Created: 2/22/1962

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scientific intelligence report


central intelligence agency




The conclusions, judgments, and opinions contained tn this finished intelligence report are based on extensive scientific intelligence research and represent the final andviews of the Office of Scientific inteUi-gence.





Bioastronautics includes the study of all factors that may Influence the ability of man and other living organisms toeffectively in space. The major identifiable biologicalthat remain to be solved with respect to prolonged and successful spaceflight are the effects of radiation and long-term weightlessness on organisms, animals, and man, and theof an operational and reliable closed ecologicalwhich will provide manuitable gaseouswill permit the production of food supplements, and will balance his respiratoryhis analysis attempts to identify Soviet research activities in the field of bioastronau-tlcs, and to assess the results achieved, f


Organizational Changes Related to the Soviet Bloastro-


History and Postulatton of Soviet Biomedical Experiments


Vertical and Orbital Flights

Manned Orbital

Training of

Postulated Biomedical Achievements ln

Techniques Related to Soviet Biomedical Experiments


Chemical and Biological Oas


The Biological

Protection and Recovery Problem (Biophysical)

Life Support Equipment Problem

Radiation Shiddirig Tecrinique (Sputnikinstrumentation and

Instrumentation of Peripheral

Thermoelectric Methods for Analysis of Metabolism

Human Factors

CONTENTS (Continued)

Theoretical Research Related to Soviet Bioastronautics

Maximum Utility of

Simulation of Human Responses to Parachute


Reactions, Functions, and Responses ol Gagarin (VostokFunctions, and Responses of Titov (VostokImplications of Soviet BiomedicalIn

Impact of Manned Space

Soviet Views Regarding Man's Exploitation of Outer

Soviet Propaganda

Soviet Bloc Support to Bioastronautics

APPENDIX AMajor Soviet Personalities Doing Research

Applicable to

APPENDIX BMajor Organizational Units DoingApplicable tol


APPENDIX DParameters of Space



I. 2.

Photos Sterile Agal Culture Units Utilizing CblorcUa. 8

Drawing Van Allen Radiation Belts as Conceived in


Illustration of Radio-Telemetric Subsystem

Which Would Eliminate Necessity for

Dog with "Free-Movement" Radlo-TelemeU


Helmet Equipped with Telemetric Radio Kit

Designed by L.

Shuvatov's Helmet Measuring Arm Move-


Electromagnetic Pick-Up for Recording Car-


Potentiometer Pick-Up for Mcchanograms


Oxyhemometcr (Pick-Up for Oxygen Satu-

ration Level of

Photo Body Temperature

Photo Device For Measuring Muscle0

Photo Pulse Pick-Up

Photo Titov with Forehead Sensor (Brain Waves)

and Ear Oxyhemometer (Oxygen

Bioelements of Space Zoo Used in4



To assess the status of the Soviet bioastronautics research program.


he Sovietsroad, carefully planned, high-priorityprogram that has provided their scientists with extensive and valuable information.

A biomedical research program waswith vertical rockets throughhis program was followed by thebiological carriersnnd Sputniks IXnhat gave the Soviets much additionaland biological data.

Thepril1 orbitings ofnd II enabled the Soviets to be the first to test human survival In space with life sustaining systems, and also duringand recovery from orbital spaceflight, and thus advanced Soviet bioastronauticssubstantially beyond that of the United States.

In support of the long-term objectives of Interplanetary travel, the primary orInterest of Soviet science is the man-In-space program, which includes the Intensive study of man-machine relationships during extended time periods in flight. In addition.

the objectives of the Soviet overall spaceflight program will continue to encompass studies of the effects of multiple stressors or stimuli on man and lower forms of biological specimens, the possible origin of life In outer space, and the ecology of outer space. The Soviets will also conduct additional biomedicaland exploratory space probes In and beyond the Van Allen radiation belts before manned flight can be conducted in those areas and orbital flight observations with animals, testing the reliability of partially closedsystems for periods up toays.

he development of miniaturized radio telemetric equipment for use in conjunction with spaceflight helmets eliminates ancord attachment. This techniquefree movement and is indicative of Soviet progress In deriving biomedical data, although the known Soviet body sensors are inadequate for obtaining the type and amount ofdesired. This miniaturizedwin be highly advantageous In future multimanned space missions, particularly those Involving prolonged periods ofor under artificial gravity states.

oviet theorizing on theof extended periods ofman's rapid transfer back toodern concept ofThe Sovietsefinite leadobservation of zero-gravity effects onbrief orbital flights.

procedures or require extensive changes in spacecraft design (rotation).

he Soviets will continue to takeof and to emphasize their bloastronauti-cal achievements in the propaganda effort against the West. They have alreadythe psychological and ideologicalthat manned spaceflightwill afford as man is forced to revise his social frame of reference. Studies are probably underway to aid them to derive the maximum benefit from their man-in-space program.


systematic, sustained, and extensive Soviet bioastronautics program Is directedacquisition of basic physiological and biological data, along with the development of "hardware" and life support systems. It Is evident that the sura total of Soviet vertical and orbital experiments through Vostok II demonstrates an ability to apply complexsystems to bioastronautics problems.

Overall, the Soviet bioastronauticsappears toell-planned and well-executed attempt to investigate tbe effects of space (hostile environment) on biologicalas well as to provide background for sustaining man in space. Basic researchthe man-in-space effort began0 as partroad, carefully planned, high-priority program which includedbiomedical experiments In space,with vertical rockets, In addition to placing man In space, the prime objectives of the Soviet bioastronautics program include studies of the effects of multiple stresses on man and lower forms of life, the possible origin of life In outer space, the ecology of outer space, and man-machine relationships.

Assessments of statements and voluminous publications by Soviet scientists indicate that they are conducting and extending bloastro-nautical research under very high priority.esult, during the nextears, theundoubtedly will demonstrateImprovement and sophistication ofand biological gas exchangers, biolnstru-mentation devicesonventional radiation shielding techniques, environmental Instrumentation, life support systems, and bi-ocybemetical controls necessary for extended manned space missions. The placing of man In space for extended periods will result from the orderly and well-executed Soviet space program. The Soviets demonstrated their capability for recovering manriefflight in1 and from multiorblt-alonths later.



The Soviet Union has made great progress in Its overall development of spaceflight and supportive research byational policy of forced scientific and technological growth. The establishment in1 of the new State Committee for Coordination of Scientific Researchove toward


centralized control of the nationaleffort and, at the same time,eeper commitment to the principal ofresearch in many disciplines. The new Committee has taken over organizationssubordinated to the State Scientific-Technical Committee, now abolished, andto be assuming responsibility forand arranging scientific exchanges with foreign countries.

The new State Committee Is headedeputy Chairman of the Council of. RudncY. The Committee is composed of the President of the Academy of Sciences, USSR, M. V. Kcldysh; the Minister of Higher and Secondary Specialized Education, V. P. Yclyutin; the Chairman of the Stateon Automation and Machine Building, A. I. Kostousov; the Chairman of the State Committee on Chemistry, V. S. Pederov; the Chairman of the Committee for Inventions and Discoveries, A. F. Garmashev; one of the deputy chairmen of the State Economicone ot the deputy chairmen of the State Planning Committee; and Other members from other state committees dealing withand development work.

On the operational level, the Academy of Sciences, USSR, will delegate some of itsfunctions in applied research to other agencies. Within the Academy, institutes will be reorganized inay as lo cope with the complex interdisciplinary and basic research problems,ery likelyin the Academy's role in space(that is, basic research inn the consulting and decision-making level the prestige and resources of the Academy will, as in the past, be utilized, although there is now an intermediateCommittee on Coordination of Scientificwill in turn exert pressure on the Academy.

A general meeting of the Academy ofUSSR, in conjunction withof the Department of Biological Sciences, was held1 In Moscow. Academician N. M. Sisakyan, newly elected secretary of the biological department, reviewed the following five basic steps in the Soviet development of spaceetermination of theof space biology based on scientificand biological interpretation of data on the physical properties of the upper layers of the atmosphere and of spacefilghtof thexperimental studies of dogs, rabbits, rats, and mice launched In rockets to altitudes,hese studies served to ascertain the effects of basic flight characteristics on various functions of the organism and tosafe means for returning the animals toxperimental studies conducted with the aid of radlotelemetry of data from animals in earth satellites under conditions similar to those of mannediological studies of animals and plant life on spaceships and exhaustive studies upon their return to earth;anned

At an earlier meeting0 Sisakyan noted that the economic importance of some biological problems, including some in space biology,oncentration of effort and material resources. He indicated thatide introduction into biologicalof electronics, automation, andmechanisms will be required for their

At present, Soviet biological scientists are concerned with the following threehe effect of external space factors on livingiological principles for spacc-crew life supportediumall necessities for maintenance of life;ife on other planets of the solar system.

The basic problems represented contain areas of potential scientific breakthrough and Soviet achievement of solution to thesecould be of major significance politically, ideologically, economically, and in certain cases militarily. The high priority being given to research in space biology, therefore, has significant implications. It isimportant that evidence of expandedattack on priority problems of space biology and bioastronautics be carefully evaluated because of the major contribution

that Soviet physicists, chemists, andmay make to the solution of bask biological problems.,a


Vertical and Orbital Flights (Animals)

The Soviets haveeries ofsystematic experiments withand orbital vehicles carrying dogsanimals and plants in their cabins These bio-

medical probes, startingssisted in solving the complicated problems ofand recovery. The data retrieved by the Soviets also helped to Improve or modify their vehicle orientation system and lifeequipment. These experimentsthe Sovietseasonable assurance that man could survive spaceflight andin sealedhe preparation of animals for biomedical experiments was carried out according to specific conditioning techniques, which excluded the necessity of using narcotics.

Manned Orbital Flights

Since the successful launching of Sputnik II, Soviet scientists and designers havea path of developing heavy and large satellites and spaceships In support of manned spaceflight. It was necessary for the Soviets to get as much Information as possiblethe design of space apparatus and their on-board equipment, to retrieve basic physiological and biological data, and to work out the reliability of controlling the various


experiments. The Soviets areto have been training their cosmonauts, which may Include women, for moreears. Gagarin and Titov were only membersroup of selectees prepared to make the first orbital attempt31

According to recent Soviet statements, the Soviet cosmonauts were selected and trained following interviewsreat number of pilots who expressed desire to perform cosmic flights. Selected flyers, chosen after thesethen underwent initial clinical and psychological examinations to determine their state of health and to appraise their potential reactions under the Influence of cosmic flighteneral physical examinationwas conducted byumber of biochemical, physiological, and psychological methods as well as special functional tests (altitude and pressure chambers, humanexperiments, and other trainerwhich attempted to simulate the factors of cosmic flight on the ground and In the air.

