosols of living

anthrax and brucellosis microbes- 5iV It is especially significant from the standpoint of rapid decontamination of building interiors and delicate equipment that little or no Soviet utilization of the very effective modem gaseous disinfectants has beenthylene oxide mixtures' with freon or carbon dioxide. Because MPVO and military units are probably trained sufficiently in the mechanics of decontamination and supplied with the requisite equipment, it appears likely that Soviet defenses couldith isolated disinfection situations arising from BW attack, as in the caseomb crater or sicknesseu residences. Cross contamination of an extensive area, however, would almost certainly overtax present

facilities, arid prolonged exposure of the population to viable agents would result.

Large segments of the Soviet public, especially in urban centers, presumably have no history of contact with infectious organisms likely to be employed against them in warfare. There is no confirmation, and little direct evidence, that antigenic stimulation by wholesale vaccination has yet been carried outeans of building up immune contingents In the populatic for BW defense. Previous discussion showed that Soviet planning cenvisions th approach in the future, however. For the present, the peoples of the USSR must be considered susceptible in varying degreesumber of potential biological agents- Feu figures ere available on the prevalence of active immunization. Civilians reportedly receive smallpox, pertussis, diphtheria, tuberculosisnd tetanus antigens; but only smallpox is required, and there is sorae doubt that complete coverage results. 2*

example,illion were vaccinal

against cholera;Q, typhoid antisen had been dispensed to en estimatedercent of the populace, with additional millions coming under the program each year. Following introduction of the live brucellosis vaccinever two million sheep and cattle attendants were supposedly immunizedass prophylaxis against tularemia was initiatedut total numbers involved are unknown.

^ More recent Soviet claims are on the order

of several hundred thousand for spring-summer encephalitis. / Influenza antigen was receivedith other thousands vaccinated Soviet figures on current use of live influenza vaccine are approximatelyillion persons each/ Some of the experimental products have been administeredizable scale, too. It is reported that the pappataci fever egg-embryo vaccine was tried out0 peopleive mumps antigen of the same type was field-tested0/ As ofhe administration of this parotitis vaccine ond the newly developed measles antigen to large segments of the population is still

In the planning stage. TO/ The poliomyelitis program is perhaps the outstanding example of mass iosuniration capability of the USSR vhen once the tochnologyof. live-vaccine production has been mastered. Byverillion polio inoculations vere reportedly/ The oral antigen for this disease will be dispensed toillion personsccording to Soviet/ Data are not available on the prevalence of-prophylaxis ngainst plague, anthrax,ever, tularemia, and yellow fever, among the more promising candidates forever, tularemia, and brucellosis vaccines apparently are used videly in endemic/ workers in the hide and textile industries arc protected against anthrax by immunization when the nature of the Job requires/ Yellow fever vaccine is almost certainly given to travelers leaving? for countries where the disease is endemic, but actual figures arc unknown. Plague Immunization was probably carried out extensively during the raid-lQ'tO' when serious outbreaks occurred In the Volga River basin and the Kazakh Republic; it is possible that this practice has been continued in localities where plague is still present in the rodent population. Because ofexperience with the typhus fevers, effective protective antigens are believed to be available and in United use. / As in the case of psittacosis, no effective vaccine for the Venezuelan and Eastern equine encephalomyelitis viruses is known to be in Soviet possession, but efforts to develop these preparations seem to be under way now at the Institute of Virology. ctive immunization against the pathogenic fungi is not successful, and no indications, of substantial Soviet attempts to solve this problem are noted, while the need for toxoids and antisera for tbe bacterial intoxications, diphtheria, and tetanus has almost certainly resultedotisfaclory technology for production and widespread use, the situation with respect to botulinum is obscure. Toxoidsre available, at least in experimental quantities, but the extent to which prophylaxis is presently employed, in the absence of frank exposure, has not been noted. /

