historical review program
release as sanitized
MSMJtUKXAt rOR: Mr. VUHsja P. Eurkse
Office of Civil Defense Departaent of DtfnM
of tliclassiflad Suanauy, Soviet
on Soviet Civil Defense, fron Mr.
1. Ia accordance with tho referenced aasaarandaa and rour wlahee expressedonference with the CIA analysta transmittingbort anolaaalfled peper entitled Soviet Civil lefaxaje.
8. It la oar understanding that thla paper will not be generally releaeed for publication, nor will It be attributed to CIA. It aey be need freely, however, within th* OS civil defense atruoture for briefing or answering questions on Soviet civil da few 4
Chelae* lflad Buaaagy, Soviet OlTll Defensecopies)
Since World War II, and especiallyoe USSB haa developed andubstantial elTll defense program. The ul-tlnate goal of the USSS appears to be the Incorporation of every oltlsen end all available notarial and equipment Into the civil defense system.
although the Soviet leaders have atated that they no longerwar to be inevitable, they do not rule out the possibility of ssjor conflict. If war should occur, they have said It would be characterised by the "use of air forces, many types of ml aa ilea, and various awsns of aaaa destruction such as atomic, theranauclaer, chemical, and biological weapons. oviet civil defense manual haa stated the esse quite slaply: The possession of atomic, chemical, sadvespona by the leparlallata and the threat of their use force* ua actively to prepare for civil a* fans*."
eaber of years Soviet streteglstaJiaaliai ths
lsportenee of tb* defense of rear areas. In the Soviet view, beevy attacks would be concentrated oo strategic areea and on administrative and eeoaomlc centers during the first stageajor wer.
3- Che mission of cdvll defense is stated ln one Soviet publication est (s) timely warning of the papal etb) organisation of aaalsSBi poesibla protection froa the aeons of ordlsmry sad aaaa dastruetloa" for dvHisae, faetorlee and eerviee instaliatiaaa,lamalusty,bject* of vmlaai (e) rapid medleel eld to casualad (a) liquidation' of the effects of sir attacx in the ahorteet poeelble ties.
*. The orgsnlsatloB of Soviet civil defensetaff straetnre formarly subordinate to the Ministry of Internal Affaireut alneerobably under the Ministry of Defense. Clvi: defense heed-ou arters (orxist et all administrative leva la from the national to the city.
The foruee that era supposed to be available to the urban civil dafenae anthorlttee may be classed into the following four main typeai (a)onsletlag gsaerelly of eaployeee of olty govanaant depart-aentai (b) unite recruited from the personnel of various faetorlee and almilar establishments| (e) 'self-defenseospoeed of lnoivlanalB In nonlndnatrial organisations, such as achooie or apai lamnl bouses} sad (d) units of allltarlKsd personnel.
* The MVD wasbed at the nation*; level Id
Tha services and the fectorv unite are to construct shelters, vara the population of the denser of an stteak, and aa* that the necesserv orders are observed if slnra* are eounded. After an attach, these groupe" ere to reecue ond evacuate riot Ins, provide first aid, extinguish fires, repair dnrasgo to the electric, gas, telephone, and other nunlclpal eyateaa, carry out decontael nation In case of atoalo, poison gas, or biologicaj attack, and dispoee of uaexploded hoaS>e. Other duties Include directing the partial evacuation of tbe area and the provision of necaasltles to civilian* who hare Ice* their hcaae.
beif-defense groups are organised ic noalndnatrlai eoterprieee, such aa office bull dings, educational eetehlishneats, epertassrt houses, and collective fares and are responsible to the beads of the rcelective cstahUahaaat. Thus, the Manager of as spsrtnent house haa control over the self-defense groupe In the building, groups ecepoeed of residents and maintenance personnel, the head of each self-defense grouptaff consistingropertyialaon officer,olitical deputy, le also has aa Bear/ as eight teaaa of specially trained personnel.the following! eam of six mm charaaa vith the aalatsanoce of order sadeaat of aeran firsi mi sen teas of anti-cheartnai defenseix-earn rescue sejoad, two first-aid teens cf four nr.helter team of five, and, ln ruraleterinary eoued of five aaa.
Training of the Soviet population for civil defense has intensified Although nominally voluntary, widespread public tralnlBgthat tbe USSR has held all sblebodlsd adults overears of age liable for civil defense service.