The Soviets further state that the special training programs were planned inay that the cosmonauts acquired the necessary data regarding the basic theoretical problems connected with anticipated flights andskills In using the equipment andin the spaceship, The programsthe following technical subjects: basic principles of rocket and space technology,of the spaceship, specific problems ofand geophysics, and special problems peculiar to space medicine. Specifically, the Soviets indicated that the complex of special training and experiments included theaircraft flights producing very shortof weightlessness; training in mock-upspaceship cabin andpecial trainer; protracted stayspecially equipped soundproof cabin; experiments (training)entrifugal apparatus; and numerousjumps from aircraft from variousAs an adjunct to the whole training program, physical training (calisthenics, games, diving, swimming, and exercises on special training apparatus) was conducted under the constant supervision of physicians.

After the completion of the trainingthe preparation of chosen candidates for spaceflight was organized. Thisdisclosed In open literature, consisted of the study of flying tasks (Including maps of the area of landings, piloting instructions, and radiohe study ofsupplies and their use in the landing area, the study of the direction finder systems, functional tests on the human centrifugeressure suit with maximum anticipated weight, and prolonged testsock-up spaceship using all standard systems of life support.

The Soviets further disclosedroup of cosmonauts, prepared for the flight Into space, was finally selected as the result of their intensive educational and training work. Pilot Major Yu. A, Gagarin was chosen from this group to make man's first orbitalont the back of this report,hotograph taken at the time of his selection.

Postulated Biomedical Achievements in Space

Postulation of the biomedical achievements and time elements of the Soviet spacefollows:

Manned Orbital Flight:

L.aneuverable spaceship heavier than Vostok II and usingpropulsion fuels, possibly for acircumlunar

aunch an aerodynamic glide-type space.

Unmanned Lunar Plights {Biological

Softiologically Instrumented payload on the

Launch biological payload from ansatellite to soft land on the.

Manned Lunar Flight:

paceship on the moon and.

pace vehicle from ansiiace station, to surface on

onduct lunar "on-site" research and development.

onstruct lunar launching sites for deep space


Chemical and Biological Gas Kxchangers

The Soviets may be calalyticallyoxygen from "superoxides" to regenerate expended O, In the atmosphere of spaceThe Soviets reportedly used asystem which utilized highly active chemical compounds. Innd dl The feasibility of using lithium peroxide as an adsorbent of carbon dioxide and moisture and as an oxygen storage medium in chemical oxygen systems reportedly was being studied In Moscow0 at the V.umakovof General and Inorganic Chemistry. Such systems could bo used for airin space vehicle cabins occupied by living subjects.

Soviet scientists studying the reactions of lithium peroxide with water vapor andcarbon dioxide at temperatures upoundemperature range", In an atmosphere4 percent carbon dioxidewater vapor, by volume, lithium peroxide was an excellent absorber with simultaneous liberation of an equivalent amount oft temperatures belowthere was practically no reaction between the lithium peroxide and the other agents;t temperatures'C and above, allceasedhort time because of the formation of an Impervious carbonate crust accompanied by

The maintenance of an:'C within the gas-cycling element of an air regeneration system should be within the range of Soviet technological capabilities. However, It must be emphasizedominant role is played by power, weight, and space limitations in determining

the choicearticular ecological systemiven flight mission. This Sovietalso implies that the Soviets may have completed testingotassium regenerative system fornd carbon dioxide removal and are now studing the feasibility ofhemical compoundower molecular weight, perhaps greater efficiency, anda lower weight by volume thansuperoxideor extended flight use In manned space vehicles. The Soviet Academy of Sciences reportedly expects to "concentrate and accelerate Chlorellaas vital scientific research" The objectives of this research are largecultivation of Chlorellaood source and utilization of Chlorella In carbon dioxide-oxygen exchange units In submarines and spaceships. An additional research objective is concerned with determination of thecomposition of Chorella, especially the protein composition.

Research plans revealed include the testing of different strains of Chlorella havingoptimum growth temperatures and the search for and testing of new thermophilic (high temperature) strains of the algae (seeew strains especially desired are those with higher optimum growththan those now known. Soviet plans call for research on cultivation methods, both the large volume cultivation as successfully employed in Japan, and the closed systemdeveloped in the United States. This latter system would be valuable in closedsituations such as Is encountered in hermetically sealed space cabins and capsules.

A total ofesearchers of the Microbiology Institute and the PlantInstitute of the Academy of Sciences. USSR, the Soil Microbiology Institute ofUniversity, and the Plant Physiologyof Leningrad University reportedly will participate in this work.

*ields 4KOHoxygenOt yields(CO*

It has been assumed that the Soviets were working on devices employing algae fordioxide-oxygen exchange, but this Is the first positive evidenceodel device is being developed and tested for this purpose In the USSR, The Soviet plan callsevice weighing0 pounds) which will supply oxygen "semi-permanently" for two people In a

The figure ofilogramsevice to supply oxygen for two men is an Indication that something other than the normal strain of Chlorella Is being device using the normal strain (comparatively lowand photosynthetic rates) call forilograms or aboutounds of solution and algae per man. This amount, along with the necessary weight of containers, lamps, pumps, and gas exchange units, would comeuch higher figure than Soviet design ofilograms per person. Since no directis available on the characteristics and source of algae species used for this closed circuit system thereistinct possibility that the Soviets meantilograms for the equipment with the solution and algae weight to be added later.

Although available Information referred only to Chlorella as being the algae under test, or to be tested, it is probable that the Soviets will not restrict their operationsingle genus of algae. It is more probable that their studies of chemical composition will be made on all algae species which are fast growing and fit all criteria imposed by concepts of use and equipment design. Their final selection of species for use probably will be dependent on consideration of all test results.

The Soviets are cognizant of thehigh value of the thermophilic strains of algae as far as reproduction and photo-synthetic rates are concerned. It Is not clear, however, whether the Soviets now havestrains on which research Is being conducted.developed high-temperature strain of algae was given to an institute of the Academy of Social Hygiene, Work Hygiene, and Advanced Medical

big of the German Democratic Republic and presumably has been made available to the USSR-Individual Soviet scientists associated with the Chlorella project are among the mostbiologists In the USSR. This fact and the reported assignmentesearch workers to this task are both good indications of the Importance the Soviets are placing on algae

Other Soviet biological research concerns variants of closed ecological systemsdealing with plankton {Rotatoria. Cope-poda, andhese studies areconcerned with the possibilities of developing accelerated propagation rates and food sources of high protein value to be used in connection with future lunar projectslanding and prolonged habitation byi This research Is very significant as the Soviets are placing great stress on how fast tbey can make plankton divide (division and propagationhereass primarily concerned only withuseood souice.

Radiation Factors

The Biological Problem

Detailed experimental and theoretical study of geomagnetlcally trapped corpuscular(protons and electrons) hasajor field of investigation during the past two years in both the United States and tho Soviet Union. Although knowledge of the trapped radiation Is still incomplete, these trapped particles arc of biologicalfor spaceflight in the near vicinity of the earth. Moreover, iteasonable presumption that corresponding radiation exists around all other magnetized celestial

Protection and Recovery Problem

Orbits0 miles) should prove quite safe for long-termmanned vehicles. So-called "avoidance routes" can be plotted to escape most of the two Van Allen bands (seesasrof. Sergey Vernov, Soviet authority on space radiation, reported on such mapping and launchingesult of three orbiting spacecraftIV, V, andhe Soviets claim to have found that primary cosmic rays comprised the main part of the radiation dose received inside of the vehicle. All of the measurements were In the rangeautical miles above the earth, the original perigee and apogee limits of this series of satellites. The perigee and apogee of the first manned orbital flight (Vostok I) fall within these limits, suggesting that0 satellite series was planned for the1 manned flight.

. and Soviet space vehicles have already obtained scientific data in andthe Van Allen belts, but other space probes and additional biomedicalwill logically precede manned flight in thatccording. information, orbiting in or above the outer band willshielding (of the orderorams per square centimeter) and also avoidance of solar flare activity. Such shielding will also be adequate for auroral radiation and theays. Not enough information was available byor scientists toeither dose or shielding requirements for neutrons. For cosmic rays, shielding ofm1 is useless. Shieldingevelm' would reduce intensity of cosmic rays significantly. Less shielding than this may, In fact, lead to an increased dose because the primary cosmlcs would be slowed enough lo permit more frequent stoppage of cosmic rays, resulting In damage to the vehicle or passenger. In addition to passivethere are electrostatic andshielding (referred to by theut these Impose weight or power limitations of their own.. opinion suggests that the biological risk of damage fromrays seems acceptable, and the other space radiation can be reduced adequately bymv shielding.* (See

In general, life support equipment isshielded by any measures which will protect man. There are, of course, items which will be exposed externally to direct space radiation. The successful operation of battery sources and transmitters of data in Sputnik IIIeriod of two years provides the most direct evidence for the survival of electronic support equipment In Soviet space vehicles. The integrated radiation exposures In this early Soviet experiment ore still much below the level at which seriousmay beven for such Items as plastics, transistors, and solar energydoses on the orderem areto producefll Metals are extremely resistant to radiation damage.

Previously, the Soviets mentioned the usecries ol metallurgical, alloy, and(simulating water) matrices asattenuation techniques. Thesemay constitute the normal physical "make-up" of the inner and outer skm of the spaceship and biocapsule. Furtherwas proposed for the living test subjects consisting of clothing made from capron orynthetic fiber to which lead and tungsten In some suitable form may have been attached, laminated, or mechanicallyAlso the added weight of the clothing wouldupplementalaid"estraint harness during tho launching and recovery phase but would be nullified during the entire period of tho weightless

These combined shielding techniques will not solve the primary cosmic ray problem nor that resulting from the bombardment by very energetic protons or electrons. For short missions, however, the maximum biological hazard may be lessened.