though the Soviet civil defense program lacks full effectiveness, the scope and intensity of training have contributed significantly to the BW defensive posture of the USSR, according to intelligence studies on the subject. / Perhaps the greatest benefit from this training ia awareness of the steps to be taken by the individual to safeguard his own health in the event of air attack. Despite periodic indoctrination and the assignment of specific tasks, MPVO teams probably have not rehanraad their functions sufficiently under realistic conditions to negate tlie impacttrong BW onslaught. On the other hand, their existence, and the presumed operational readiness, in every element of industry, government offices, and residential areus of urban centers could possibly degrade the severity of limited local attack by shortening the period in vhich the Inhabitants are exposed to infectious material. ombination of individual protective action and rapidly Initiated quarantine and decontamination measures might



veil reduce, without preventing entirely, the number of cases of disease arisingeadily recognized source, foriological bomb casing. In view of the absence of adequate shelters, the probable lack.of protective clothing and gas masks for the vast majority of civilians, and tho almost certain inability to detect airborneagents before exposure has occurred, physical defense in the USSR is adjudged to be Incapable of preventing contactiological agent and its intended civilian host. The armed forces are probablyore favorable position with respect to theriers which can be erected against infection; this follows primarily from their possession of individual protective garments and masks, and greater intensity of training. However, the probable unavailability of collective shelters, and, more important, the lack of imely warning system, cast serious doubt that wholesale exposure to disease :culd be prevented in the fociigorously pressed BW attack on military units.

If physical protection from infectious agents is not fully effective, biological protection assumes critical Importance in minimizing the hazards to exposed civilian and military personnel. Biological safeguards may take the form of prophylaxis or therapy, and the incidence of disease will necessarily depend on theand timely use of vaccines, antlsera, and antibiotics. An additional significant factor is the general status ofation and the degree of public knowledge about personal hygiene. These can be conducive to continuationontagious disease outbreak on the one hand, or a strong force to break the cycle of Infection on the other. An evaluation of certain prophylactic preparations commonly employed In the USSR, specifically vaccines for brucellosis, tularemia, anthrax, plague,ever, show thea to rfford' fair, and in some instances good protection against the diseases as they arc encountered in nature, despite the undesirable side reactions which are provoked. / There are no firm data, however, tothat these "same antigens, and others deemed to be less satisfactory, will protect humans challenged through the respiratory tract by airborne sw agents. Indeed, the trend toward aerogenic immunization in the USSR suggests that the Soviets lack confidence in their conventional vaccines to furnish this protection. It is reasonable to believe that some residual impunity to occupational diseases exists In rural communities where vaccination for spring-summer encephalitis,ever, anthrax, and tularemia have been carried out. / Among the urbanhowever, no evidence has been found that natural sprsceptibility to these and other BW candidate agent Infections has been counteracted by active immunization programs. The same position apparently holds' for the Soviet military services. For the great mass of the Soviet populace, it must be consideredtate of susceptibility to biolO: Cical agents exists. The aerogenic Uamunization program, the deyel<


of coablned antigens and polyvalent an ti sera, and the efforts to forou-uate satisfactory vaccines for dUenses now lacking them are believed to be highly preliminary and thus incapable at present of altering the over-all status of biological protection.

The USSR is considered to have the same broad-spectrum antibiotics and sulfa drugs possessed by Western countries. There is no evidence that specific therapy with these products ban been successfully applied to the virus diseases; as In the otherearch is under way to find and produce effective antiviral drugs. ecent evaluation of the Soviet situation with respect to quantities of antibiotics available for degrading BW attack led to the conclusion that current production is probably at peak capacity. / d sulfas vere said to be in adequate supply

fbr normal civilian needs asut stocks of tbe tetracyclines and neomycin were felt to be insufficient. Previously cited reports indicate that firm steps are being taken ln the USSR to attain self-sufficiency and to overcome dependence on/ Given certeln working assumptions, tbe aforementioned evaluation found, however, that present supplies of therapeutic preparations wouldreat lessercent of the Soviet population. / With the

production volume of therapeutic drugs deemed to be marginal from tho standpoint of fulfilling peacetime needs, there is no indication that stockpiles are being built up, beyond those requiredHterv reserves, in anticipation of BW attack.



