CHINESE COMMUNIST MINISTRY OF FOREIGN AFFAIRS FORIGN POLICY REPORT

Created: 7/3/1961

OCR scan of the original document, errors are possible

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SJUKI Conmsiiat Ministry or Forelen DATE l

Affairs Foreign Policy Report

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1 the Chinese Consuniat Ministry or Foreign Affairseport4 Chinese Cooaniniet foreign policy0 andhinese progress and prospects for iy6l. The report was distributed to Chinese Ccenunlat eobaesles and legations- ranslation of tbe report lo given below.

A Be/lew of the0 and the Outlook for the1

In general, tho developnent of tho International situation0 was Intricate and eonpllcated. The result of the struggle, however, was better than we had originally expected. During the year, unity in the international Consuniat noveaent was achieved through struggles within tbe socialist eanp>.ew high tide was reached in the struggle against lnperialisa and for world peace and In the revolutionary struggle of the people. The political end eeoncodc crisis of Imperialism was further deepened. The American lnperlallet two-faced policy net anotheronparison of international forces Is further In favor of us and In disfavor of Irrperisllan. The violation or the Soviet territory by thelane, the sabotage of tbe suanlt conference and the break up of the dlsarBtnnent conference caused tension in tbe International situation- The struggle between tbe socialist countrloa and ixperiallet countries exposed the tve-faced tricks of Aaerlcan iBperlallsa.

Unity in the socialist coop van farther strengthened, and lta intemotlonal Influence was on the increase. The Moacov conference of brotherly partiesnaninous view on nany Inportant international probieas, strengthened the international Contnuniet movement and the soc.aliat eanp and unified the Chinese Cotnunlst Party (ccp) end the Cum unlet Party of the Soviet Union (CPSU) and China and the Soviet Union,low to the lnperlallet conspiracy to split us and pushed forward tbe denocratlc

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e>. The strugglao Of tbe people in South Keren, lUrkey, Japan, South yietnaa, Leoa endcountries La Avis against iBperlollcn end it* running dogs have UUn tbeiliary policy of toer!can lasarlellsa la these area*, tbetruggle la South Korea caused tbe United State*understand tool eren Sor eoet reliable im-pet regime could not be depended upen. The Japanese people hatvuotnOoua force behind thea. Ad olacstral atruecle Of the xBases eaaaed Eioeancwr to cancel bl> vlalt to Japan. All theee indicate that tbe national denocratlc aovencnt hasev neat.

davclopncnt or the Cuban revolution proupted and pushed on

tbe Btrugrtbte Of tbe people of otber Latin Aaerlcan countries- Ann clean mperlnll en and lte running dct^a. In differentscales, are spreading over latin Anerlca. The nationalof nan/ countries during their strugglesa

gradual process, an extensive nev national cesocratlc united front, ttua nenaclng tbe rear cf the Anerlcen aggressive force.

tfltala tne capitalist couatrlee, tho struggle of tbe wornlng daaa aad laterfor tat injrovevwnt of their livelihood and Jenocratle right* endoopuly alioreab development. c, large*acale econonlc as well no polltlcul strikes broke out In tbe United states, Britain, Trance, Italy, ml Belglun a* well aaev countries In Latin Anerlca. Tbethe struggle for petco la being enlarged. In aany capitalist countries, nore and nore Udola-claoc people have Joined the struscie for safeguarding world peace and opposing nuclear warfare.

Tbe econonlc difficulties, of Lnrertallsa are deepened and it- internal contradiction* sharpened. nMr of econonlc crises occurred la the United State*. The present erlsle broke oatine When tbe United Statee bad not fully recovered fron it*rlsle. It* present crisis vas caused by cirjiit prodactlcciulture and industry. Tbe present eriala la still deepening-

