COMPARISON OF US AND USSR ATOMIC ENERGY PROGRAMS

Created: 7/1/1962

OCR scan of the original document, errors are possible

r

cc-rrarrs

AUMERICAL COMPARISOB OT THE US AND PROGRAMS

-TATES ATOMICROGRAMSOVIET ATOMIC ENERCT PROGRAM

COKPASLSCM QTOBAl) OSSB ATOMIC EflQWi PBCGBAK3

At tbe pre sent time the Qui ted States hu an ovwr-all superiorityto the Soviet Obion la tae field of nuclear energy- Tne OB lead la Manifested la anch areas as: amounts ot fisaiaoabla material produced, gross numbers of weapons manufactured, reactor and production technology, numbers of research reactors in operation, and reevoted to peaceful mass. 8 bas apparently aad* technological advance* at rates at least oeuai to those achlered by the

a saTeral areas which are of pr-lifto the Borlat

weapons

aatloraO. defease poatare.eanlt of tha Militarys nuclear program,1 tha Soviet Onion had amps ssadStates ln at least one area, that of very high-yield.tba OSES bad also1 eeeantiallj

In

folly evaluated

IJmrlty witt ftm OB la yield-to-weight ratar

and Krartest serlea have not yet been

Orgrdiationr*ry

9 the OS apvernaant Initiated Invertigationa into the energy known to exist in tha nucleus of matter, particularly uranium. Shortly thereafter the OSSB also recognised tha feasibility of obtaining energy from tha fission of uranium and in0 began their investigations.

The OS program expend ad rapidly nnder dual civilian and military control during the max years. 6 the program vaa placed under primary civilian control with tha establishment of tha Atomic Energy Cosaalsalon. On the other hand, tba Soviet program vastandstill from tha time of the Ceraan Invasion of the OSSB1 until It was only when the OS successfully detonated tha world's first naclaar weapons5 that tha Soviet program shoved signs of real Impetus and progress.

Both the OS and OBSS prograae In the early years vere primarilytartly oriented and closely controlled by government organisations, although the Atcede Energy Act6 recognlxed that the national program should laclrfls private research and industry. International cooperation, and tba ass of atomic energy for peaceful purposes. These aspects ware further Broadened by tha AZ Act Tbe Soviet Onion took similar steps to handle the non-erilltary aspect with tbe creation of the Chief Directorate for the Utilisation of Atomic Energy6 althoughoch sere restricted basis.

tte programs of the two countries are essentially ]Xiiar Inbroad aense, vith bothdual approaches in military oad oon-military applications. The degree of control exercised by each country appears ^axgeJj related to the nature of goveruoect ln each country. Within these limitation* and ccmidering the magnitude of parts of their respective programs there are -any areas of slxdlsrity ln their .cope. It la

25fiifiiilflcaace to1

their military or oatlocal defenae posture, they have the capabllitv of so directing their research as to usually achieve technological adrancealeast equal to that which has taken place In the OS.

Uranium Ore aad feed Hrterlala Fydnctloc (Seeable II)

.-A* and the OSSR have each procured stoat the saw amount

urnnldm ore through In addition, both countries, throughhad obtained something overercent of their supply froa foreign sources, n* Soviet Onion vill continue along this pathnereas the OS ejects to obtain upwardsercent of lta supply fromi domestic sources during the next four years. Ae Soviets have not discovered large sedimentary ore deposits similar to the Aabrosia Lake deposit in Hev Mexico. This lack, in combination vith lev average oreercent uranium5 percent uranium for the average of OS ores) and vith comparatively lev efficiencies in ore concerrtraVot, processes, ^resulted in relatively higher mining and ore concentratioQ coffta than ln

Inasauch as Soviet cumulative production of fissionable materials is. than that of the US, our Bational Estimates for some years have Indicated an unusually large excess reserve of Soviet uranium over current needs. have no satisfactory explanation for this annarent excess procurement-

(Seeable II)

Both the US and OSSR, early in their respective programs. Investigated the various Beans of separating isotopes of uraolua such as gaseous diffusion, electro-magnetic, ultra 'centrifuge and thermal diffusion. Although both countries built production scale electro-magaexic xaciiities they ultimately chose the gaseous diffusion method for expansion ofrogram.

