MEMORANDUM FOR: The Director of Central Intelligence
MILITARY THOUGHT (TOP SECRET): "The
Organization ot Antimissiley Colonel V. Savko and Colonel N. Maksimov
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MILITARY THOUGHT (TOP SECRET): "The
Organization of Antimissiley Colonel V. Savko and Colonel K. MakeImov.
Followingerbatim translation of aa article entitled "The Organization of Antimissiley Colonel V. Savko and Colonel N. Maksimov.
Thia article appeared in2 First Issuepecial version of the Soviet military Journal Voyennaya Mysl'(Military Thought). This Journal la published irregularly and Is classified TOP SECRET by the Soviets. 2 First Issue went to press on
Headquarters Comment: Military Thought is published by the USSR Ministry of Defense in three versions, classified RESTRICTED, SECRET and TOP SECRET. The RESTRICTED version has been Issued monthlyhile the other two versions are issued irregularly. The TOP SECRET version was initiated iny the end1 issues of the SECRET version had beenf them
(According to foreign views) by
Colonel V. Savko Colonel N. Makslmov
Under modern conditions, a wide variety of means can be used for the delivery of nuclear strikes against troopsheater of nllltary operations and against the objectivesountry's military potential: piloted aircraft, ballistic and cruise missiles, artificial earth satellites and spacecraft. This variety of attack weapons, whichreat range of speeds, and flight altitudes, and an enormous range of operation makes it necessary to examine the question of com batting themew way.
The ability of modern attack weapons to deliver
strikes, from low levels, from the stratosphere and, in tbe near future, from epace, haseed for the broadening of the scope of antlalr defense. Antialr defense is developing into antlalr and anti-space defense.
By contrast to the atmosphere, (vozdushnoyehich has limitsertain altitude, space- . (kosmicheskoye prostranstvo) Is boundless. The limitless range of modern aerospace attack weapons, their freedom of maneuver (their strikes can befrom any direction) and the possibility of their combined use both against troops and against the military objectivesountry, make ittoingle system for antiair and antlspace defense.
The tremendous progress lu the development of aerospace attack weapons has madeevision of views on defense.
It Is known that during the past few yeara the USA haa spent aboutillion dollars on the creationystem of antlair defense for the North American continent. The "Sage" semiautomatic control system has been set up, depending upon three radar lines constructed ln the northern part of the Americanand possessing the noccasary means of communication and electronic computers. Active defense has been based on the employment of antiaircraft missiles and offighters armed with guided "air-to-air" missiles.
The development of strategic missile weapons has thrown doubt upon the expedloncy of these huge The USA has stopped the development offighters and significantly reduced work on the creation of new classes of ground-to-air and air-to-air guided missiles, and has reviewed and reduced the original plana for the formation of squadrons of "Bomarc" antiaircraft missiles for the antlair defense of areaa of the country.
At the same time, having proclaimed a doctrine of Tterror"he USA and its NATO allies had to ensure that there would be no possibility of the destruction of their own strategic aerospace weapons, which could occuresult of the flrat enemy strike.
Vith the appearance of nuclear/mlsalle weapons, the means of attack immediately and abruptly determined the means of defense. It has become necessary to create weapons and ayatems for defense against ballistic missiles, and in the near future against space weapons aa well. Passive methods (dispersal, .concealment underground ofaunching mounts of ones own missiles, constant retention In the airnits of ones own bomber aviation) have not eliminated the need to establish effective systems
antlmlBBile defense, despite the complexity of the problems which this has caused and their obviously enormous cost.
Work in the field of antimissile defonse la being conducted in the USA, Great Britain, Canada and other countries. The leading role belongs to the USA.
The Americans have already been working for more thanears on the solution of the problem ofdefense (protlvo-raketnaya oborona-PROl- The best scientific resourcesonsiderable number of the largest American industrial companies have been brought into work in this field.
The detoctlon, recognition, interception andof long-range missiles are problems that are hard to solve, because of the great speeds and altitudes at which missiles fly, and because of the smallof the target (the nose cone of theoreover, the enemy can take various steps to make the detection and interception of the missile's warhead difficult,or measures to confuse the PRO system.
Three phasesissile's flight trajectory are examined during theoretical investigations into the possibilities of combat with mlssllos. The first Is the active phaBo, during which the engines and the equipment of the guidance mechanism of the missile are in operation. The missile moves through this phase in a comparatively short time, not moreinutes.
The second Is the middle or free-flight phase. The beginning of this phase of the trajectory is marked by the point in space at which the missile engines are cut off and its nose cone is released automatically. From this moment the nose cone of the missile moves along the trajectoryreely thrown body (in the first approach to an ellipse).