Scientific Instrumentation and Use

Radiation Shielding Technique (Sputnik V)

Analysis of the possiblepaceship and biocapsule) suggests that the USSR Is actively investigating specific combinations of radiation shieldingfor capsule design and personnelagainst radiation. The Sovietsthat the two dogs, Belka and Strelka, wore special clothing for the Sputnik VOver this, the dogs reportedly wore so-called fixed clothing made of capronynthetic fiber known generally asade fromhis clothingprevented mechanical damage to radiation counters which had been placed In the bodies of the animals.


A. A. Imshcnetskly. Director of theof Microbiology, Academy of Sciences. USSR, has noted that one of the mostproblems of space biology is collecting samples of particles from outer space andthemicrobiological point of view. There Is no evidence that Soviethaveevice which would permit specific identification of livewithout culture andmethods. But It Is possible that adevice supplemented by otherinstrumentation (suchasshas been rigged to determinesize, and some physicochemkal characteristics of captured particles. Inmicromedla for growth andanalyses may have been included ln thewith some design for telemetrlc monitoring of oxidation-reduction potentials and pH changes. If particles are picked up which lie within parameters identified with knownignal mighteceiving station on earth. Other evidence of metabolism and respiration, as demonstrated in the biological apparatus, might be relayed ln similar fashion. Despite evidence of the existence of very reliableblotelcmetry devices, such acomplex detection apparatus ofwould be subject to numerousfor malfunction and probably would be limited to relaying only presumptiveabout living organisms In outer space.

1 Hungarian article based on anwith the microbiologist V. D. Timakov, Vice President of the Academy of Medical Sciences, USSR, notes that Sputnik V, which was launched onas equippediodetector. Although the biodetector was reported to be especially designed for vehicles which are not to return to earth,as, in fact, successfully recovered. Other public statements made In0 about the need for designing suchdetection devices, suitable for cosmo-biological studiesossibility that the biodetector was still under development when used in Sputnik V. This instrument reportedly could transmit radio signals which would alert the receiver to "evidence of life, such as unknown microbes" encountered In space. When the biodetector passesdangert Is designed to flash asignal back to earth.

A number of air sampling devices produced or under development in the USSR areto the problem of extremely high altitude sampling. Several scoop, suction, and impinger devices could be applied torecovery of samples outside SovietScoop and vacuum bottle devices have been used by the Soviets for evaluatingprofiles of the upper atmosphere,upiles).the biodetectorehicle going beyondiles mayersion of thedeveloped by B. V. Deryagin, M. A. Fuchs, and others for determination ofconcentration in highly dispersedutilizing photoelectric methods,

The problem of extraterrestrial life andmicrobiological hazardsatter of serious concern to Sovietheoretical, as wellublic health, point of view. Despite weight limitations and collection priority of the astro-physical information, it is possible that aof the biodetector will be installed in future space

instrumentation of Peripheral Interest

The Soviets have been experimentingears with electric devices to induce sleep in animals and man, and to produce asimilar to that existing under theofuch research Is only of peripheral interest to bioastronautics but their eiin'rwi work and its applications could possibly aid Soviet researchers Instudies for planning work-rest cycles (shifting, reversing, lengthening, shortening) and in scheduling the future activities of selected crews for vehicles making extended flights. The device's adaptability toin lengthimulated sleep period on humans would be very helpful in determining possible effects of sleep cycles and theoperation of biological timingInvolved in manned spaceflight.there is no direct evidence of such research being applied to space activities this Soviet device could aid studies orientedrelationship between brain functions and behavior, especially under emotionaland changing levels of consciousness, such as sleep, parabiotic states andThe test of the Soviet portable unit. institute resultedog going to sleep, but the test was not conclusive.

Thermoelectric Methods for Analysis ofRate

Some significant Soviet research related to manned spaceflight, as well as obvious clinical use, reportedly being done at the Department of Hygiene, Military-Medical Academy,is devoted to the determination of heat loss from human skin due to radiation,and conduction. According todescription thisew thermoelectric method for the analysis of metabolism rate based on the principle of direct calorlmetry.

Eleven calorimeters consisting of rounddiscs, intoattery of serially connected thermoelements Is mounted, are attached to various parts of the human body. Simultaneous readings of thermoelectricof all calorimeters permits anof the mean heat loss from one unit of skin during one unit of lime. Studies on heat loss by evaporation (under ordinaryof thermal comfort the Sovietsthis as meaningf all lost heat) is not registered during these studies but is determined at otherTo ensure conditions of thermal comfort, the Soviet determinations were made at an average skin temperature ofInercent of theest subjects examined the difference of values obtained by thismethod and the values obtained by West-em methodology (Douglas-Haldane) did notercent and in the remainder of the subjects did not exceed

Other Soviet researchers describe theirof heat exchange in eight men betweenndears of age duringto temperatureC. Values of heat production, heatand heat accumulation In the organism were determined. These heat exchangemake it possible to determine the licat load on man at various temperatures and tothe time during which the greatest loads studied may be endured, depending on tho speed of heat storage and the limiting permissible values of heat accumulated In the organisms."

This Soviet indirect method of determining the fundamental metabolism rate bythe rate at which heat is given off by the human skin may lead to development of new techniques for maintenance of adequate Internal environments of space vehiclesat high speeds, particularly during the decelerative and re-entry phase. Thisresearch at the Military Medical Academy could be significant to the Soviet biotelemetry requirements and capabilities. Adaptations of telemetering equipment to

transmit quantitative data related to energy levels (basic to maintenance of cellularrespiration and adequate peripheral circulation) of cosmonauts during active and passive periods of spaceflight woulda high degree of capability indevelopment for bioenglneerlngIn addition, the studies at otheron elucidation of mechanisms involved as well as knowledge of unusual heat losses and reactions are necessary as re-entryand other thermal stresses may make it necessary for Soviet cosmonauts to withstand extremes of temperature. The failure of the human subject under heat stressors Isand seems to Involve autonomic

Human Factors Engineering

Important Soviet work which concerns the functional characteristics of the humanin space vehicles includes studies of vibration effects on the human body, airIn confined areas, recoverypost-flight observational phases, role of cybernetics in manned spaceflight, and other aspects directly and indirectly related to orbital and inter-planetary spaceflight.

Bole of Cybernetics in Mannedto recent statements of A. I. Prokhorov, member of the the Presidium of the Scientific Council of Cybernetics of the Academy of Sciences, USSR, the science of cybernetics will become increasinglyIn the conquest of space.

Cybernetical tools (self adaptive) will help man when he Is unable to operate quickly enough the complex processes and equipment involved. Tlie means of applied cybernetics are fast electronic computers and different automatic machines. For this reason, the role of cybernetics Is Important in theace. This type of bionics research also helps In checking the design of abefore it is built as well as In choosing the most heat-resistant and durable alloy for the re-entry phases and successful recovery of man in space vehicles.

Prokhorov further stated that it is certain that future spaceships will have severalmachines, each of which will solve its own special task. In any case, according to Prokhorov, future cosmonauts assigned tomissions will be accompanied In the spaceships by different cybernetic devices which will help them carry out many of the tasks Involved.*8

Western scientists consider it important, however, to realize that limited endurance Is not likely to be confined to the human subject in the competition between man and machine Machines, too, suffer from seriousand the failure of such cyberneticalin space vehicles Is likely to be more rapid than the failure of any humanThis Is particularly probable as the machines and devices become moreand involve very large numbers ofcomponents. It may well be that one of the most important requirements of man In space will be to maintain the

Soviet hypothesis agrees ln general with. postulation on this problem but they concede that the way out of the predicament (Increased number of elements reduceof system) is to Increase the reliability of each element individually as well asnew principles ofystemdamage to Individual elements would not affect the work of the machinehole. The Soviet scientist, V. A. Trapeznlkovof the National Committee of the Soviet Union on Automatic Control and Director of the Institute of Automation andstates that nature provides anofoolproof system in living organisms which follow tho principle ofof function. When some cells are damaged their functions are performed by other cells. The same principle, according to the scientist, should be followed in building automaticthat Is, self-adaptive

Post-Flight Phase of the Soviet Spacea Februaryeeting of the Department of Biological Sciences,of Sciences. USSR, Academician N.iochemist of the Bakh Institute of Biochemistry and the Secretary of the Dcpart-

ment of Biological Sciences, reported on some post-flight observations of living objectslaunched and recovered from Soviet spaceships, satellites, and high-altitude(See) *'" He mentioned prior Soviet claims that flight below knownbelts is reasonably safe.

Slsakyan's statements disclose, however, that some of the living organisms are affected by spaceflight conditions. This member of the Academy of Sciences as well as otherobservers said that the space dogs have developed "highly refined" changes instructure of cells, but apparently there is no evidence yet of adverse effect onfunctions. Examination of boneof mice sent into orbit shows that aof blood cells do not reproduce normally, but it is not yet possible to say whether the blood-forming function of marrow IsA transitory increase in the amount of serum globulin and total serum protein,ecrease in the scrum cholinesterase activity were noted in Belka andew days after their successful recovery from orbitalhe nucleic acid studies have also proven to the Soviets thatno lasting disorders of metabolism are induced by such short serum cholinesterase levels may have resulted from stresses of combined flight factors and exposure to toxic substancesby the normal operation or toof the internal equipment of the sealed cabin. Progressive decreases in subject'scholinesterase activity for longer periods thanrbits could lead to difficulties,there is the possibility of reparative processes during sleep.

The probable significance of Includingmpules of fungi strains (actinomycetes) was to study the significance of genetic effects of radiation. Any changes in the two strains (radioactive sensitive and radioactivecan be measured and utilized further for the production of more strains which might be beneficial but could Just as well beB1 Soviet observations are considered valid In view of the altitudes and durations of their vertical and orbital missions. It Is also recognized that Soviet- scientists can trace possible future effects of past exposures to spaceflight during the remaining life period of these experimental objects.

Vibration (Ground Simulators)Soviet research on oscillatory resonance of thebody while subjected to vibrations Isfor the purpose of studying theinfluence on physiological functions,of vibrations, and evaluation of shock-absorbing* Following an orbital shot with animals suggestions were made by the .Soviets for the use of various shockin order to reduce future vibrational effects on the human body.*0

This research is most likely designed tothresholds of performanceunder conditions of specific vibrational amplitudes (simulating powered flight andphases) at or near the frequencies of human bodily resonance. It appears thatresearch tasks on resonance phenomena withinoycles per second range are initially concerned with impairment ofvisionpeechand psychomotor performance. These Soviet studies, which have been performed on ground simulators, will enhance information about physiological tolerance to operational stresses of vibration.