At tbo bom tlnrr. the econondr conditlono In Heatcm Europe ore not (J^ exactly vary good. In mm/ count ilea, tbe Industrial growth rate La either 0loved dovn ortandstill. Conditions rnr an economic erlfls are present. There hasrista coneernlnn tbe supply of

rav aaterlal fron colonies or rron saml-colonies off and on,

13- It la nev ceonoalc crisis of tbe United States, tbe biggest imperialist country, brought severe consequences to Ute wnole capitalist world, ifltbin recent yeere, the contradict lone betveca tbe Doited State* and otber lacerlalier countries, a* vail aa tbe contradiction enoag inperLollst countries, lncreBsed. Tbe deterioration of the United States In eooncotic, political and Miliary fields beeore apparent. In order to avert an econonlc crisis and to save herself frosttbe United Stttes has tightened her coo train over iter alllas. While Britain, Meat jernnny and Prance nttenpt to reelst Aaerlcan pressure, tbey are taxing tbe opportunity to reassert their ownand political position*. This struggle betwean Ute controller ond the controlled caupll ates and Intensifies tbe internal eentrcdletioa vltbla tbe MparlaliKt cobsi. Tha contradiction betveen tbe United State* aad Britain baaev development, preac* la giving tbe United Statee nore treacle. Tne etteafrt of vest Gernany to challenge openly the united States is coningead. Ed rurope, tbe struggle eang tne United States, Britain, France and Uest Oenaaay for Western Kuropean begenonj1 became* all tbe nore latentc. In this struggle, Ute rise of Wes^ Qeroart power la an lmr-ortant factor. The

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During the year, ve hoistedanner opposing Acer lean Imperial! an, exposing sod striking at the two-raced policy of American inperS oil so. Ueead-on struggle with the United states. Me supported resolutely and efficiently the revolutionary etom against American iDperiolisa and its running dogs wherever such atoms appeared in the world.

n our country there were nnss oenonstrntlona. In Peiping, there wereuch demonstrations0 and storefoo,COO people participated in then. otal oi'illion people throughout the country participated in denonstratlons in support of the people in the Soviet Union, South Korea, Japan and Turkey. Chaimnr. HAO's private talks with visitors frox Asia, Africa and Latin America especially favorably encouraged and pushed the Just struggle of the people lo the world against imperialisn. Chairman MAO's thinking for unitingercent of tho world's populationnited front against American imperial ion and its running dogs and for depending upon the masses for tho struggle greatly encouraged the people under oppression-

he three articles published by tbe CCP in coBmemoratlon Ofh anniversary or Lenin's birth attacked the ^re.elve nature of iBperlallsn, criticized Yugoslavia's aoiern revisionism and other erroneous thinking inside the International Comuoiist movement and clarified the ways to protect world peace.

uring the >eor, we hoistedanner of pence and friendship

and Support for national independence novenenta. On all fronts, our diplomatic activities unfolded. Once again, weon-nuclear tone in Asia end the Pacific area. Ue oupported completely the national democratic movements of the people or Asia, Africa and Latin America. Diplcoatlc relations were established with four eountrieo: Cuba, Ghana, the Somali Republic and Kali. Trade and other friendly relatione were developed with African and Latin American countries. With Surma, Repel, Guinea, Afghanistan, end Cambodia, friendship and mutual non-aggression treaties and pence and friendship treaties were eigned. Withorder treaty was signed.order agreement was reached with Hepal. Withlan for the enforcement of the dual nationality treaty governing overseas Chinese was signed, thus meaningfully easing the conflict between overseas Chliaae and the Interests of Indonesian nationals.

Our premier took the initiative in going to Xau Delhi to negotiate with Hehru and exposed the refusal of the Indian ruling group to settle tho border dispute, in the diplomatic struggle between China and India, the initiative is in our hands. Thus, ve prevented thehinese intrigue of India, consolidated and expanded ourposition and elevated our International prestige. Ve forced the imperialists and the various reactionary cliques in every country Into an isolated position.

During the year, an efficient struggle in line with our policy woo waged against those erroneous concepts which were harmful to the important problem, of the international Con*mist novenent and of tbe International situation confront lag the International Cosnrjnlet movement.

n general and baalcolly, our relations, with the Soviet Union and with Other brotherly countries and parties vere tackled correctly. Ue safeguarded the purity of Karxism-Lenlnlam, protected theccasaunlst movement, and strengthened the unity of the socialist camp. The talks and Intervlewc that Chairmen LIU Shao-ah'i had after the Moscow Conference enabled us to understand the direction in which Sino-Soviet unity should go-

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la tbo diplomatic struggleuch valuable experience as

gained la employing gloriously toe tactics and strategy of Cbairnen MAO end Harxlea-Lenlnloo la tie auope of International struggle. Hie following wore learned:

u. The rurrei't treataent In coordination tin' whole and Ita parts.