The third phase Is the final phase,during vhlch the noso cone of the missile enters the dense layers of the atmosphere. Its duration is determined by the altitude of the active layer of the atmosphere, which ism. Methods for combatting missiles ard being worked out in the USA in accordance with these features of the flight of missiles.
The detection of missiles In flight. Timely detection of missiles ln flight is one of the most important elementsRO system. Forurprise attack using missiles, means for the early detection of the latter were required first of all. Using the newest achievements ln tho field of electronics, the Americans devised powerful radar setsange of operation of several thousand kilometers.
The increase in the range of operation of radar sets waa achieved by increasing the power of the transmitters and the sensitivity of the receivers, by setting up Improved antennas, and by ualng the technical and scientific achievements attained in the field of radar in the last few years. Great succeases were achieved ln this respect, thanks particularly to the application of methodsewhe theory of information.
Experimental models of the American PRO radar sets had a power ofegawatts (theet) toegawatts (theet). Tha acuum tubes which are being developed at present allow the power of the transmitters to be Increased tooegawatts. Thanks to the use ofamplifiers, tbe sensitivity of the receivers is Increased tenfoldundredfold . This also permitted an increase ln the range of action of the sets.
The use of huge directional antennas and of new methods for the separation of reflected signals
made It possible to Increase the range of actionet without significantly Increasing its power, both by concentrating the energy emitted in the required direction and by Improving conditions for theby the antenna of reflected signals. Based on the use of new antenna devices, thendadar sets were devised in the USA,ange of action of up0 kmarget as small aa that which is represented by the nose cone of an intercontinental ballistic missile.
Besides such sets, whoso range of operation is still limited by the zone of line-of-sight (zona pryamoy v'ldlmosti) the possibility of using "Tepee" sets employing. ack-scatter probing (vozvratno-naklonnoye zondirovaniye) method. In principle, this method permits the detection of missiles whilo they are still ln the actlvo phase of their trajectory. But such seta can only determine the azimuth and, with little accuracy, the distance to the target. It la therefore proposed to use the "Tepee" set to supplement detection systems usingndets.
As well as radar sets, Infrared equipment may be used to detect missiles. By locating such oqulpment on the ground it Is very hard to provide the great range required. when it le* located in space the situation changes fundamentally. First of all, the great obstacle of atmospheric absorption of the Infrared radiation disappears. Secondly, the missile can be detected in the active phase of Its trajectory, when itowerful source of Infrared radiation.
Already7 experiments were conducted ln Canada which showed the possibility of detecting missiles with infrared equipment,ange of up0 km. 8 the Americans were able to track the flight of the third Soviet artificial earth satellite,
One opportunity for recognition occurs during the flight of the nose cone and of its acconpanying complex of dummy targets in the final phase of thein the atmosphere. During reentry into the atmosphere the movements of the dummy targets and of the missile warhead change in different ways, their infraredvaries in intensity and spectral characteristics, and other phenomena appear which simplify the solution of the problem of recognition.
By studying the nature of changes ln speed it is possible to distinguish the rales lie nose cone from the dummy targets. The missile warhead will brake more slowly than the dummy targets and willigher speed. However, since it passes through the dense layers of the atmosphereery short period ofoeconds) this method of recognition is pot acceptable. Recognitionarget by this method will occur too late and the defense system will have no time to destroy the nose cone.which has been picked out.
Dur.ing entry into the atmosphere, both the nose cone and the dummy targets accompanying it heat up and give off infraredhock wave builds up in front of them, and an ionized gaseous trail behind them. However, the use of these phenomena for recognition of the nose cone is unacceptable for the same reason.
The most effective method for recognition, used by the Americans in the "Nike-Zeus" system, consists of the use of special radar sets with very highcapable of receiving data on the whole group of targets during flight while it is still in the middle phase of Its trajectory. Thelying object makes it possible to obtain some idea of the change in its reflecting surface during flight, of its dimensions, and even of its shape.
If signals from flying nose cones andarious dummy targets are studied in advance, the knowledge of. their signatures* can be used to solve
the problems of recognition.
In order to put this method to practical use, the Americans registered the signals reflected from the nose cones of their own missiles while these were being tested at firing ranges. Signals from the nose cones of Soviet missiles launched into the central part of the Pacific Ocean were also registered. 1 launchings of "Titan" missiles with devices forreation of Interference and o'f;argets ibegan.