In the Soviet experiments on headan accelerometer was bound firmly to the human head by rubber tapes.registrations were also made of the accelerative movements of the vibration stand. The Soviets found that theof the oscillatory motions of the human body were much higher than those of the vibrating test stand, particularly duringwithinycles per second and plus or minusillimeters. Theiralso established frequenciesps andops as the resonance regions for the human body,oycles perbeing the critical resonance for thehese Soviet findings apparently. data on the vibrational problems of manned spaceflight to the eflect that certainthatycles per second, rather

than amplitudes cause mental dissociation and other transitory disturbances. Otherproblems which may arise. orspace candidates are subjected U> lowvibrations during launch or re-entry are lack of speech intelligibility (no control of air flow in trachea) or the possibility that the human subjects might be forcibly lulled to sleep,anner reminiscent of cradle rocking.

Air Contamination In Confined AreasThe Soviets recently reported their study of contamination of the air resulting fromcarbon monoxide (CO) in confined rooms. Carbon monoxide is not burned to carbon dioxide (CC*j> in the body, and Is only gradually eliminated from the lungs as air is inhaled. Test subjects (smokers and non-smokers) were confined in groups of three in test chambersolume ofubic meters of air for several days. All possible external sources of CO contamination were carefully checked and eliminated. The air-purification system In the chamber was the peroxide type and could only reduce the CO concentration. Calorimetric determination of the CO concentration was made with adevice.oays, the air of the testing chamber with the threeilligrams per liter of CO. The smokers exhaled alveolar air containing CO at an average2 milligram per liter more than the

These Soviet studies on formation andof alveolar air containing CO from the human organism during confinementto be of Importance to problems ofair purification and toxic effects of CO In vehicles for manned spaceflight. Such data also aids in determining thetolerance of man in confined areasordinary ventilation or exchange of air. The peroxide-type air purification systemby the Soviets indicates furtherof Soviet trends using superoxides for the development of chemical-oxygen systems. This information on CO rates could also aid Soviet feasibility studies related to capsule and vehicle designeliability of sealed cabins against leakage, optimum controlpressure and oxygen levels, andof safety features for CO detection and quantitative estimates (toxicities).

Recovery of Gagarin from Orbital Flight

The Soviets, in successfully recovering man from orbital flight, were guided by the results of animal experiments carried out0he successful completion ofarge portion of their vertical andexperimental work clarifies the Soviet use of parachutes as the most practicalfor recovery of the space cabin (housed life support equipment and landing system) and tho cosmonaut, separately. Such ejection systems have been reliably tested for many animal recoveries from vertical and orbital apogees as highiles. Within the cabin of the spaceship, Gagarin sat ln achair which served as his working place as well as an emergency escape apparatus during the powered flight phase. Thechairpecial back for holding his body during ejection andand thatarachutecatapulting and pyrotcchnlcalemergency equipment including food, water, radio for communications andafter landing; ventilation system for pressure suit and parachute oxygen gear; and other automatic equipment. It is likely that Gagarin ejected from the heavy cabin0eet and continued the descentonventional1 The Soviets have never confirmed the method of Gagarin's recovery from orbital flight, but it appears that the Soviet ejection technique Is more practical than the recovery of the spaceship containing the man. However, If Gagarin did eject, he most likely experienced before ejection the stress of the spaceship's "braking phase"omentary rotation of the "ship" during the descent trajectory into atmospheric levels.

Sterilization of Space ProbesAt theCentennial Celebration,eld in the United States, Dr. Q. F. Gauze, Director of the Institute for the Search for New Antibiotics, mentioned that to avoid possible contamination of the moon by mlcro-

organisms from terrestrialroup of microbiologists at the Institute ofof the Academy of Sciences, USSR, was attempting to maintain the sterility ofactually reaching the moon, tohorough sterilization of the rocket, theand all parts of It while on the moon.**

This statement by one of the mostSoviet microbiologists supports previous Indications that Soviet Interests includeinfectious disease problems of space travelers, microorganisms on other planets, and "super-clean" factors associated with the development of space vehicles, itprevious reports that laboratoryunder A. A. troshenetskiy, Director of the Institute of Microbiology, Include studies of microorganisms under simulated spaceflight conditions. Previous press, radio, and public statements by Imshenetskly, Iye-rusalimskiy, and others have indicated space microbiological projects In Moscow and

Soviet origin-of-life laboratory research, theoretical study, and discussion are and probably will continue to be dominated byparm, who is Director of the Bakhofember of theof Sciences, USSR, and the recognizedleader in discussions andon the origin of life. Experimental data published7 indicate that some other Soviet scientists, by concentrating theirln the appropriate fields, could probably add considerable valid experimental data concerning the origin of life. On the otheronsiderable amount ofbiochemical research Indirectly related to the origin of life is done in the USSR.

Some Soviet leaders realize the propaganda and ideological value of success ln thisas It relates to the field of bloastro-nauttcs, and Increasing support for the use of the physical, mathematical, and chemical sciences and scientists in bioastronauticalis evident.

Potential disturbance of the ecologicalof the earth or other planets from outside sources Is cause for modest debate ln the United States as well as ln the USSR. It is likely that the Soviet spacegroup is one facetarger programto estimate, by experimentation, the conditions of macro- and micro-forms of life on other planets, in view of the emphasis on decontamination of component parts, It Is probable that this program at the Institute of Microbiology also Is closely coordinated with the Central Institute of Disinfection, Moscow, where actual decontaminationand development for earthboundand investigation is carried on. TheIntend to Incorporate countermeasures into space probes against factors which might prejudice the health of the astronaut ordisturb the flora and fauna of the astral body under Investigation, as well as that of the earth.


Maximum Utility of Oxygen

The availability of oxygen has long been known to be one of the prime limiting factors in the ability of man to exist and to function effectively at high altitudes. For some time, scientists throughout the world have been studying this high priority problem andmethods to alleviate it. Solution to this Important problem wouldarkedin the physiology of respiration.

A recent Soviet article reports that the pharmacological laboratory of the MinskInstitute, Byelorussia SSR, is testing the abilityharmacological preparation to increase animal (rabbits and mice) resistance and survival rates in animulated altitude of0 feet in hermetically sealed vessels. The Soviet preparation,s administeredays In doses of five milligrams per kilogram of weight. On the sixth and following days, the experimental animals undergo hour-long confined exposures at simulated highThe Soviet laboratory's data indicate that the survival time of the experimental animals wasimes over

This study indicates Soviet Interest in using chemical compounds to extend the time limits ativing organism may function at high altitudes. This type of data is expected to be of considerable value to the spacebecause of the practical value ofthe usefulness of life support equipment and because controlled use of this or similar agents may assist test subjects inthe effects of oxygen deficiencies during launching and re-entry phases of space

Simulation of Human Responses to Parachute Recovery

A Soviet scientist, L. P. Grimak, reportstudy of the "cardiovascular andchanges that take place in all stages of

imethyl serotoninenzyl analog of serotonin.

parachuting" in which five parachutistsThis study was carried out by simulating the emotional state ofthrough verbal suggestion while under hypnotic sleep. Grimak further states that it was possible toood picture of the various reactionsarachutist from the time he leaves the aircraft until the time he readies the ground. This study showed that thereise In arterial blood pressure, pulse, and respiration, which reached ajust prior to Jump. Thesechanges tended to return to normal after the parachutist leaves the airplane and the parachute

The significance of this unique experiment io that It provides Soviet scientistsay to simulate the emotional and physiological responsesarachutist or futurewill undergo during recovery. This technique should be useful in the selection of cosmonauts who show the most stable and predictable reaction to the stresses of recovery. It should also provide future cosmonauts with experience in adjusting to the stresses ofIn the laboratory and without therisk involved in actual parachute descents.

Molecular Biology

Deoxyribonucleic acid (ampules) aboardas observed by the Soviets In spaceflight because of its possible role inhereditary factors from generation to generation and because the acid is ancomponent of cell nuclei. Soviet post-flight observations are also extremely valuable for future man-ln-spacc nights, particularly from the standpoint of possible celland other genetic*


A period of significant, but apparently not critical, vibration was experienced by Gagarin (and also by Shepard) in the periodoeconds after launch. The periods offlight and the period of maximumpressure (the points in the exitat which the spacecraft and launchare subjected to the largest aerodynamic


abouteconds after launch and lasted (oreconds. Shepard reported that his head vibrated, blurring his visionewlthough this vibration was expected, it is not completely reproducible in wind tunnel tests of the vehicles, on pilot trainers, or in flight simulators.such as more head support padding and more streamlined fairing for the spacecraft-to-booster adapter ring can be expected tothis problem for. flights.

Gagarin reportedly ate, drank, floated in his space cabin, wrote notes, read instruments, transmitted by voice and key to the ground, recorded observationsape recorder, and performed secondary tasks incidental to the automatic control of the space vehicle- Also for the first tune, Gagarin experienced the rapid transition of dark entry into the earth's shadow and the abrupt emergence therefrom.

Gagarin servedbackup" to thein eventne orbit malfunction; whereas, Shepard actually assessed his own capability to operate manual control of flight altitudesew minutes of his down-range flight. The Soviet claim to new space records was adequately documcntatcd forby the official keeper of the world's flight records, the Federation Aeronautique Internationale; and Gagarin officially earned three world records for manned orbitalaltitude, and time

resented the Soviets with theto study the combined responses of Gagarinombination of flight factors which cannot be fully simulated underconditions; that is, weightlessness, noise, vibration, and re-entry dynamics.

One of the principal tasks oi the biomedical experiment derived from Gagarin's orbital flight inomplete observation of his response to the transitionorces acting on himeriodinutes. This transition, in combination with other extreme and brief flight factors, involved:ground launchuring acceleration to escapeorinutes (orbitalG during re-entry toG (ground recovery

The most critical phase of this wholeperiod, as noted by the Soviets, is from extended weightlessness back to 1G. Here the increase in the force of gravity will bewith far greater difficulty than at the beginning of the flight, because the prolonged absence of weight mayeakening in the appropriate mechanisms of bloodcontrol and other physiological proc-


According to Soviet scientists, the data from Tltov's flight are being processed.their preliminary reports indicate that during the entire orbital flight the cosmonautufficient level of working capacity. He oriented the spaceship manuallyumber of other maneuversfor scientific measurements. At theof the second orbit, Titovotion picture camera, andthe results of the filming in orbit are of definite scientific interest.