Initially the USSR Buffered considerable set-backs in the operation and performance of their gaseous diffusion process. Although they have node improvementa, their estimated current efficiency is significantly lover than current OS accomplislnaente.

nrc continuing to expand their'Affusion pro.rraa aad their annual prodnctlca is expected to double during tie Tt 5On tbe other hand, the OS production haa been cut back and no plans are cotrtemplAted for expansion at thla tf

The values below Indicate that the OS cumlatlve production ofsubstantially larger than that of the

PlntonLnn and Other Materials (Seeable II)

the total reactor-products production is expresaed in tema of

Tbe USSR did not produce plntonlum untilears after the US. Construction of additional reactors and separationie. have continued In both program. The values" below Indicate that the US cumulative production of plutoolna equivalent la considerably lnnr thaniaated for the USSR. Intelligence information does not permit the separate identification of the several reactor productslntoolun,, polonium,ctuallyhus,

equivalent

tonlum andermed pintoolua equivalent. On the basis of oar analysis of Soviet weapons testa and stockpile aaainaptions. It sould* appear that thererowing imbalance between Soviet plutonlnmroduction. Severer, we have no evidence of major expansion of plutonium production facilities at the present time. OS plutonlnm production la also leveling off.

TABLE

Fissionable Materials Production,2 (CuBulative, in kUograice, rounded.)

(Estimated)

Available

for

Use

Pa

be furnished separately by the ABC.

MSIiWEO DATA

TK BOHXT OffJK

of the PS and Soviet Veapoom rrcscraas

5 tha PS has 3egi

their testing program the Soviet* havellllngrjesaecesalty to test livearrjcadsreater number and variety erf oe-eraticeal veapons system* than has the OB- In acme areas Soviet veapons development has proceededelatively faster pace than that of the Soviet varheads are believed to have been delivered by surface-to-air missiles, MCEMs andaartlcal mils ballistic missiles, and possibly shortex range missiles.

Comparative breakdown* In nuclear veapons allocationsI'yA are listed ln annex A, Table m. It should be noted that the results or the OS TxssTTTC and sTXCtf test series hare aot yet been fully evelnsrtmd.

Ve believe that the Soviet system fox control af rmclesr veaponesimilar to that In the OS. Control over the veapons storedoyeretiooal sitae Is under tha ministry cf Defense;t the national sites is eserclssd by tl-ministry of-

The Soviet* have located near their vestern periphery ^rational nuclear weapon storage sites ln additionational stockpile site. These sites are In excellent position to service Soviet forces in the Satellites but their location vouldransportation delay.

Research and Testing Reactors (Seeable I)

Currently the OS Is operating about four tines as many research, teat, and teaching reactor* as the USSR. Because of the classified nature of the Soviet effort it is difficult toelativeof the tvo programs. It Is probable that the open nature of the if. research program has permitted extensive use of US data by thend thereby decreased their needomperahla number of research eactors. The Soviets appear to,have thamnuober and variety of reactors necessary to perform the basic research required for variousograas but have not developed .as many types of reactors or carried out asesearch program.

Pover Stations (Seeable I)

Tha Initial programs in the development of nuclear pover stations ln the tvo countries appear to have been markedly different.

The US sought totrong technological basis which vould permit development of minimum cost nuclear pover. This has resulted ln the constructionariety of lov and intermediate pover prototypes froa vhlch private industry selected the most promising concepts for derelopaent into full-scale plants. Inubstantial effort la being made by the US to develop military pover reactors for use In remote locations and for major military installations. As of the present time the US hasperable plantsotal electrical generating capacity ofegawatts.

The USSR attempted to go directly to full-sited pover reactors ln order to obtain the operational experience and data necessary toVhlch type was most beneficial for future development. Moreover, the Soviets tried to use their nod ear pover development for propaganda purposes. They apparently also overestimated their technological capabilities, andesult* at least on the basis of their original planned program, their nuclear pover effort has beennstead of having theegawatts of nuclear poverhey have achievedega watts from four reactors aa of The Soviets claim that this slippageueecon si deration of tbe ecocoalc factors involved. As of the present time, the US has three central station pover reactors in operationotal electrical generating capacity ofegawatts. During the next fev months ten additional reactors vill begin operation,

*

ix^sremaing this total capacity toabove, Ik experimental

bean operatedra und er

addition to experlmenta herre

Propulsion Systems for Bevel Tahla 1)

Itarlns Teasels (Sea

-

By the end2 tbaill be generating tan tlaes norm shaft lscu empower In noclcar-povared surface ships thanB. Tba OB baa la operation an aircraft carrier,uided-el sella cruiser, "Zona;estroyer frigate, "Bslnbrldaya." Tbess tai aa ships, toamrtbar vlth tba merchant ship "sBotal as? Up.oco shaft horsepower. Tba OSSB has oat nuclease-powered Icebreaker which deralopsabaft horsepower. The OB baa authorised th* constructionecond destroyex. The Soviets bsrretUlxatlon of atoade power for constructionarge tanker, bat latest Inforaatlaa Indicates that anct plsas have bean postponed erre do not beliera that tbe Sorlets bsrre developed say nnclear-puwexed ailltary surface ships.