A recognition radar set is used in conjunction with an electronic computer, into whose memory are' fed the characteristic: signals which correspond to the flight of actual nose cones. This same machine receives data on tho signals of all objectives observed from the recognition set. Comparison of these data in the machine permits recognition of the missile nose coneroup of dummy targets.
Means of detection and recognition. At the present time the basic means for the detection of missiles in flight are ground radar posts with ul-tra-long-range detection sets, which make up the Ballistic Missile Early warning System.
The BMEWS system includes three radar posts, located in Thulelearnd Fylingdales Moor (Britain). The range of operation of the radar sets Installed at these postsQ km.
In addition to the detection of missiles in flight, the BMEWS system permits the approximate determination of the probable objective of an attack. The performance of the second task Is simplified by the fact that, after the engines stop working, the warheadissileallistic trajectory, to determine which lt is enough to make several fixes and to determine the impact point of the missile by extrapolation of the trajectory.
total warningthe time from the moment the alarm is given until the missiles strike theirby the BMEVS systen is fromoinutes.
The shortcomings of the BMEWS are that it does not cover all the probable missile launching areas and that lt can be neutralized with the aid of special equipment or disorganized by the creation of dummy targets. In addition, the system is expensive, cumbersome, stationary, and could be destroyed before missiles are launched against objectives on the territory of the USA.
The realistic way toward an increase la warning time lies in the use of special earth satellites with infrared or radar equipment which permit detection of missiles in the active phase of their trajectory.
Satellites with infrared equipment for the detection of missiles launchings are being developed in the USA under the "Midas" project. As is known, he "Midas-U" satellite recorded the launch of an American "Titan" ballistic missile from Cape Canaveral. The satellite passed over Florida at an altitude of more0 km. The launching was detected withineconds of the launch of the missile, but the detection signal was transmitted within SO minutes, when the satellite passed over California, where theretation for the reception of signals from such satellites.
In the experimental satellites, detection signals are to be recorded, together with time details, and transmitted to the earth on the commands of the tracking stations which have ao far been built. uture satellite operational system, the signals must be transmitted immediately as the launchings are detected. etwork of interconnected earth satellites will be used for this purpose.
Besides detecting launchings of missiles, "Midas" satellites can probably determine, at least approximately.
tho direction of their flight, in order to provide plots for the sets of tho BMKWS system.
An operational system of "Midas" satellites should be set up by the Americans
Satellites with radar sets are still in the stage of scientific and experimental development, and their establishment, probably as multipurpose spacecraft, is possible Thus, one of the projects,by the "Ryan" firm, envisages the creation of ay spacv system' of', early warning with satellites, onhole system of radar sots for the detection and tracking of the ballistic mlasllos and spacecraft of the enemy is installed.
The employment of artificialRO system Increases the possibility of detecting missiles. With the help ofissile can be detectedinutes of its launch.
Interception and deatruction of Ml Bailee.. The task of intercepting and destroying missiles consists of preventing them from exploding in the area of de-ifondetf objectives. The interception and destructionissile Is considered most effective during the active phase of its flight trajectory (during the accelerationhen the missilearge target and is flyingomparatively low speed. Interception during the middle phase of the trajectory may lead to the destruction of the missilereat distance from the defended objective. However, in both the first and second cases, means of interceptionreat range of operation and highly accurate guidance are required. The development of such means Involves great technical difficulties. In the USA means for intercepting the nose coneissile in the final phase of its trajectory, when lt enters the atmosphere, have been brought, in practice, to tho stage of flight tests. Interception at this phase of the trajectory
permits the use of weaponsomparatively short range of operation.
Because of their groat approach speeds, theof missiles is only considered possible on collision or collision-intersection courses. uclear warhead Is used to destroy the nose cone of the missile.
Taking into consideration the comparatively small radius of destruction ofuclear warhead when it explodes outside the dense layers of the atmosphere, other probable methods of destruction are being studlod in the USA. Special project "Glifpar" was devoted to this question, having as its goal the study of the possibilities of destroying missiles or of rendoring them harmless, including those which, at today's level of technology, appear highly problematical, but which may prove effective ln the future, when our knowledge of these questions has increased conaiderably.
The "Glipar" project studied the possibility of destroying missile nose cones with small fragments or particles of hard substances, with gaaos, plasmas, electrical charges, radiation and with the action of various fields. The use of hard particles, which, when theyose cono which is moving at high speed, may inflict considerable damage upon it, proved to be the most effective means.
One of the experiments to study the impacts of hard bodies, flying at great speeds was conducted1 ln the ballistics laboratory at the Aberdeen Proving Grounds, and in this, metalm in diameter brought about the almost complete destruction of the wallm artillery shell.