No pathological indexes were observed in Titov's main physiological functions although discussions. experts with Professornokhin, Director of the Sechenov Institute of Neurophysiology, Moscow,that the Soviets had recorded theof Tltov during his alleged sleep and that the brain-wave recordings were very interesting and unusual and hadmuch discussion. Apparently the erratic signal bursts evident ln measurements recorded disclosed to the Soviets that Tltov bad slept only fitfully and was very restless. Corroborative evidence that electroencepha-lographlc records were taken on Gagarin and Titov during their orbital flights came from discussions with other Soviet scientists.

Other Soviet scientists publicly reported some pronounced changes In the function of Titov's "vestibular apparatus" (inner ear) during the flight period. Although the loss of balance caused by this change apparently had no effect on his ability to carry out the assigned work schedule aboard Vostok II,scientists believe that subsequentwill be necessary to determine whether the vestibular disturbance under conditions of weightlessness is peculiar to Tltov or If It will be common among all space travellers Subsequent clicltatlon from Soviet scientists attending International conferences andmeetings indicate that the Soviet scientists Involved in the bloastronauiicsare concerned about the disturbance of Titov and are interested in trainingwhich could help compensate for the physical reactions in flight or in theof flight maneuver techniques which would reduce the physiological, meeting in Washington, D. C.rofessor V. I. Yazdovsky,space medicine expert, stated that "what values of artificial gravity (If necessary) should be recommended are problemsfurther experimental solution."

According to the statements of Tltov and other available data, the transition from the condition of weightlessness to re-entryand recovery by parachute, separately from the spacecraft, was smooth and did not lead to any kind of unpleasant consequences or functional disturbances.


Impact of Manned Space Flight

The Soviets are keenly aware of theimpact which successes in their man-In-space program have on all peoples of the world. They have anticipated somepossibilities of their program and will undoubtedly continue to exploitsuccesses in order to secure the maximum psychopolitical benefit.

8 publication, representing theand interdisciplinary opinions ofscientists, implies Soviet awareness and anticipation of future social Impactsfrom each new step in thehey consider this present social period as the beginning of the era of Cosmic Man. They concede that thiswill have little effect on man'slife for the next few years but consider the prospects unlimited.

Significantly, tho Soviets refer to "tactical" achievements rapidly becoming part andof life and that these developments bring much that is useful but do not change the nature of man's social existence. In contrast, the Soviets consider "strategic" achievements

as not affecting Lhe Individual directly. These "strategic" achievementscientificas cosmic flights and nuclear and thermonuclearthemselves felt slowly, they contend, but then they radically change all the relations and attitudes ofsociety and its environments. Thesechanges mean that technologicalevolution of man in space, and policies encouraging the growth of science must be viewed or anticipated in terms of their effect both on direct military power and on tho struggle for world leadership in political, psychological, and cultural terms. Should the West or the Soviets achieve successan-in-space programegree that the scientific and technological achievement isto the development of mannedeapon delivery capability or other military uses, then new attitudes may developorld-wide realization ofvulnerabilities to space hazards and threats.

Soviet Views Regarding Man's Exploitation of Outer Space

Ab man becomes increasingly involved in space travel, the legal aspects of such missions become increasingly complex for all involved nations. Thus far, the Soviet Government has shown little disposition to collaborate on specific plans for alleviating the legalattendant upon such space explorations.

The problems of space law were widelyin the Soviet Association ofLaw at its sessions8n the Academy of Sciences,roup of lawyers under the chairmanship ofYe. A. Korovin of the Legal Sciencehas been formed to study the legalof space activity. On several occasions, the Soviet newspaper, Sovetskaya Rossiya, which Is published primarily for the guidance of Party and Government officials within the RSFSR, has published major articlesthe establishmentew Party position on this Important facet of space sciences.

Professor Doctor G. P. Zodorozhniy, Soviet international law specialist, delivered aon "Legal Problems of Outer Space" on

90 at Stuttgart, Germany. The Soviet legal expert's views on outerody of scientists and professorson-Bloc area, are extremelybecause of his current position at the Legal Science Institute of the Academy ofHis discussion centered aroundof outer space and emphasized Soviet ability to alter positions tn reference to legal aspects, such as regulation of space stationand functions; exploitation ofresources; occupation, ownership and use of the moon or other planets, and political aspects, such as linking of the neutralization of outer space with tho elimination. overseas bases and total atomic disarmament. He pointed out that the USSR takes thethat individual states should be granted sovereign rights on the matter of theirinstallations, spaceships andunless international agreements arein each individual case. However, the USSR agrees that it is still too early toa general applicable code for suchHe reminded the group that the USSR does not recognize the International Court established by the United Nations, adding that the United States described Itsof the Court as voluntary. In answeruestion which postulated an analogythe neutralization of the Antarctic and control of outer space, he stated thatontinent; whereas outer space is an unimaginably larger andentity, which gives rise to much greater problems. The USSR, he continued, favors banning the use of outer space for military purposes.

It should be noted that the "Soviel man" first on site couldorce for militaryas well as for peaceful possession.foreign policy Is reflected In Khrushchev's statement at the National Press Club inonWe regard ourocket Into space and putting our flag on the moon as ouro the world listening. Khrushchev then qualified "our" as belonging to all nations of the

The legal Sciences Institute of theof Economics, Philosophical and Legal Sciences. Academy of Sciences. USSR, may be the decisive policy organization forthe legal objectives of Soviet exploitation of space as well as the extent of theirin the United Nations Generalthe International Committee onnd the International Academy of Astronautics.

Soviet Propaganda Drive

Yuriy Gagarin's successful spaceflight on1 touchedoviet propaganda orgy unprecedented in its volumeays, more thanercent of the monitored Soviet radio broadcasts were devoted to the event, covering such themes as "Soviet superiority; Gagarin, the hero;acclaim; peace and power" and other Bloc reactions. For the worldnique propaganda souvenir isphonograph record of "Yuriy Gagarin lnhe record beginseport on the landing of the rocket. The voice of the first astronaut is accompanied by aIn English, French, German, Chinese, Spanish, and Arabic.""


There are recent indications thatand Poland plan to increase theirfor supportive space research.1 these two countries were accepted asmembers of the International Committee for Space Research (COSPAR).lnzechoslovakia, having been acceptedember of theFederation for the Study of Outer Space of the United Nations Organization, in New York, agreed to intensify and improve the quality of research for the spaceflight fields. At the present time Doctor Rudolf Pesekember of the preparatory committee of the newly founded International AstronauticalT

The limited and generalized programby the Bloc areas appears to negate the need of their launching any satellites or high altitude rockets but to direct supportivetoward physiological, psychological, hygienic, and technical problems of manned spaceflight. Of particular significance to Bloc coordination are Czech proposals to study oxygen systems, utilizing biological (algae) and chemical (lithium) methods. Such Bloc research would support the Soviet emphasis on studies related to the development of "superoxide" systems for extended flight

Other than minimum service support from other European Satellites and Communist China, the Soviet spaceflight research effort may benefit to some extent from the overall coordination of the Sino-Soviet Bloc scientific and technical effort achieved throughconcluded between the Soviet Academy of Sciences and the national academies of the Bloc countries and through the organization of special scientific-technicalear agreement on scientific cooperation was signed in Moscow on1 by representatives of the Academy of Sciences, USSR, and the Chinese People'sThe agreement makes provision for the further expansion of Joint research in the main spheres of



AKOKHIN, peter K.rof. Dr. neurophysiology. Director of Secboncv Institute of neurophysiology, Moscow. Research on processes of physiological monitoring of cosmonauts In training and orbital flight as well asof telemetering equipment for trancmlsflion of electroencepbalograme by radio; interest in studies Involving tho problem of holluciations aod disorders of psychic function arising in the state of weightlessness. Leading representative at International Conferences.

ARSEHIBVA, H. G. ocated at the Institute of Biological Physics, Acadeay of Sciences, USSR, Koscov. Fields of Interest Cytological studies onther environmental flight factors. vibration).

AS RATTAN, E. A,lternate Member of Academy of Sciences, Director of Inetltuto of Higher Nervous Activities and neurophysiology. Fields of interest Pemoto controllotelemetryhysiology nni cosmic acceleration; knowledge of first naocd flicht (Y. Gagarin).

AYRAPET1YAMTS, E.andidate of Biological Sciences. Physiology. Head, Laboratory of Interoceptive Conditioned Reflexes, Institute of Physiology lmeni I. P. Pavlov, Academy of Sciences, USSR. Research on reaction of enteric organs to hypoxia, mechanism of inner analyters In higher nervous activity under conditions of rarefied atmosphere, and physiological principles of ir.tereception.

IT,feaber. Central Scientific Hooearch Institute of Aviation Physiology, Biochemistry. Biological problems of interplanetary flight, mechanism of production and physical and chemical characteristics of gas from blisters in emphysema of high altitudes, choraical analysis, and photometric determination of oxygen saturation of blood.

IY, Valentin V. Associated with tbe Central Scientific Research Institute of Aviation Medicine, Moscowa physiological optics specialist who has made etudlos of the absolute distance of objects; research possibly related to space perception, spatial orientation and. factors affocting man in space.

B0HI3ENXO,ports cooalflsioner of Chkalov Central Aeronautical Club of USSR. Particularly importantoeelble "policy-Baker- for tralninc of cosmonauts. Congratulated Y. Gagarin on recovery site. Officially on the spot whereanded,he three world records (weight, altitude and time) for orbital space flight.

BRESTKIH, Ktkl.-iil Pavlovlch Major. PhyDiology. Bead, Department of Military Labor (Chief,ilitary Medical Academy lmenl S. M. Awards: Stalin Prize Second Class. Specialty: Aviation Medicine. Studies: Pole of oxygen lu high altitude flights and low pressure chamber experiments.

IY,rof. hysiology. Research on vital activities of animals during rocket flights to high altitudes. Cheraigovskiy did original vork with test doge (conditioning and pre-conditioning) at the Laboratory of Physiology of Receptors, Institute of Physiology imeni I.lov, Leningrad and ia presently director of that Institute. He Is also interested in the athermal effects of radio frequency exposures.

DEDYULIH,hysiology. Department of General Physiology and Departnent of Biochemistry, Institute of Experimental Medicine, Academy of Medical Sciences, USSR. Specialty is high-altitude physiology. Research on effect of low temperature on circulatory system aad metabolism at high altitudes.