Bocl ear-Powered Psmau-lnee

Sevan OS shipyards hare constructed theuclaar subaarlnes which are now in operation. otal ofnelaar submarines hare beea authorized, which includeolarls-alaslle suramarines. Startears after tba OB laid the first kael, tbe tao shlp-yards of the OSSB have produced up touclear stinaarloss, aoat of which are operational at this time. 3 ustxbautlon of tba OB proexaa la planned to be aboutwhaarlaas pox year, whereas3 OSSB rate Is estlnatedouhsarlnsa par year. Although tba available data are not ccoclusiva, tbs reliability aad parformanos of OB zmclearpropulsion systems are bellsrred to be superior to tba Soviet system.

rae uanm is wnu^Mm >^

Astern, with -odium ox intermediate range missiles

Tbe simile norlear subaaurlnas now operational la tha Soviet fleet contain either three ballistic-type or six crulaa-type aisailea. this Is compared toiitlc missilesach of theype subnartces, 1BotCW IsrYl+fwarheadield approaching three sees' Letse^ymi ranffe aad.

isubmerged

Mrcraft lnclcar Propalalon

Derw.Lojtv- tal work on saterials farhlgh-performance reactorsactively pursued In both the OSB daring thee. Although Infonaatiou obtained daring thie period Indicated the existenceoviet aircraft nuclear propJliioa program, the lack of flra InteiUgencealid ccaspari-eon with the US effort vhlch vat terminated Ve have estimated that the USSR has bad the capability tood ear teet bed during the past tvo years, and vlth tbe proper priorities could have an aircraft nuclear power plant in. Thla mightirst militarily useful nuclear-powered aircraft to become available However, the lack of evidence of the program, the decreasing frequency of Soviet statements On progresa, and the apparent general level of their reactor technology indicate that the Soviet aircraft nuclear propulsion effort nay have encountered serious obstacles.

Huclear Rennet Propulaion

Demonstrationaajet reactor system for useupersonic lov altitude missile (SLAM) Is the present goal of the OS PLUTO program. Bo similar Soviet program has been Identified.

Space Propulsion

Tne OS, through the Rover Program, la orientedlight demonstrationuclear rocket lneriod. On the other hand there is no flra Information vhlch confirms or denies the existencenclear-powered rocket program In the USSR.

Electrical propuLaloa systems far space vehicles are being developed ln both countries vlth emphasis on the ion-type propulaion system. The USSR is reportedly working tovard development of akilowatt ion engine far flight testing Tbexpects to flight test6uclear reactor and electrical conversion system that will be used toilowatts of electrical power for an Ion propulsion engine. It may be possible to test the Ion propulsion engine with the Initial flight test of SnAP-6. Theapace power generating systemhat willilowatts of electrical power for an Ion propulsion engine. s scheduled for flight testing

System for Huclear Ancillary Rover (1

de OS bas sa extensive program for the development and application of auxiliary nuclear power for spacend other uses. Although

are li

ve do not knov the Bagnitmde of the Soviethere dre Indication* thot they axereater proportion of their effort on the developmenthermionic reactor-type mrleer pover eyateB.

Peaceful Usee Program a, Other Than Pcver Production Baalc Philosophy

The OS policy tovard peaceful uees stresses tbe eppllcstloo of nuclear energy for the benefit and progress of mankind. Thla policy has been Implemented vith large domestic -and foreign programs.

PriorB policy tovard peaceful usee appeared tooal of obtaining propaganda value rather then real value. Since that time the Soviets haveigher priority to their peacefulrograms and it Is expected that their policy vill be more positive in actually implementing such programs. Hovevex, their attitude tovard foreign programs appears to be associated vith political pollclea and gains vhlch will aid their own internal programs.

Huclear Physics

The OS clearly leads In the mother of experimental machines, their Quality, and ln the experimental results obtained. ear lead vhlch the OS has ln theoretical aspects of high energy physics vill continue to Increase unless the quality of Soviet research Is Improved markedly.