Chairman KXO Instructed us In the lBDortance of taking cognisance of tbe whole. Be said again that only when we understand tna whole will ve De able to nananver the parte, becauae the parts belong to the whole. Only when we understand the whole will ue be able to -un the parts and to use tbe partsetter way. la our International etrugela, our strategic policyo unite all tbe force* welch esa be sited and to point tba tip of oar award at Aawrleaa lsaperialinn. This Is tbe whole and also tbe core of our strategy. All our work should evolve around tele general strategy. During the first haire pursued aa all-out counterattack against tne asatl-Cnlacae struggle India. In the International context, however, our struggle against India should be subservient to tbe atrujgle against imperialism. Our struggle against Indiaot go beyond this lla-.it. yor instance, we have actively controlled our struggle against Indonesia, relegating Itosition next to our struggle against India. Ue have even restrained oureelvee in attacking the reactionary clique of Indonesia. When an armed conflict broke out at theIndia border, we took further measures. Our struggle against India could not oxreed our struggle against tbe United Statea-And In Southeast Asia, India la our naln target. Therefore, our struggle ISSlSSt Indcaeele could aot exceed our striatal* against India. When the Siro-Soviet dispute arose, we again controlled appropriately our straggle against India. At tbaur relations with tbe Soviet Union were bandied with extraaai caution. Sino-Soviet -salty ie regarded by ua as an injortant cotter. All along, tbe differences between ua ware ceBsldercd to be aloor dUTereacee. Ue hare always insistedbe unity of the socialist esan>. Ue have always cupjorteJ whatever itn^giei of the socialist eaejp benefited tbe cause of onti-ixiperial!ate sod the protection of peace. Inasmuch sa the whole and the parte have been treated by ua correctly, we vere able to arrange each complicated ntnggle of ours in perfect order.

b. The correct applli'ttticn ofnd flexibility. Tho Control Ccesslttee pointed out that In our dlplomstio work, prinelplee and the tactic of flexibility onujl be handled adroitly so that we can employ our etrategy freely and cleverly. Tot lnstanee, within the international Conuualet sxiveaent and in tha socialist emtf. an ideological dispute arose. Ua bad to struggle and could not hack down, Bovever, 1st launching our strugcle, we bad to choose aa opportune nrsaeat and libit its scope; the aatbeds of waging tbe struggle bad to be studied vary care full jr. Proa beginning to end, tbe point or departure woe unity. Oar policy la "to aot startstick to tbeleave eoaainsist on unity" andndia aad other nationalist countries, we have had both struggle and unity. For Instance, India started on anti-Chinese t. and tlilk we uppooej vita detcralnatlon. Tbea, after our oppoaltlon, tha Premier went to Xew Delhi to negotiate with Kebru. The two chlere of states net. At thelash vne avoided. The relations between tbe two countries again coined down temorarlly. The strujgle against India shows how

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ve applied our principleo aad need the tactic of flexibility. Again, In tbe case of *tuoe oppose fltnly the conspiratorial activities Of the United States and tCElAK Kai-ehek for the creation of "two Chinas'1. We do !not carry on anv Official activities wits, countries vhlch 'recognise CSUDi. nevertheless, in consideration Of the .actual conditions la Africa and Latin Anerica and the spec Id relations CHiATJ: and the United States havehese countries and for the purpose ofpportunity for establish ins ew beachhead In Africantln Ancrlca and of preventing the United States and CStARi frcai carrying out their conspiracy, our Strategy adopted in Africa and Latin America la different fron that adopted In Europe and Asia. While Cuba Still bod diplcaotlc i relations with CBXAXU. we established cfriclol contacts

with Cuba. When Guinea was receiving CHTJUtl's envoy fron ,' Libya, our aabassador reported for duty. We understand the predicament of those countries in Africa which express their wish to hnva friendly relatione with us butstablished diplomatic relations with niLATC onlyf the pressure fron Imparled ism.