DEMEWT'BV,hairman of the State Committee on Aviation Engineering of the Council of Ministers of the USSR, since ita establishment Aviation Eagineer; graduate of Zhukovakli Air Engineering Academy Born

DOFODWnSIN,ead of Computer Center, Moscow. Possible optimum command and control systems for life support of man-in-epace vehicles.

DflUZHININ, G. V.ybernetics. Position unknown. Studies: Relationship of redundancy efficiency to performance time of the system Implies associated electronics for capsule attitude control; manned recovery; communications; systems reliability; subjective probability in decision theories.

EL'PIHER, I. Ye.octor of Biological Science. Chief of the Laboratory of Ultrasound or the Ultrasonics Group, Institute of Biological PhysicsAcademy of Sciences, Moscow; Acoustics Commission of the Academy of Sciences, USSR. Specialty: Physiological Acoustics. One of the foremost Soviet authorities in the application of ultrasonics to medical research. Studies: Biological action of ultrasonic waves. Oxidation and reduction of biological substances under the action of ultrasonic waves.

FRANK, G. M.octor of Medical Sciences. Director of Institute of Biologicalcademy of Sciences, Moscow. In charge of subordinate Laboratory of Living Structure and Deputy Chief Editor of the Journal Biophysics. Considered by Western authorities to be one of tbe outstanding Soviet biophysicists. Studies: Molecular structure of oriented proteins in tissues, changes in the mechanical propertieserve during ita stimulation, and phosphorous metabolism iu bones. U.

GAVRILOV, H- A. Possibly located at the Remote Control Institute of the Institute of Automation and Telemechanics. Studies: Principal problems of tho theory of telemechanical devices; communication between remote control devicesuman monitor; theories for operating capabilities of complex devices, reliability requirements,esign and an*lysis.

GAZEHKO, Olegt.andidate of Biological Sciences; Member, Barotheraichair Physiology, Military Medical Acad, lmenl S. M. Kirov, opoce Medicine and Bloastronautics. Understudy of Dr. V. I. Yazdovakiy, space medicine expert. Research on the effeots of lowered partial oxygen pressure on higher nervous activity, physiological analysis of fatigue, physiological reactions to space flight conditions.

GKRSHUSI, Cirgory Viktorovichrofessor-Doctor. Bead, Laboratory of Physiology of tbe Auditory Analyzer, Institute of Physiology lmenl I. P. fcivlov, Academy or Sciences, USSR. Specialty is phyalology of sense organs. Research on quantitative investigations of the range of action

of Imperceptible sound stimulations, physiological acoustics, auditory

thresholds, and blomechanical analogies (cybernetics).

IK5HEHETSKIY, A.irector of Institute of Microbiology, Academy of Sciences, USSR, Moscow (sterilization of apace probes).

ISAKOV, Petr Kuz'mlchol. Candidate of Biological Sciences: Meefeer, Soviet Air Force Institute of AviationLaboratory) Member, Science Technical Commission aad Chairman, Cosmic Biology Commission, Astronautics o has been identified as the person rosponoible for research on designingquipment at the Soviet Air Force Scientific Research on Tenting Institute of Aviation Madicine. Research on possible use of Chlorella for provision of oxygen during space flight, effect of cosmic radiation on animals, effects of acceleration and gravity on man, safe apace flight clothing, ejection seats, behavior of animals launched in rockets, problems of 1lying ln outer space, and problems of returning satellite crews from the cosmos.

n8titute of Microbiology and Epidemiology,R. Field of Interest-outstanding Soviet expert In hibernaticoTcomparative ecology of hibernatingypothermia.

j"Biophysics. Laboratory of Photobiology, Institute Biological Physics, Academy of Science a> USSR. Specialty-Physiological Optic*. Studies: Investigation of depth perception uode-varying light conditions and adjustment or blinking source of light at certain brilliances of background. Increasing depth perception.

KELDYSH, Hstielav V.ewly elected President of the Academy of Sciences, USSR (iyl). . Applied mthenatician and expert in aerodynamics and rocket development. Prior to election to Academy's presidency was director and leader of research of "several research institutes conducting work in nwthemntlCB and mechanics and charged with the solution of major scientific and engineering development problems in the area of specialhis refers to the group of research and development centers for missileo and space vohicloa managed mainly by the Dtate Committee on Aviation Engineering, Ministry of Medium Machine Building (weaponsnd Ministry of Defense.

KOSRIKSKIY, A. Possibly the Contral Research Institute for Prosthetics, Moscow. Heads interdisciplinary team (doctors, electrophysiologlsts, engineers) which develops devicesioelectrical control syate=.

kri3s, A. Ye.ead of tbe Laboratory of Electron Microscopy, Biological Science Division, Academy of Sciences, USSR, Moscow, (space probe sterilization).

KUKH, Ericheobotanlcal and Plant Taxonomy Chair, Tartu State University, Tartu, Estonskaya SSR (oxygen mediums for space vehicles).

mil, Aleksondr MikhaylovichDoctor of Biological Sciences. Biochemistry. Director of Institute of Biological Physics, Academy of Sciences, USSR. Specialty is biophysics. Research on (l) harmful effects ofetabolism,utrition.

KIEHETSOV, A. C. andidate of Medical Sciences. Head, Physiology Department, Soviet Air Force Scientific Research Testing Intituto of Aviation Production of oxygen-respiration instruments and altitude-compensating clothing, study of vapor formation phenomena in organisms at high altitude.

andidate of Biological Sciences, Biophysics. Senior Scientific Associate, Institute of Biological Physics, Acaderw of Sciences, Awards: Medal for Labortudies: Laws of binocular color mixture; theoretical research on UHF mgnetlc fields.

MAYSKIY, Ivanirector of Institute of Experimental Biology, Academy of Medical Sciences. Fields of interestffects of space factors onsubstances; extreme limits of survival of living cells ia outer space.

HENIT8KIY,rofessor. Physiology. Institute of Experimental Medicine, Academy of Medical Sciences, Leningrad. Specialty is olectrophyeiology. Research on (l) cybernetics in biology and medicine,thodology of simultaneous recording of respiratory movements and bioelectric processes.


HIUBEFC, B. T.irector or the Laboratory of Biophysics of Vision, Institute of Biological Physicslectrophysiological and psychophysical methods In studies of the eye mechanisms. Also interested in applications of information theory to problems of vision (space photosynthesis; biochemical actions and psychology.

.irector of-Institute of normal and Pathological Physiology imeni I. P. Pavlov, Moscow. Observed Y. Gagarin after his return to earth.

PLATONOV, K. K.uthor of "Psychology ofublished by the Military Publishing Bouse of the USSR Ministry of Defense, Moscowields of interestsychological singularities of spaceviationilot and possibly 'cosmonaut" selection.

PCKROVSXIY, Aleksey Vaall'yevicbCol. Doctor of Medical Sciences. Associated with Soviet Air Force Institute of Aviationember of USSR Hational Cccxnittee Earth satellite research, study of vital activities of animnlo during vertical rocket flights, Influence of ultraviolet and cosmic rays on living organisms and ways of eliminating it, effect on animalsigh acceleration, and heavy radiation.

PfcOKHOROV, A. I.ember of the Presidium of the Scientific Council of Cybernetics of the Academy of Sciences, USSR. Fields of interestSelf-adaptive systems (cyberneticalptimum control systems (including life support).

3KRYAFIN, Aloksandr DmltriyovichDoctor of Medical Sciences, Chairman, Scientific Technical Committee on Biology of Cosmic Flight, Astronautics Section (space satellite research, space physiology).

octor of Medical Science. Physiology, Laboratory of Eleetrophysiology, Institute of Psychiatry, Academy of Medical Sciences, USSR. Research on the biophysics of escape and electrooncephalographic investigations of man under normal and abnormal conditions.

SIROTTirTJI,H. eportedly Director of Institute of Physiology lmenl A. A. Bogoaolets, Kiev. Directed space medicine research such as: Studies on plants and organisms suitable for use inlosed ecological system for space vehicles; acceleration studies, hypoxia; protection against cosmic rays; nutritional problems of prolonged space flight.

3ISAKYAN, H. M.cademician and prominent Soviet biologist. Academy of Sciences, USSR, Moscow. Fields of interestiological probletas of space flights; environments of hermetically sealed cabins (pressure, temperature and gas composition of Sputnik XI).

nstitute of Physiology liwnl I. p. Pavlov, Leningrad USSR. Field of interesthysiological thermoregulation which has opecu-lativs possibilitlee for space flight, extended submarine voyageB orossible solution to survival of radiation.

SOBCLEV, S. L. Location unknown. Studies: The theory of information,tatistical theory of processing and transmitting information; the theory of automatic electronic computing machinesheory of self-organising logical processes similar to the processes of human thinking; and the theory of systems of autosalic control, mainly the theory of feedback whichunctional study of the working processes of the nervous system, sensory organs and other organs of living organism.

.rof.sychology, Physiology, kl years of ape. Member, Moscow State University imeni M. V. Lomonosov. Research in electroencephalography and transmission of cosmounat'e brain-wave measurements over longdistances. Had much to do with analysis of such recordings made on Gagarin and Titov. Studies on interaction between parte of visual analyzer and galvanic skin reaction in man in response to Indifferent and conditioned stimuli.

TKP3KAYA,irector of Laboratory of Biophysics, Kraanoyarskiy Institute of Physics. Fields ofontrol of biological processes: cybernetics and Chlorella; closed respiratory systems for spaceships.

TIMAKOV, V. President of Academy of Medical Sciences. Fields of Interestrigin of life; blodetector (bacterial and viral profiles at high altitude) used on Sputnik V.

TBOSHTH, A. S. r. Biological Sciences. Corresponding Member of the Academy of Sciences. Director of the Institute of Cytology, Academy of Science, USSR, Leningrad. Responsible for setting up the Laboratory of Cosmic Biology within this Institute. Research on behavior and adaption (or adjustment) of organic cells in various environmental conditions (extreme high and low temperatures; radiation).

hairmen of the national Cosmittee of the Soviet Union on Automatic Control and Director of tbe Institute of Automation and Telemechanics, rielda of interest Optima control systems (including lifelodetector (form and color of environmental contaminants and known or unknown ortanisms).