7 that, while rograos is under way, equipment and ted, poor ia quality, and ouch in need of replacement. Sacrificing quality of professional care to quantity of physicians has yielded medical workers of less competence than those trained in the West. The range of drugs for medical practice vas also seen to be limited. / Otherhe Impression that Soviet medicine Is not organised to handle catastrophes or large-scale emergencies. Dispersal of facilities is not practiced, no blood collection program has been initiated or planned, and medical supplies ure apparently not stockpiled. The sanitary-epidemiological stations, on vhich the brunt of BW countermenould fall, are frequently poorly equipped end understaffed, and diagnostic laboratory support for clinical medicine is generally of low quality. / The integration of medical civil defense units and public healthhas developed satisfactorily in theory, but there is conoidcrablc doubt that full cooperation, smooth teamwork, and realistichave beer, reached. / ponding os It doesprawling

structure of peacetime sanitation and epidemiologic installationsiological defence foundation, the Soviet public health system has made vigorous attempts to improve the capacity of the organization to function in defense. Programs referred to earlier fall within this category, for example, tightening of sanitation and hygiene rcgulationnj. identification of particularly susceptible population elements; delineation of potential routes of spread of infectious diseases; investigation of airborne microflora for background purposes; and locating and typing of rodent and arthropod vector reservoirs. Public education has been intensified in an endeavor to bring under control the so-called "filth diseases" which reflects the generally Inadequate state of sanitation in the USSR. / Realizing the shortcomings of their public health services, Soviet authorities have decried this unsatisfactory situation and have called for greater effort in devising rrocedures for Improving sanitation, hygiene practices, and antiepidemic protection of the military and civilian population. / studies in the recent past arc generally in accord that because of deficiencies in existing medical treatment and public health measures the Soviet Union cannot provide over-all protection against BW/ Soviet military leaders are reported toymposium6 at the Military Medical Academy that their nation could not copeoordinated attack from massweapons. /

Status of Veterinary Defense

In the Soviet organization for defense, veterinary specialists under the Military Veterinary Administration carry out prophylaxis and entiepizootic measures in animals accompanying armed forces units, conduct quality control of meat products, and counteract animal diseases communicable to man. / They staff veterinary diagnosticreportedly assigned to field amy end army front levels, and maintain dispensaries end local assistance points among the body of troops. ilitary districts have access to more extensive,reatment fecllities. / Military veterinary personnel and ItPVO civil defense veterinary teams probably enjoy the same working relationship as that found between medical units of the military forces and trpVO medical detachments. The civil defense elements vere seen to be organized around veterinary administrators of each political echelon and the head veterinarian of packing plants and livestock forms. / Much as the defensive structure in human public health la based on peacetime medical-care installations, the backbone of veterinary Ccfensc probably consists of bacteriology laboratories, disinfection "stechnents, ond mobile diagnostic facilities of the civilian agencies. Around these nuclei, so-called self-defense Croups are formed In rural areas. /

Veterinary affairs In tlie USSR are administered through ananalogous in many respects to that found in the medical and public health fields. Supreme authority is vested in the chief of the Veterinary Adalnlatratlon under the Ministry of Agriculture. taff known as the Veterinary Collegium, composed of the top veterinary officials in the Soviet Union, has the responsibility for all civil veterinary services In -the USSR. Adminlstrative responsibilities are passed down through similar bodies established by each of therepublics, and these In turn exercise responsibility for provincial, district end municipal services. All work Is carried out in conformity vtth the government's Veterinary Regulation, which oblige the management of state and collective farms to take timely measures to ensure veterinary aid in all cases of sickness among animals. broughtiven veterinary organisationdays quarantine. Veterinary surgeons and their assistants have access to the animals for purposes of inspection, diagnostic exrminations, pre-ventivoi inoculations, .anduother .medical.-and_ prophylocticnimals that havo not undergone the preliminary quarantine may not be housed in the common cottlc sheds nor put in the general herds. Tn addition,lucdor veterinary.regulations promulgated by tbe Ministrygriculture, livestock owners and farm managers are required to -oform immediately the veterinary surgeon or his assistant here serving that farm, as well as tbe local officials, of all cases of sudden death or simultaneous sickness In several animals. It is forbidden to use tbe meat of livestock or poultry condemned for slaughter, or to sell meat or raw animal products without special permissioneterinary inspector. This rigid degree of control is possible because the chain of authority extends downward from the ministry to elements at tbe local community level without marked diffusion. Republics of the USSR are divided into aujtonomousdivisions, and then into districts and regional areas. Each district reportedly has at least one strategically located diagnostic laboratory, well-equipped and manned. From the district or regional laboratories, consultant veterinarians, disinfection teams, andunits can be dispatched to livestock holdings. Each state and collective farm specializing in animal production is sold to maintain one or more resident veterinarians who have at their disposal the services of the regional animal hospital and diagnostic/ JJJi/ In addition to the network of local veterinarythe Ministry of Agriculture hasystem of veterinary research institutes and experimental stations, industrial enterprises for producing biological preparations, and centers for veterinary supplies. The concentration of veterinary workentral state service is of great importance in providing efficient animal husbandry. It makes lt possible to carry out oil veterinary measures in conformity with uniform plans and regulations. /

