-CENTRAL INTELLIGENCE AGENCY Senior Research Stall on Intermoor.al Communism .
The attached "think pieca" waa prepared Cor its own purpose! by SRS in early June. With the publication ol ths new Draft Program for theheframework for research on the "transition toin tha USSR, which this paper presents, may be of interest. We would welcome comments and suggestions.
' CENTRAL INTELLIGENCE AGENCY Senior Research SttU on International Communism
SOVIET COMMUNISM IN THE SIXTIES: SOME NOTES ON ITS NEW DIMENSIONS
During the poa1ari this Stall has painted aof Uia conflict of systems known as tha Cold War, which haa been consistently more peaaimiatic and somber than tha generality of public and private utterancea. We have contended that moat judgment* of tha overall Communist challengefrom official etatameBta to academic and Journalistic- have been too conaervative, at timea,actor comparable to the earlier under-estlmatea of the Soviet atomic, miaalle, and apace potential. Deeplte tha increaaing awaraneaa of the vaat Coramuniat threat, there atill exlata, ia ourtrong tendency to overlook the new factora of dynamiem which have been developing in the movement, eepeclally since the crlaia of world Communisme-Stall alas Don andhe subseojusnt stabilisation of tha movement and consolidation of Khruahchav'a powerollowed by the conductreat debate within the movement, especially betweaa tbe USSR aod China, which achieved atemporary reeolutien in tha Moscow Statement of November-December lyM). Our basic thesis concerning the S. no-Soviet controversy la that theconstitutesmajor step toward tbs acceptance within the International Communist movement of ths principle of(sodenerally It has resulted la aof tbe "world socialist system" and of Its ability to conduct "protracted conflict" against Its enemy, the "world capitalisthis view Is contradictory to ths widely held belief and hope that the Sino-Soviet controversy ccestaino an Inherent divisive principle, which by akillful manipulation andws may be able to exploit to bring about the abaoluteof International Communism.
World analyses (ft.*rally fail to takeaccount the who la body oi Communist theorynd modus operandi, policy and behavior
Western traditional thinking, too often baaedh century concepts of International relatione, haa failedto take into account two major realities of International Communism: (a) the Importance of its value system and way of. the dynamism inherent in the governingof Marxism-Leninism, and (b) the recent revolutionary changes that have occurred in the methodology andfor planning and managing the global struggle which ths Communists call the "conflict of systems" and which ths West calls the "coldt Is unfortunate that we have no "Sadhose task It would be to steep themselves In the strategical and tactical thinking of the Communists, and to know Intimately their world machinery for implementing their conflict policies.
policies mustanalyaad within theCommunist long-range objectives, middle-rangeshort-range tactic a.
Communist policies are triple-layered: the besicthe creation of the Communist World State, isto achieve major progress toward that objsctive. slrate-fles are devised which in turn are implementedide vsrlaty of tactics, often contradictory in nature. The differ* snUstlon between these three approaches le vital to thsof Communist intentions and capabilities. It can only be fully achieved by appropriating, for purposes of analysis, the Communists' own weapons, their ideologicalence the needed Team approach.
3. By far themportant present Uratcfty igto launch the "transition to Communism. " Upontal_cor.ee pi. advocated by Khrushchev, real allpolicies; the Other countries ol the Bloc are
The ramifications of the "transition" policy are They concern not only foreign relations, bothand economlci but also social changes, scientificand problems of bloc organisation.
In order to enter thehe three great 'feasts" on which Soviet "socialism" was built must goomprehensive stage of transformation to meet the demands of the new "communist" order. Theae three bases are described at the "material-technical',1 the "soeio-cultural" and the" The transition la regarded in Its entirety as aproceas in which the many elements not previouslywill become so through the discovery, adoption and use of the latest physical and social science methods and techniquea. Included in these will be new and imaginative uaea ofand of cybernetics applied to the entire spectrum of Soviet and world-communist sociological, economic aadproblema. Thus what waa until recently mere hypothetical "science" in Marxist-Leninist terms will become theapplied technology of the atomic aad space age. What Marx called "scientific socialism" (as oppossd to 'Utopian" aociallsm) becomes an infinitely more complex "scientifichis grandiose concept presupposes that solu-tians will be foundost of problems:
of the new Soviet society ofexcellence" for the world to emulate.
application of all sciencesto ths total society and economy.
rom r coun-
Tbe above factors of Communist strategy may be studied under threeeiuvig oration oippropriation of elements of strength from the antagonistic Western system; absolute innovation.
of Ihe existing syatem .
The baaic atrsngth of Communism according to Itslies in the "creative unity of theory and practice.ideology is not, aa commonly Interpreted is the West,sterile doctrine, butital interpenetrabonand action, Tbe present Communist leaders,Khrushchev himself. Insist that this harmonious andis bsing continuously developed and advaacsd byof humanity". the Communist Party. In ourthe reinvigoratlon which the Soviet leaders claim Ihsymust not be dismissed ae mere propaganda or pep talk.
Itard, tough, dlsclplinsd. persistent, long-range endeavor in which the will-to-power and socialowsver distorted -are intertwined.
general program for re invigorating the existing
system includss ths following important steps:
of Ideological principles la suchworks as the revised edition of the History ofThe Foundation* of Leninism,ost of othsrpublications.
campaign to improve the qualitythroughout the Party and among theefforts culminatedecreeighest priority on the vitaliaation of propaganda.