YARBUS, A.hysiology. Institute of Biological Physics. Academy of Sciences, USSR. Specialty Is physiological optics. Research on fixation points of visual apparatus and spatial perception.


YAZDOVSKIY, Vladimir Ivanovichrof.ol. SAF Medicalead of Cosmic Physiology Course, Moscow State University imenioaonooov; associated directly with the Academy of Sciences, USSR, Moscow and directly responsible for the physiological training of cosmonauts Studies of interplanetary flight medicine; study of vital activities of animals during rocket; telemetric studies of animals and; studies on weightlessness and other parameters of manned space flight. Probably responsible for complete life support system used during Titov's flight. Seems to be the organising and managing type in the Soviet space program, and to be an energetic, authoritative, aad capable organizer.

YUPOV,andidate of Technical Sciences. Electrical Engineering. Director, All-Union Illumination Engineering Institute (Moscow Specialty: Optical Instrumentation. Studies: Variations of the spectral sensitivity of the eye under great intensities, spoctral sensitivity of the eyeiven level of brightness, effect of temperature on the spectral transmission or colored glass, variations in the spectral sensitivity of the eye, spectral sensitivity of conditions of adaptation; and equivalence of photometric dimensions.

7-HIKARBV,edical Sciences. Institute of Experimental Medicine. Specialty is bioclimatology. Research on changes in blood at various altitudes; reaction of skin to solar radiation at different altitudes.

ZVOPYKIH, V. H.hysiology. Barothersdc laboratory. Chair of Physiology, Military Medical Academy lmenl S. M. Kirov. Specialty is aviation medicine. Research on changes in higher nervous activity in rarefied areas and on anoxia and hypoxia (oxygen deprivation).




Acoustics Institute, Academy of Sciences, USSR.

Astroblologlcal Institute, Department of Aetrobotany, Academy of Sciences, Kazakh SSR, Alma-Ata.. Prof. QavrlU A- Tikhov, Directorfl).

tbxb institute mi

directed by the Academy of Sciences to exploit its full resources to studies of the biology of Sputniks and space flight and to studies of how to Bet un laboratories that will aimnnrt hiiman holngq in flput.MVc. I

Astronomical Council of Academy of Sciences, USSR.

Central Aero Hydrodynamic Institute, imoni N. Ye. Zhukovskiy (Tsentral'nyy Aoroeidrodiiiamlcheskly Inetitut (TsAfll) Zhukovskiy Air Field" (formerly Ztakhanova,ilometers south of Moscow andilometers north of Ramenskoye). Director unknown. This institute is working oa decelerator studies, flight clothing, oxygen equipment, and other problem involved in high-altitude flighte. May be connected with "LII" (Flight Research Institute).

Central Institute for The Advanced Training of Physicians (Tsentral'nyy Instltut Usovershenstvoyanlyaoscow. This central Institute is the headquartersystem of postgraduate medical institutes located throughout the country. Established primarilyraining organization, the institute, nevertheless,onsiderable amount of research. Some of the recent research includes visual perception studies, anoxia, physical stress, and respiratory functions under varying climatic conditions.

Central Psychophysiological laboratory for the Study of Flight Work, Moscow.

Central Research Institute for Prosthetics, Moscow.

Central Scientific Research Institute of Aviation Medicine (Tsentral'nyy Hauchno-Is3ledovatol'sky Instltut Avlatsionnoy Medltsinyetrovskiy Park, Moscow. S- I. Zubbotin, Director. The most modern aeromedical research equipment probably located here. An underground pressure chamberuman centrifuge have been reported at this facility

- BlMM

which was established by directive ln This establishment Is also bolleved to be the newest and most important center for aeroraedical research In tbe Soviet Union. It has an estimated staff ofoctors,viation engineers,est pilots. Research has been done on pressure suits, designing of laboratory and other acrooedlcal equipment, acceleration, high-speed flight, cabinuits, and pilot fatigue. This Institute is believed to be similar in function to tbe Aeromedical Laboratory at Wright Field.

Central Scientific Research Institute of The Air Force Hospitaloscow. Director unknown. This Institute Is mentioned frequently as an Important research center. Itarge staff which haa been doing research on flight personnel. The type of research done by this institute would be comparable with tbat of the School of Aviation Medicine, Randolph Field.

Computer Center (directed by Anatole A.cademy of Sciences USSR, Moscow.

Cosmonaut Training Centers (probable)

Krasnovodak, on southeast shore of Caspian Sea.

Bratsk, north of Lake Baikal on Angara River.

Unidentified, northwest of Chelkor near tbe Emba River.

Unidentified, near Kzyl-Orda, east of Aral sea.

Unidentified, north of Tashkent,a.

Department of Biological Sciences, Academy of Sciences, USSR, Moscow.

Flying Research Instituteamenskoye, southeast of Moscow. Director unknown. This center, under the Ministry of Aircraft Industry, which is located next to the Central Aero Hydrodynamic Institutes equippedinear decelerator and an ejection seat tower. The decelerator is somewhat comparable with that used by the USAF at Hoi ionian Air Force Base. It can be used to determine specifications in designing ejection capsules, aircraft seats, restraining devices, and to establish human endurance limits for deceleration, wind blast, tumbling, and parachute opening shock Incurred simultaneously during escape from very high-speed aircraft at high altitudes. The ejection seat tower was designed by Melnkel In Germany and moved to Raoenskoye. This center probably Is engaged ln research similar to that done at the Aeromedical Laboratory and at Uolloman Air Force Base.

- BS -

Institute of Astrophysics, Alma-Ata.

Institute of Biological Physics, (instltut Blologichcskoycademy of Sciences,ol'shaya Kuluzhskayaoscow. Professor Doctor. Frank was director This Important facility was organized3 under the Departmant of Biological Science, Academy Sciences.

oordinates the biophysical research ox or nor institutes ana rabo'r&torlcs of the various academies in pursuing the following problems: ln vivo studies of nerve and tissue changes; effects of high-frequency, electraregnetlc, and other radiations on the human organism; studies of physiological, optical, and acoustical effects of light and sound Irritants; studies of biological action of ultrcsonic wavos;studies on tbe optic and acoustic analyzers; structural andbasis of living processes; polarigraphlc studies; and spectroscopic and infra-red studies.

Institute of Biophysics, Academy of MedicalR (instltut Bioflzlkl) Moscow. A. V. Lebedenskiy, Director. Organized by P. P. Lazarev9pecific researchiophysical nature waa concentrated in this Institute. ther strategic biophysical research was assigned to the newly organized Institute of Biological Physics, and other scientific institutes of both Academies In the USSR.

Institute of Evolutionary Physiology imcni I. M. Sechenov, Academy of Sciences, USSR, Leningrad.

Institute of Experimental Biology, Academy of Medical Sciences, Moscow. Director unknown. Soviet published material indicates this institute is especially active In the study of human biological rhythm. Thin work could deal with cancer biology. However, it also has application for determining proper schedules for day-night cycles and in the preparation of man for space flight. ubordinate laboratory of this institute. Laboratory of Chemical Iwamology, reports production and testingumber of drugs (sedatives; circulatory stimulators; preparations affecting lung and skin respiration) for humans traveling in space.

Institute of Experimental Medicine, (Instltut Kks^erlmental'noy Medltsiny) Academy of Medical Sciences, Mosc<7w, Leningrad. Academician D. A. Biryukov, Director. Most of the basic research of this Institute is done In Leningrad, but the administrative office is located ln Moscow. Some significant research is concerned with high-altitude studies. Other studies embrace individual variabilities in relation to externaltrategically important problem. roup headed bye. Vladimlrov, who la also associated with the Military Medical Academy lmenl Kirov, has been engaged in high-altitude studies since This Important group bas publishod on brain reactions to oxygen deficiencies and cortical-cheooreceptor investigations.

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Institute of Experimental Pathology and Therapy, Academy of Medical Sciences USSR, Sukhumi. Utkinirector This institute vas formerly the Sukhumi Medical and Biological Station, which was organized in The institute with fully equipped laboratories, currently conducts extensive experimental animal work coraparahle with research on human beings such as latent anthropology, behavior dominance, natural occuring diseases, higher nervous activity, conditioning, neuroses, hypertension, and effects of day-night cycles. For the experimental work the instituteonkeys, baboons, and crosses between various species of animals, chelata, apes and sotoe beasts never seen before. Sixty percent of these animals are born in captivity.

Institute of Higher nervous Activity ond Neurophysiology, Academy of Sciences, USSR, Moscow.

Institute of Labor Hygiene and Occupational Diseases (Institut Gigiyeayrofessional'nykhcademy of Medical Sciences, Moscow. Professor A. A. Letavet, Director. The predecessor All-Union institute by this name dates back to lgsfe; its titleentral Institute datesnd its present title from at. The major reseerch of this institute is devoted to basic toxicological studies, which entailsresearch on the toxicity of new chemical substances appearing for the first time in Industry; the mechanism of the effect of chemical substances and the means of rendering them harmless to the organism; and on the-restoration processes in the occupational intoxications, with special heed paid to enzyme systemsirect point for affixing the effect of the poisons. Corollary projects included an elaboration of the physiology of muscular activity, microrhythm of workers ln high temperatures, water loss in man during rest at different air temperatures, and correlation of morbidity and working ability. Furthermore, specific techniques were formulated for personnel using ultrahigh frequency Impulse oscillators and other hazardous equipment.

Institute of Microbiology, Academy of Sciences, USSR, Moscow, of space probes.

Institute of Hormal and Pathological Physiology iraoni I. p. Pavlov, Moscow.

Institute of Phychology, Lenlngradskoe Shoese, Moscow.

Institute of Physical Probloms, Academy of Sciences, USSR, Moscow.

Institute of Physiology imeni A. A. Bogomolets (institut Flzlologji imeai A. A.krainian Academy of Sciences, Kiev. Prof. N. H. Sirotlnin reportedly director Inhe Institute of Clinical Physiology and the Institute of Experimental Biology and

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Pathology combined to form this new institute. The major fields of research interest aro physiology and correlative problems in psychiatry and high-altitude studies. Recent information indicates directed space medicine research such as studies on plants and organism suitable for use inlosed ecological systempace ship; acceleration; hypoxia; protection against cosmic rays; and nutritional problems of prolonged space flight.