correct trcatmant of the first Btep and the foil owing steps. MAO pointed out during the Korean negotiations that when Inking the first stop, consideration nuBt be %lven for the following steps. Tbe first step should not be restricted by the situation prevailing- hairman MAO again Instructed us repeatedly that in our struggles, cone Leeway nuet be provided. Thlrigh degree of Strategic and tactical thinking, Tbe Struggles of the pact year proved that directives from the Central Committee and Chairenn MAO led uslorious victory. Par Instance, in the SI no-American talks, we have Insistedettlement of tbe Taiwan Issue before other discussions caneversal of our previous strategy of tScXliu; the details before touching on the principle. Thus, the United states la prevented fromerlea of attacks on our country. As another example, our alruKgle against aehru was, in fact, noto our relations with Indonesia. In our struggle against Indonesia, wc never attacked Sukarno personally. In our struggle against sons erroneous concepts of our brotherly countries, our criticisms were targeted at problems instead, of at Individuals. He do not label people. This is beneficial to our ecanon cause. omplicated struggle, to -ive consideration only to the uo voire nt of one cbesu piece is not enough. Con we replace policy with paction to sive vent to our feeling? Ue oust be able to see things clearly and be prepared to think about the next steps.

3h. In the process of executing oures firm the Central Committee, joany oilstakes .have, been committed. Such ninuikea shall be analysed end conclusions Our aost important elatakea were the lollowlnj:

a. Wc do not Xnov how to conblne correctly the relations of struggle &nd unity. Our relatione with brotherly countries constituted our chief external work Despite the feet that therelear-cut directive from tike Central Committee on each otru&Je concept, in execution big deviations still occurred. After three articles were published, some of our ecorades still lacked the couroge to express our viovo confidently, where as saneopenly discussed with comrades irom other brotherly [Arties our internal dispute with the big brother. Uhen the dispute becane intensified end the struggle started unfolding, soae com odds, did not dare to struggle and were not good in In explaining

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struggle ar Ua aoclelii'. ccsitrleraadwill bo taken with the brotherly

countries. In propaganda, friendly nnlty and croat-iotlonnd theaj cC out country vill be stressed.

In oar politicalefrom all

Bl&es and no* only free) taraflrpat*>.

upport for the Uboratlon anvesteat la Ana. Africaatin Asm lea,struggleveery In the world and tbe

j^.le for vorla peace- will be coatinvd. Bpmum high aopposing lape rial let, colonialism on "ncpart ing the liberation the revolutionary MrufOl*w> people, ol the world. Underwa already have IDeCtlve ljcjot* and aid willto th* coucerle*s Bt airugglee ofin rube ,. . ths roftfjo nn. Looi vill continue to beell-out support of 'be ;eve-lot lunar}' of the Japanesebe centlnurd. AleA;rt tooave alreadywi'l be pusrnCnd tacts withI patriotic foicei in lalln An-rica will beon-ltiisd political a'rtttgLes of the

people of the Unitedfutnrw otaer capitalist countries in tbe world will be swppoitrd TV i'caj ot tbe peoplecountry against uipci-ioi1-a. aid forec will ooniinje to be divan active &uppovi.

eowntrle* iset id as-- ill be

fun her developed, -ltlihichllt 'u, irtunll l*-tions "illortS will beettle loan-Btaadlot;will sirlye for toe st^alaa of trier-Uklc er/lnewly Independent coio'-riesfrlee, ue will try torealtlona. In Boi-thenite ill continue totheof InUa'aclique. economic aid toous'>leec area, siaslltyscantily will be stretne.!. latloni with hms,Canned inther cotiH rinr. will continue to beeady signing ol the tiurder1 pal winllee i'ot the aignlna ofeety Bf dual-nationalityChinese in CMmm. Ue willrd job ofInepal and Toep0 and kingwill he invitedlult una Ue 'ill work 1'Ofeettleaeet or in* crooWanolceverseas Chinese la we will try torelationseylon. We willive 'u nuvv bet'.erIndia and influence- poaltloo onprnalca. This Is ru to vt<ll CBdnawill be considered ix ta arderbe0 and uti ^ llreitrert forwave to be star*eu hy 'he e due I', revlatd we willan apiroprlateooalderof tlM uuioei pruoleaiare ripe. Uenoroal relatlonU with North lUrlean countries. We will tryrriendly ecatecta vlib, - tan Vjited Araband ream. Aa LaviKklaustevcei to tbe Klag ofvisit China. Ue will iry to rurtlm ithand Kali. The preeldenio of and Hall win be invited to Ve vill strive for dl^lcavillr'j Mgerla and tbewill supeort ,aa-sBgclnst Abvticbbfurther Slno-Cuban frieoily irlaiimi hiefs o* itate ofand Bsnall will bec -llil ZltlAa.

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