UortlI r. am Una aadf,,
of '* ia .docadon, ralionabiatioc
i. Integration of long, medium, end abort- range ptanning of all types with flexible administrative re-organiiation and aialgnmcnt of personnel; Unear andprogramming, inventory of me chins tool and plant capital, and energy yeaourtsa.
J. Recognition of the existence of serious disturbances within the balancs of the existing system, of which tha roost striking example io tbe backwardness of renewed efforts to deal with intractable problem areas, abolition of the WTS. intensified drive Unconsolidate kolkhoa and extend aovkhoa farming, with poasible futureof rural towns (agrogoroda).
k. Tightening of central control mechanisms and cracking down on fraudulent statistics, economic"
of Wests rn and Free World elements.
It is as yet imperfectly realised in the West thatommunist bloc has for ths past four or five years beena massive program of appropriating valuable elements from the West, including Caeriot Russia. These range widely from broad cultural tradition, through sclsntiflc and economic techniques and disciplines, to specific processes and inventions. Tbe whole East-West exchange program haeew spirit of opeancaa toward values which Stalinism considered as alien and hostile to "socialism. " The extent of atudy, and abstracting, of Wastsrn works in all fields from the humanjtiea through the sciences has become Increasinglyew of the fields la which major imports have been permitted into ths system may be listed:
a. The entire gamut of science, which in the Soviet concept ranges from the highest level of mathematical
and physical abstraction through the other natural and social sciences, to what we would call Che
examplesositivesychology, especially those fieldsbe described ae neo-Pavlovlan (possibly admittingFreudlanlsm via the backZ) cyberneticsost
of relatsdehavioral sciences generally, ee-pecially those leading into advenesd forms of pedagogic theory and pracOco.
eo-callsd humanistic disciplines,history and the creative arts which, while maintainingnormative principles of Marx)at-Leninistevertheless are selectively throwncontrolled access by Communist practitioners. Thesoms Initial hesitation, has appropriated the term" distinguishing "socialist humanism" from theby affirming that the former leads to the highest moral, and spiritual valuee for man, whereas thedegenerated into an instrument of class exploitation. spokesmen now boast openly that they alone havecertitude of paving the way to true "freedom" and
oclety of "demonstrable excellence." Thus, ln the very act of appropriating and partially debasing our most cherished values, they have turned themhallengehreat to ourselves.
The first sputnik. as in tbe eyes of tbe Communists morepectacular technical ttoncrete manifestation of what le intended to be an uninterrupted chain of breakthroughs, af absolute Innovation. The fields In which the potentialhain of "sputniks" has become apparent are not confined to
the obvious area* ol hardwa.ro. They include the whole broad field ofhe application of cyber&atlc control techolqueei not only for the natural acleocee and tha economy bul for the shaping of aocletyhole. This pro-ceaa has alreadyeady intellectual intoxication among Soviet theorists. One youthful and Influential embus-last. Areb-Ogley, has launched what amountsoncsptualcybernetics will replace historical materialism as the guide to social This is stated more prudently by Academician Nesroyaaov: "Cybernetics ie com-pletely ia harmony with dialectical meter! eh em. "
That the prospects for continued innovation andars no empty boast haa been attested by many Western specialists on the basis of both sxlstlng literature and exchange vlalts. It ia said that in cybernetic theory, whole new areas are being opened by Soviet scientists, tha significance of which our own experts as yet can only dimly comprehend. As the tremendous flow of scle&tiata andnow eatabtished In the pipeline begins to accumulate, and ae Academies and Institutes continue toast reaervoir of crsative genius is being establlshsd whichfall to produce innovation upon innovation.
But It Is not merely the creation of this vastof trained manpower which makes possible theof sputnik-like Inn oration- The main source of energy Ilea la the dynamics of the Party's goal-directed activity, specifically in planning. The CPSU, through tbe Integrated scientific-technological apparatus which it controls, la able totructure of prioritiea in which ereaa ofbreakthrough are mapped ia advance of actual entry. advantage, aa we have noted above, of tha moat advanced levala of Western attainment, the Soviet reeearch and deval-opment planners employ the deliberate technique of the "over-Jump. " Thla la not the chaotic, impulsive "Great Leapof the Chloeae,ethodical pursuit of the planned quantum.
The CPSU, through its control of me entire apparatus of natural science, aa well as the favorite offahoot of theCommittee, the Academy of Social Sciences, istootal unity of learning and discipline, first -within the Soviet Union, and then by extension throughout the Bloc and ultimately the entire planet. It is projectingresearch and systems analysis, employing cybernetics, mathematical and symbolic logic, and other advanced techniques to reinforce experimental work ia post>Pavlovian psychology, linear prograrnming and other instruments for the achievement of total social Integration, under the banner of the "transition tohe Communist Ideologies have even added the powerful stimulant of pure Utopian! am, the prefiguringovum Origanum, serving the concept of an ideal society, explicitly associated with the tradition ofity of thend the other great Western social visionaries.
What does this three-prong approach to Communist movement betoken for the future conduct of the conflictthe two world systems? This much can be predicted with virtual certaioty: All threeeinvigoration, assimilation, andill be harnessed in the great campaign known aa the "transition tobeof this program which will be adopted atd Party Congress ln Moscow,ill constitute the first new party program since that of Lenint willanguard effort on behalf of the entire worldmovement. It Is essential that all experts, whether ia the intelligence, academic, or other public communities, gird themselvesearching study of this program.Original document.