Institute of Physiology imeni I. P. Pavlov (Instltut Fizloloall Imenl I. P.cademy of Sciences, Pavlova (suburb ofcademician Konstantin Mikhaylovich Bykov, former director. ne of the major Soviet centers for research in neurophysiology, enzymology, and hematological research. Considerable neurophysiological work has been done on electroencephalography, on the evolution of brain activity, hypnosis, and on interoceptive and exteroceptive conditioning, whichnique line of investigation for man-space vehicle systems. These experiments have also produced the functional characteristics of localized and general interoceptive reflexes, the gradients of interoception in the gastrointeational tract, the afferent Impulses in Interoceptor effects upon the skeletal muscles, the effects of carbon dioxide and oxygen inspiration upon interoceptive reflexes, acd interoception in tbe bone marrow. The biophysical work of this Institute on reaction of tissues to the local effect of microwaves is significant to bioastronautical activities.

Institute for The Protection of Labor, (Instltut Okhranyeningrad. Director unknown. This institute, under the jurisdiction of the All-Union Central Council of Trade Unions, has laboratories equipped with the latest apparatus, including atmospheric and soundproof chambers and light engineering and noise abatement equipment. The staff, which includes biologists, chemists, physicists, and engineers, has developed numerous Instruments and appliances for measuring noise, light intensities, and toxic concentration of gases and vapors. Such instrumentation is applicable to research on manned space-flight.

Institute of Radiation and Physical-Chemical Biology (directed by V.cademy of Sciences, USSR, Moscow.

Institute of Virology imeni ivanovskiy. Academy of Medical Sciences, Moscow.

Interagency Commission for Interplanetary Communications, Moscow.

Laboratory of Biophysics (Krasnoyarskiy Institute ofrasnoyarsk.

Laboratory of Chemical Immunology, Academy of Medical Sciences, Moscow.

Laboratory of Electron Microscopy, Academy of Sciences, USSR, Moscow, Microbiological testing and control procedures related to payload sterilization.

Laboratory of Physiological Chemistry (Laboratoriya Fizioloalcheskoycademy of Sciences, Moscow. Director unknown. Thereaucity of material nubliehed by this installation; research is apparently concentrated on theoretical aspects of fatigue.

Laboratory of Pressure Chamber Studies, Central Clinical Hospital, Civil Aviation Fleet, Moscow.

Legal Sciences Institute, Academy of Sciences, USSR, Moscow.

Leningrad Sanitary Hygiene Medical Institute (Lenlngradskiy Sanltamogigiyenlcheskiy Meditsinskiyeningrad. Director unknown^Founded8 as tbe Second Leningrad Medical Institute, this facility took its present namet7- The core significant research involves the biophysical effects of vibrations on the human organisms and the electromyographic investigation of muscles and nerves.

Medical Radiology Institute, Moscow.

Military Medical Academy imeni S. M. Kirov (Voyenno-Medltsinkaya-Akademiya imeni.hief Medical Administration of tbe Armed Forces of the USSR (Glavnoye Voyenno Medltslnakoye Upravlenlye Vooruahennykh Sil_SSR) , Leningrad. Brigadier General Professor P. P. Goncharov, directorU. This school is considered by tho Soviets to be the highest rated medical institution in the USSR because of its relative standing, tradition, and prestige. It israining institution, but important research is conducted by its numerous outstanding faculty members. Equipment includes refrigerated research chambers simulating artic conditions in which frostbite and other cold phenomena are studied, pressure chambere for simulating high-altitude conditions, one of the world's best medical libraries, and an excellent anatomical museum. Most of the basic research in physiology has been devoted to the mechanisms of the central nervous system. The applied research includes studies on the changes in blood circulation encountered when the human body is subjected to varying "G" stresses, tbe physiology of anoxia and hypoxia at high altitudes, the effects of high and low environmental temoeratures, the respiratory apparatus and physiological optics.

Military Research Institute of Aviation Psychology, Moscow.

Moscow State University imeni M. V. Lohkhiosov.

national Committee of tbe Soviet Union on Automatic Control.

P. F. Lesgaft Institute of Natural Science, under the Academy of Pedagogical Sciences, Leningrad. The late L. A. Orbeli, former member of this institute, commented in 6igh-level conference, on the possibility of reorganization of this institute into an Institute of Cosmic Biology.

Bed Banner Scientific Testing Institute of Soviet Air Force. Located at Chkalovskaya Airfield, kO kilometers northeast of Moscow. Pressure chambers, centrifuges, accouterment.

Remote Control Institute of tbe Institute of Automation and Telemechanics, Moscow.

Scientific Research Institute of Physical Culture and Sports, Leningrad.

Scientific Technical Committee- on Biology of Cosmic Flight, Moscow.

3oviet Air Force Institute of Aviation Medicine, (HIIAM-WS) Moscow. Directed by Col. K. Pa 1stonov. Biophysics and human engineering; also horizontal sled work (deceleration and ejection bailouts).

Soviet Air Force Scientific Research Testing Institute of Aviation Medicine at Chkalovskaya Airfields, aO kilometers northeast of Moscow. Director unknown. This center, probably the second most important oercecdlcal research center. Is equipped with two pressure chambers, two human centrifuges, and an ejection seat catapult probably of Carman World Warrigin. Research has been done en pressure suits, prefllght oxygen breathing, flightanduits. The work of this institute probably compares with tho ASAF Proving Ground, Eglin Field.

State Astronomical Institute imeni Shternberg, Kazakhstan.

State Committee of the USSR Council of Ministers for Coordination of Scientific Research.

V.urnakov Institute of General and Inorganic Chemistry, Laboratory of Peroxide Compounds, Academy of Sciences, USSR, Moscow.

flfiiiRg'p -


Primary Cosmic Radiation

This radiation consists of stripped nuclei of low atomic number from two sources--galactic and solar. Solar usually consists ofercent of total except during flares when it nay exceed galactic.


2 Hev

Solar 0 Hev

Dose (under non-flare conditions)H/



Under flare conditions, the unshielded free space dose may range up* ta/hr. "Thin down" events are thought not to contribute major damage to large organs, but may be capable of producing detectable damage to such structures as the eye.

Geomagnetically Trapped Radiations (Van Allen Bands and Auroral Soft Radiation)

The inner band lower edge isiles) depending on longitude; upper edge Is00 miles) with peak intensity0 miles). Lessercent of the particles In this lone are protons; these protons provide the chief contribution to dose from this band. Composition is shown below.

Electrons Kev

Electrons Kev



- Dl -

Flux at Heart of Inner Zone


O'-Vczi- sec steradian

m2 sec steradian

x loVcm2 sec steradian (omnidirectional)

Electrons ^ ca2 sec steradian


Electrons > tavm2 sec steradian


Protons ev ^ m2 sec steradian


The outer band extends roughly0 miles)0iles, or as high0iles) during solar flare activity. Peak Intensity0 km. Radiation dose contributed primarily by electrons. Tbe flux of electrons in this band may vary by factors of xt.

Dose rateB are as follows;

m2 lOOg/cm2


Inner ZonelOr/hrOr/hrlr/hr

Outer Zone

Electrons ^ r

from bremsstrahlung. Toigh (atomic number) inner linerowjE outer shield should be used.

bremsstrahlung will occur here also.

Total Integrated Dose with Various Shields*





3 rem

Present at all levels above atmosphere. Source is the sun. Energy ranges up toev, but most is belowev.


*Ho tirae interval stated. Includes dose from cosmics.

Present from atmosphere up to inner Van Allen belt. Present concepts suggest neutrons resulting from decay of primary cosmics are the source of the inner belt radiation. So information on dose levels.



Propaganda Motion pictures on tbe orbital flights of Yuriy Gagarin and German Titov were released by the Soviets in Selected photos from these films are included in tbls appendix.

Major Yuriy A. Gagarin, First Man in Space,pril l

Gagarin Being Fitted to Contoured Couch

Positioning of Some Physiological Sensors on Gagarin

Gagarin on Centrifuge

Preparation of Gagarin for Spaceflight

Selection of Gagarin for First Manned Orbital Flight

Biomedical Conference, Reportedly Following Gagarin's orbital FlightView of Soviet Aircraft Used for 3Inulatloo of Weightlessness

Display of Squeess Tubes and Other Space Foods

Unidentified Subject with Surface Electrodes for Recording Brain Waves and Other Physiological Measurements

Unidentified Subject In Oscillator Chair for Recording of Brain Waves, Blood Pressure, Possible Ballistocardiogram (Waistnd other Measurements not Identified

Unidentified Subject on Tilt Table

Soviet Television Reception of Gagarin in Flight

Major German Titov. Made First Multlorbital Spaceflight 1

External Views of Vostok Space Ship

Sensor (Bloteleaetry) Placement on Titov's Body

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Preparing for Flight

Beady for Orbital Flight

us, Sampling Squeeze Tube Food

View of Titov's Full Pressure Helmet

Television Reception of Titov in Orbital Flight

Removal of Respiratory and EKG Sensors from Titov

Instrument Panel, Showing Globe Reference Instrument

of Vostok II

of Cosmonaut in Vostok II

View of Vostok II

Optical Device Used in Vostok XI

Dr. Valdlmir I. Yazdovskiy, Soviet Space Medicine Expert,

Apparently in Charge of all Soviet Cosmonaut Training and Life Support Activities

Checking Out on Swing-Type Simulator

Riding Rotation Simulator

Orientation on Trampoline

of Physiological Indices During Various Positions

Chair or Capsule

Vertical Accelerator

Tltov In Isolation and Confinement Chamber Before Orbital Flight

Tltov and Equipment Used For Conventional Parachute RecoveryAnalogs (Bioteleraetry) of Manned Space Flights

Selection of Gagarin for first manned orbital flight. Prof. Dr. V. I. Yazdovskiy, apparently in charge of all cosmonaut training and life support activities, to right of Gagarin. Second man to right of Yazdovskiy la probably Admiral Sergey G. Gorshkov. Man at the head of table is Marc-ball Kirill Moskalenko, head of the Strategic Rocket Forces until his electionember of the Communist Party Central Committee inI atd Party Congress.

Biomedical conference, reportedly following Gagarin's orbital flight. Facing the camera right to left. Prof. Dr. V.idovakly, V. V. Porin, and K. M- Sieokyan. Other participanta are unidentified. Note bioteiemetry analogs in the rear.

Figure uu. Prof. Dr. Valdlmlr I. Yazdovskiy, Soviet space mad1cine expert, apparently in charge of all Soviet cosmonaut training and life support activities.


Original document.

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