Medical and Biological Brsearch

In the biomedical area the Soviet and OS programs are not strictly comparable, since the Soviet atomic energy organization does not directly sponsor biomedical research. The Soviet Ministry of Health, through its Academy cf Medical Sciences, plans and controls biological research. The total support of atonic energy research in the medical and biological fields la less than that in the US and the fraction of effort devoted to health and safety problems la also leas.

Controlled Thermonuclear Reactions

The OBSB program In this field Is comparable In scope and depth to the CTR program ln the OS. It is larger than thexugjem from the standpoint of personnel staffing, having aboutercent more eclentiste and engineers. Hovever, both programs arementially equivalent in results obtained thus far, although each country Issooevhat differentf approach.

8

Use of Hoclcar Explosions for Hon-Military

Using conventional - sives, the Soviets have scciaolaUd - experience and data on massive exploalooa. Although this data would be applicablelowshare type effort, the Soviet Union ls not known torogram for Investigation of the peaceful uses of nuclear explosions. The United States, on the otber band, has openly -worked onrograa since7 end has conducted several tests using both cbenlcal and nuclear explosives. The OS Is actively Investigating the possibility of using nuclear explosives ln excavation, seining, lavrorement of water and oil resources, and for unique scientific experiments In chemistry and Bnclaar physics.

International Cooperation

The OSuch larger program than the USSR for providing assistance to other countries In the nuclear energy field. Theas concludedilateral agreements for cooperation ln the peaceful uses of nuclear energy and has suppliedeactors to other countries vhlch are currently ln operation or under construction. The OSSB has concluded only lU agreements vlth Bloc and selected underdeveloped countries and has supplied to them onlyeactors, vhlch are currently in operation or under construction. Soviet assistance in the nuclear energy field to tbe underdeveloped countries seems to have been provided to further the Soviet prograa for achieving the political and economic dependency of these underdeveloped nations.

, The OS la supporting the IAEAuch greoter extent than the USSR, both economically and materially. The OS assessment for the regular budget Is also at three times that of the USSR, and the US has0f flaartocablc material while the OSSB has offeredilograms. The Soviet participation ln the IAEA appears to be devoted to ensuring that any political, propaganda, or scientific activities of the IAEA do not conflict vlth Soviet interests.

The USSR is not known to be providing assistance to the other members of the Varsav Pact comparable to that provided by the OS to its BATO partners.

lift

SEWEIr

contexts

INuclear Heact=r 1

TABLE LT*uclear Materials 2

TABLE- Nuclear feapcxis Stockpile Allocation,

lternative 3

TABLE LTI-BNuclearStockpile Allocation,

lternative *>

TABLE JH-CNuclearStockpile Allocation,

5

TABLE TTT-DNuclear Wcepras Stockpile Allocation,

lternative 6

Nuclear Veepcrja Stockpile Allocation,

lternative T

TABLE UI-FNuclear Vewpona Stockpile Allocation,

Hld-lSfi*., 8

TABLE ITTotaleenage of US end USSR Tests. 9

pjcLEAB ESACTCB PROGRAM

and Teatlng Beactors

Nuaiber ln Operation Under Conwtructlon

lmclear poverx planta

Knd-CaTrvwto- Tear Central. Station

*

Brperlmntal2

mi1MT Power

*

Dual Puxpoae

*

nuclear Propolelon Systeaas Surface Teaaele

15

pa

(CuanlatlTe)

Capacity (MWe)

OVi-9

-y

ds3r

(CtaaaxlatlTe)

Plants Capacity

2 2

5

200

200

DroaiaM Ore Production (Tons, OjOg)

Domestic

Foreign

roductloa)

Hid

CixaolatlveAvailable for Weapons)

Mid

Cuamlfltlve Plotonion KgulTalent Production (Kilogram's)

Cuaolatlve Heavy Hater Production (Metric Tons)

be fumiabed seperm

by the

1

DATA

TIE BKWfl ffltriiAlfiTJICin DATA AS

SElM

TABLE

NUCLEAR WEAPONS STOCKPILE ALLOCATION,"

STRATEGIC DETERRENT PORCES

Vonpopi Yield (HT)

ATTACK EORCfS

weapons

b.

.strategic warheads

rAL:

GENERALCE3 jactloal forces

AIR DEFENSE

NAVAL 0PTRATI0N5 ,Naval Defense

ASV

it

(90

PoruM T)

THEATER FIELD pQRCES

AIR EEFEN3E

(3

NAVAL OPERATIONS

70

Negligible 30

(Rounded)

*To be fumlihsu separately by the AK

oouldtv very high-yieldT).