The state of readiness of military veterinary units is not definitely known. Articles from the World War II periodtrong concern with defensive indoctrination, but few publications of thet nature are available today. / The possibility of attack is well recognized, for the Military Veterinary Administration has been directed to train special cadres to work closely with civil defense teams in counteracting biological agents employed against the animal population. It seems probable? that the armed forces veterinary specialists would function under existing Ministry of Agriculture doctrlno and regulations for disease control ln the event of BW outbreaks. / Aside from these regulations for reporting routinely on illnesses and deaths in animals, the defensive role of the veterinary service has been defined ln training literature for MPVO units. The following responsibilities for defense against biological warfare are Included: the veterinary service provides protection for livestock from air attack injury; carries outprocesses for livestock contaminated by pathogenic bacteria and toxins; conducts decontamination procedures; and determines the feasibility of utilizing contaminated material. All; cases ofexposure or suspected contact vith Infectious disease agents must be reported immediately to the chief of the installation (city, rayon) MPVO veterinary service. In addition, there are Instructions for collecting samples of contaminated soli, fodder, water, Insects, end ticks for submissioneterinary laboratory forof the type of agent used. Contaminated food and water, or food and voter suspected of being contaminated, cannot be usedaboratory check and without the permission of sanitation and veterinary inspection agencies. / There are no indications that rehearsal for these functions in time of emergency bos occurredignificant scale, or that stockpiles of necessary equipment and reagents nave been placed on livestock farms specifically for defensive purposes. The fact that disease outbreaks ln peacetime are bandied locally by the resident veterinarian, often with theof regional diagnostic laboratories, suggests that considerable experience bas been gained in combatting isolated cases. / for the same reason, it can bee anticipated that prophylactic anddrugs are available to some degree for immediate use. Because normal operating procedures and dally experience involve the timely dispatch of professional teams and mobile equipment from tho regional or district treatment centers, it seems probable that tbe veterinary service could degradeiological attack of Halted scale. In allass attack covering large areas would quickly overwhelm the existing defensive structure and result in widespread and continued exposure of animals to infectious material; however, other factors affecting vulnerability must he taken Into account.

ve ?tc


gainst economically important animalBW potential ere is the hands of Soviet veterinarians. diseaseog cholera, and brucellosis are stillhovever, anthrax and tuberculosis continue to takeUvestock- is reportedly In check,

accinated buffer zone oust be maintained in tho Asiatic border areas. / Because of tho relatively great prevalence of these diseases in.the-past, eradication by slaughter vUs economically Infeasible, and strict quarantine plus tbe buildingone of immunized animals around the focus of infection became the practice In disease control. This philosophy is still paramount today; foroster observed at8 Agricultural Exposition in Hoscovufferiloaeters In radius for FKD. In carrying out this recommendation, figures were cited for vaccination lc Kazakhstanattleheep. 8lV While Islands of presumably solid imaunlty to some of these an leal diseases undoubtedly existesult of tbe prophylaxis program, the over-oil effectiveness of tbe policy is questionable. First, the diseases are still prevalenteoottsj, large segments of tbe livestock population in other geographic oreo3 probably remain susceptible and in constant danger of infection by accident. For this same reason, there ia no compelling indication that Soviet veterinarians could cope vith biological agents against livestock if massive dissemination vere Involved. Since somo of tho nost serious BW animal diseases ore of viral etiology, for example, hog cholera, rinderpest, and FMD, present antibiotics and theropcutic drugs vould have little effect cn tho course of disease.