Evidently ln connection with this, the Advanced Research Projects Agency of the U. S. Defense Department advertised for bids for the developmentRO system (Project ARPAT) ln which the warheadissile would be destroyed with "shrapnel" shells when It enters the atmosphere.
for tho other methods of destruction studied,at the existing level of technology wasbe in practice impossible, although research inis still continuing. As an example, onethe mothod based on the use of so-calledsourcos of monochromatic Infrared or lignt
radiation. Such lasers already make It possible toarrow beam of radiation which has an Impulse power of tens of megawatts, although it is true that this is of very short duration, measured in mlcrosoconds.
The uso of similar means from tho ground is hardly possible, even taking into account their future developmentuturo manifold increase in the energy of their destructive impulse.. The basic obstacle here is theof energy by tho atmosphere. This obstacle can only bo overcome by installing improved lasers on spacecraftigh coefficient of effectiveness and great power. While impulses of modern lasers can lead to tho heating of materialurface temperature of several thousand degrees, in the future one can foresee the possibility of burning through the structure of the nose coneissile or satellite, which, can prevent the explosion of the missile's charge or can lead to its destruction during reentry into the atmosphere.
Means for tho Interception and destruction of missiles in the active and middle phases of their flight trajectory aro in the stage of theoretical development. Earth satellites are considored tho most promising means for the performance of these tasks.
The developmentpace antimissile system is being conducted in the USA under the "Bambi" program. ystem could provide defenselobal scale, but requires the use of several thousand satellites. In order to bring this system into use it Is necessary to reduce significantly the cost ofilogram of payload and to bring this down to several dollars or, at the most, tens of dollars. The destruction of missiles can be carried out by homing satellites (tho RBS project) or by satellites armed withantimissile
of the "space-to-space" class (tho SPADoth these projects are still In the Initial stage of development. In both cases an Infrared guidance system Is considered to be the most suitable for homing.
Besldos automatic Interceptor-satellites, forand antispace defense, it is also proposed to use piloted interceptor-satellitesftn on board. For the present the development of such satellites is being pioneered by some American firms.
In the USA it is considered possible to create PRO apace weapons.
For the interception and destruction of missiles in the final phase of their trajectory (during reentry Into thehe Americans, startingave developed several PRO systems. The "Nike-Zeus" system, which permits the interception and destruction of missilos at altitudes of upm and at rangea of upm, has recolved tbe greatest development.
Up to the present day, experimental models of the radar set for this system, of the electronic computer, and of experimental models of the "Nike-Zeus" antimissile missiles have been constructed.
Although the "Nike-Zeus" PRO system has been under development for many years, and although some of its elements could be put into mass production, adoption of the system aa armament is being delayed. In. Defensethere are doubts of the reliability and effectiveness of the system, particularly ln its ability to distinguish missile nose cones fromdummy targets.
Moreover, the cost of setting upystem, even for tho defense of only the most Important cities and objectives on United States territory, is calculated in billions of dollars (according to some data lt mayol5 billion dollars).
these circumstances into consideration,. Defense Department and tho President of the USA have reacted to the proposals of the array to beginof the components of tho system before theof its comprehensive tests, including firings against "Atlas" type combat missiles,ertain caution.
Flight tests of the experimental model of the missile began9 at the White Sands proving ground.The second step in the tests, including the launchingomplete three-stage missileuidance system, butuclear warhead, is being completed at present at Point Uugu on the west coast of the USA (the state ofhe third step, during which livo firings of "Nike-Zeus" missiles will be carried out against "Jupiter" and "Atlas" missiles, is planned for the middle The "Atlas" missiles will be launched from Vandenberg Air Force Base and the "Nike-Zeus" missilos from Kwajalein Island in the Marshall Islands in the Pacific Ocean. omplete complex of components for the system is being built on this island, including underground launching mounts for the missilos, for radar sets (target acquisition, target recognition, and tracking of the target and of thend the necessary computers, launching and auxiliary equipment.