The Soviet crrtl defense prosxen la eead-eeeret aad Is eeldoa mr.tloned in the Soviet dally areas, aad farelgs visitors rarely see evidence of thle type of activity. Ontll reeeatly, the sir broadcast radio was not used to dieseedasta civil defease laforaetloa ia the OSS*. Bov-avejrj, pnhllelty and Instructions have reeched the Seeiet public through lectures) through speclaj auumala, newspapers, and pcrlodlaelsj und through several civil defense coursee (which ere designed to give training tatire Soviet population).
Inhe Voluntary Society for Cooperation with the fussy. Air Force, end Aavy (hOBAAF) is responslbls for training the public for dvil defense. This society, vith anrs thanllllonsals tal as civil defease schools for Instructors and conducts training progress for
the public through ita prlaary organl tat Iocs, which oreinnstitutions, schools, or, ferae, ond la dwelling areas. AAP has conducted three training couraee for the general public totalingours
of Instruction. The organisation haa now engagedourth course of l6 hours, which stresses practical work and exeroleae. This course2 hours of instruction In the purpose snd function of the civil defense organisation, evacuation, and aotboda cf protecting the3 hours ln the use of air raid shelters and shelter equipment, reacuCi epair vera In dl testerours Of fire fighting and rescue methodsi fa hour* ofoarchlog lor casualties, first eld, and evacuation of cssusltlesi houra cf detection of radiological, rJicsiiciii, itnd boctcrlologlcsl contamination, behavior ln contaminated ureas, *nd decontamination sethods;oura of practical andexudnatiuns.
c. Claims of the extent of civil defense training ahould be dla-ccunted to acme extent, for example, tha first course of civil defense trainingee said to have been completed by OS percent of the population, so figure was publlebed for tbe aaeoarf course. Concerning the third course. It wss snaounced that most DOSAAF units bad completed the task satlsfactorlly. The fourth course la still ln progress. Soviet schools routinely give the students civil defense Instructions.
9. Although the USSS ridicules the preparation of air raid aheltere abroad, their value to the public at home for protection froa the effects of atomic, chemical, and biological weapons is vigorously stressed. Soviet civil defense neogalaariety of shelterslarge,nderground galleries, or tunnels) boseaect shelters ln misonry buildings; te well as what sight be termed lean-cri sod ahaIterstranches that ore lined with wood (or other locally available material) and coveredeet or sore of earth. Publications inR also point out tbe value of subways aa shelter.
The USSB has attempted to conceal the extent of its shelterprogram, denying it even exists when facedoreign eudieace. Their ovn civil defease pemphlete however, speak of "special' aheltere and state that, "In Soviet cities, the anet widespread type of shelters are those located la the basements of masonry buildings." 1- Soviet publications, fully prepared baaanant air raid shelters oustat'-ot, able to withstand tha complete collapse of tbe building above, filter-ventilated and gas-tight, and supplied with first old and emergency equipment. Soviet citlsens are told they may hove to remain lor eany days.
The character of postwar urban canetruetlon in the QSSR (largely masonry apartment booses) has presented the OBHB with tbe opportunity of pr vldlim fel'-sut shelter space In thewellings that aecoai-eooste ab-art half ofd.'llco urban population. Baaesasite tbutn-.it fully prepared ir raid shelters cou'd be adapted far use In
sn morgency- The several floors in nov Soviet epartment dwelling*c. reduce fadloot radiation effectsactor Of
12. Additional Sonet shelter* ere provided in the form ofdetached public shelter* that have been built in open Kress. subways ere operational in Hdocov, Leningrad, and Kiev. Thealone should Oo able tczwvy usailMok persons
In the lover levels.
13- Civil dofense literature and instruction indlc?.teoverec. trenches, or field-type sheltere, willreared prepared In <jj onergency situation.
lUi. In general, the Soviet civil defease system baa been deelgned vith the nesuaptlon that soae varnlng tine will be available. oviet elvll defense planners have placed increasing eenAaasls on partial strategic urban evncustlon. eriod of tension, they hope to be able to ocrre school children, the aged, and other noevnrkere to snail tourso und rural areas where they would be resettled. rocedure, however, would require eeveral days, eccorclag to Soviet Instructions.Original document.