Research in the USSR pertinent to BW defense centers on the animal disease control prograa. Emphasis Is giver, to development and Improvement of biolqglcs for prophylaxis, diagnosis, and therapy, as shova by previously cited Investigations. Only recently has the scientific literature reflected real concern for the possibllitv of airborne attack and


responsibility for tho protection of crops fromAH-Unlon Institute of Plant Protection

aniagrod, vhich is subordinate to thedeay of Agricultural Sciences in over-all policy and planning the VIZR

coordinates and controls, to some extent, all plant protection research conducted at other institutes ond establishments under the Ministry of Agriculture. 9kJ Mo Specific defensive measures against BW attack on crops,other than ordinary agricultural protection methods against disease and pest losses, are known to hove been taken in the USSR. The problem posed by losses from disease is great. Research on fungicides lags behind Western development. imilar situation prevails in the development of effective apparatus for dissemination of these chemical compounds. While the USSR does possess some modern fungicides end dissemination equipment, including airplanes, it is believed that neither are in sufficient supply to mound an effective program to counteract any sizable disease outbreaks, either of natural or BW origin.

The USSR is thought to have reduced only slightly its vulnerability to anticrop attacks by normal improvement of the competence of its pathologists, increased knowledge on the part of the ordinary rarmcr, and the improvement of the disease-reporting services, quarantine, and quarantine enforcement. ong-range viewpoint, the vulnerability of crops in any country to plant pathogens can be lessened inmeasure by the development and widespread adoption of disease-resistant varieties. Reports indicate most Soviet wheats are susceptible to stripe, leaf, and stem rust; rye to black stem rust; and oats to crown rust. Evidence suggests strongly that Soviet plant breeders have nadc relatively little progress in developing rust-resistant varieties of wheat, rye, and outs. Recent observations^

ndicate that wheat-breeding programs of the ventional type are under wayumber of institutes. It Is evident

that considerable effort is being made to provide collective farms

with clean and relatively pure seed.

There is no countermeasure known which can be used againstemployed as biological agents. The crops of the USSR are considered vulnerable to attack, but onlyertain season, during certain stages of growth, and under favorable meteorological conditions.

Of the many pathogens of cereals, the rust fungi seem by for the most promising for use as BW agents; of these, stem rust heads the list for use against wheat, rye, and barley, ond crown rust for use against oats. Races of stem rust ere known to which all available Soviet wheats appear susceptible. Because sweeping epidemics of stem rust are not at all common in theassive inoculum would probably be required to initiate diseeseignificant scale- Deposition of the inoculum early in the growing season Is necessary for maximum exploitation of vulnerability. ecent comprehensive analysis of the biological vulnerability of Soviet wheat indicatedroperly timed attack with cereal rusts could cause extremely severe damage.

Of the many pathogen, of potato, only Phytophthorn. the casual aS2CS0 Cheneeded for

'average to"a , European part, is also the regionLt of late blight and the area inre^uent^- Early and massive inoculum ^ ' favorable temperature, moisture,st weakness of this agentW candidate,fragility of the vegetative forms.f

P? otton ere Presently cultivated on relatively concentrated areas of southern European USSR; both are subjectery large number of pathogenic diseases, which as yet have ananticrop BW potential. The most promising agents app^afto

o. their destructiveness and the lack of other promising pathogens, the virus diseases of sugar beets possibly have potential as BW agents.

,f? tbCBe cropi- Kai" cultivation in the USSR Is be!nK expanded rapidly, with the development of hybrid vorietleffor both

U^ the USSR,

it Is extremely important to the Slno-Sovict Blochole.

ddlUOn t0 belr*0iSrinfl" Z iseases, ore vulnerablearge number of

rCSent In thc USSR

bu. are to be found elsewhere in the world.


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