After the speech of the Minister of Defense of the USSR, Marshal of the Soviet Union Comrade R. Ya. Mallnovskiy, who reported to the XXTT Congress of the CPSU on thesolution in the USSR of the problem of destroying rniew-slles In flight, the American command decided to speed up the tests and the. beginning of: production of the components of tbe "Nike-Zeus" system. The time limits for conducting live firings of "Atlas" intercontinental ballistic missiles for interception by "Nike-Zeus* missiles are connected with the decision of the President of the USA on the resumption of nuclear weapon tests In the atmosphere. The first tests, with the detonation of nuclear warheads on "Nike-Zeus" missilesield ofhousand tons are planned for the end of1 or Tho first firings against "Atlas" missiles, in which both the "Nike-Zeus" missile and the target missile will be fitted
with nuclear warheads, are planned forithout waiting for the conclusion of the tests,the Defense Department and the President of tho USA decided to ask for appropriations to begin production of components of the "Nike-Zeus" system It la planned to arm the first PRO batteries with them
The organization and conduct of PRO. All meansdefeneo will be subordinate to the Airof the USA. It Is planned to use the units
subunits of the PRO in the first place for coverage of missile bases and strategic aviation bases. Tho use of the "Nlko-Zeus*system in combat is carried out in approximately the following manner. arget rossing the fan-like beamMEWS systom radar set, roflectsenergy which is picked up by the receiving apparatus of the set.
Information on the target, contained in the reflected signal, enters the target selection system and is then transformed into numerical form and fedomputer.
The selection device enables the missile to be picked out among the numerous reflections which result fromphenomena, the Northern Lights, meteorites,satellites, etc.
The computer calculates the approximate trajectory of tho missile's flight and determines the objective which is probably under attack, for target acquisition byelements of the defense system. In addition, the computeressage on the detected target, which la fed into the communications line in numerical (coded) form, and arrives at the US Continental Air Defense Control Center. The report shows the calculated trajectory and the probable impact point of the missile.
A special warning systom has been set up to transmit data on the appearance of missiles. At each post of the BMEWS system there are data units (datchik) and means of communication which provide instantaneous transmission 'of data.
In the antlalr defense control center the message which has been received Is decoded and evaluated and the data received are compared with Information which has arrived from other sources.
In accordance with the indications received from BUEWS posts or at the command of the antlalr defense control center, the antimissile subunits are puttate of combat readiness.
The "Niko-Zeus" system consistseries of centers, which provide protection for particular" objectives with the aid of several batteries of antimissile missiles. The fire of these batteries is controlled from the defense center, which has an acquisition radar setomputer for processing both the data arriving from BUEWS posts and thosefrom this
The acquisition set has an operating range of0 km and carriesepeat (povtOrnyyl detection of the missiles approaching the defense objective. For this lt is necessary for the nose cone of the approaching missile to be in motion within the operating sector of the set for abouteconds. Information on the targets goes from this set to the computer of the defenso center and is used for target acquisition and for the distribution of targets among the antimissile missile batteries.
The battery is the basic subunlt of the system. Itarget recognitionarget tracking set and several sets for tracking the antimissile missiles. attery will consist ofntimissile missiles with the necessary launching and auxiliary equipment. All tho equipmentattery is stationary.
The target recognition set picks out the missile nose cone from among the dummy targets. Recognition of the target is basedomparison of the signalreflocted from the target, with the knownof various objects which have boon fed into the memory of tho computer. esult ofomparison, ,the
When the target is being tracked, its trajectory is defined withec is fair and the requisite data are fed Into the device for controlling the launch and guidance of the antimissile missiles. The guidancecalculates the flight trajectory of the antimissile missile and determines the point at which lt will meet the target. At the necessary moment the command for the launch is given and this ignites the engine of the first stage of the antimissile mlSBile.
After tho mlSBile is launched, data on the flighttarget and of the missile continue to bointo the computer of the tracking system, and onof these, commands .are evolved for the guidanceantimissile missile to its target. This device Is computer capable ofper
The intercept- computer also determines the moment for the detonation of the antimissile missile and generates the command for the explosion,which is then transmitted to the missile by the set which is tracking lt.
It is considered thatocondB are needed to prepare the missile for launching, to launch It, and for lt to enter the* interception aroa. To carry out the series of operations ln intercepting andissile warheadpeedin. andec. Are.taken by the "Niks-Zeus" system. During this time the missile warhead willm. The interception and destruction of the missile warhead la effected in the final phase of the trajectory at an altitude of about ISO km.
From all that has been said one can conclude that so far the USA does not have an organized PRO system or
means for combatting missiles. Many problems connected with recognition, Interception, and destruction of the missile in flight still must be settled.
The establishment of antimissile defense involves huge expenditures of materiel which can only be afforded by stateseveloped industrial-economic basearge network of scientific-research institutions. The widest development of work on antimissile defense has therefore been achieved only by the USA. Meanwhile, In connection with the great expenditure on these tasks and the difficulty of resolving the technical problems of antimissile defense, some American military specialists are calling for the development, above all, of strategic attack weaponslong- and intermediate-range missiles, strategic aviation and an atomiceans of "deterrence".Original document.