TABLEl

nuclear veapons stockpile allocation,lternative "b"

flTRATTOIO UglTOUBff fOBOP

a. Strategic boobs ^

yield (mt)

U38n

mm-haso! ATTACK TORCES

e. Long RangeT-8

Weapons

ooo

Total Yield (MT)

odBTOTAL:

^. strategic

D

UKPOSE POPCES

ATS DsTBBB

r-

NAVAL yperatiohs ,

Navel Dafena* fc Havel AflV

grand totals (rounded)

heaterce3

t) 0

mp.

600

t) naval optrmorot)

130

negligible

bo furciibed separately by th* AsC

ocAddl*ldr]

TABLE

NUCLEAR WEAPONS STOCKPILE ALLOCATION,LTERNATIVE "A"

Vaaponi Yield (HT)

LONO-RANOS

attack roigza

Ylald (HT)

Strategic

Long-RangeT)**

Warhaefla

TAL:

OE>TRAL PURPOSE FORCES

HEATER FIELD FORCES

T)

100

AIR DKJteWI

naval Operations

Navalaval ABV

AIR ggj

(3OPERATIONS

Negligible

LOO

RAND TOTALS (Rounded)

TABLE

NUCLEAR VEAP0W8 STOCKPILE ALLOCATION,LTERNATTVS- mB"

Weapone Yield (HT)

WeaponB

MY&HKBNT FORCES a. fltrattglo Bor.ci .

J

QDfERAL PURPOSE rORCTS

DEFENSE

J

navJl of

& Kaval ASV

C)

*

w

CE3

eoc

a.T-8

HEATER 7IELD FORCES

T)

AIR DEFENSE

T) NAVAL OPERATIONS T)

TOTALS (Roundad)

be furalahed separately by the AEC

la possible that thla atockplle willT bonba.

TABLE

NUCLEAR WEAPONS STOCKPILE ALLOCATION,LTERNATIVE "A"

Weapona Yield (HT)

lgX'EHREHT FORCES a. Strategic Bofflba _.

LONO-RAHOE ATTACK FORCES

a. Long-Range

Warheads

GENERAL PURPOSE TORCES -Tactical Forcea

1

(*)

THEATER FIELD FORCES

T)

DEFENSE

If

NAVAL OPERATIONS

aval ASW

DEFENSET)

NAVAL OflRATIONa

T)

ICO

TOTALS (Rounded)

TABLE

NUCLEAR WEAPONS STOCKPILE ALLOCATION,LTERNATIVE "B"

Weapona Yield (HT)

Weapona

DETERRENT FORCESQHb.

-1

b. Strategic Warheada

.OTAL:

OENERAL PURPOBE FORCES' .Tactical Forota

AIR DEFENSE

NAVAL OPERATIONS

aval^gfaval ASW

LONO-RAHGE ATTACK FORCES

T)**

Force T)

THEATER FIELD FOROB

T)

AIR DEFENSE

(3OPERATIONS

)

160

Negligible

ICO

TOTALS (Rounded)

be furnished separately by the AECcouldT veapons.

Date

x9u6

2

IV

Held3

TOTAL MECATOnAGE Of OS AO USSB TESTS OS

USSR

No- Shots Yield (MT)

ofuly is62

camTS

I. CrgaiilxaUoQ of the Doited State*

Energy Pro 1

TT. Reactor

HI. *ucleaxroduction.

IV. Unclear Weapons

y. Peaceful Uaea Progrsai Other Than Power Production

restricted data

I. anixation of tbe United States Atomic Energy.Program

Initial governaeatal Investigation leading to thetomicbegan vlth the Presidential Adrleory Coaciitee on Uraniumvhlch. Iname under the Jurisdiction ot theNational Defense Research Committee. Inestablished the Office of Scientific Research andthe Committee on Orexdna became the CSHD Section cm Uranium. period the stilltary members of the Sections vere dropped tofunction. 92 much of the basic planningof Isotope separation, heavy vater and plntonluavas Initiated, and the programartime urgencyan atomic bomb to assist tbe war effort. , thethe construction program vas recognised and the army Corps ofwan brought Into the prograa primarily as constructor andnuclear prograa then continuedual civilian anduntil the Pallhen the Manhattan Engineercontrol and the newly established Military Policy Consnlttee ofDrpertment assumed generallth tbe var over,purposeness of the effort declined, the controversy overcontrol arose, and negotiations for internationalon interminably. The Atomic Energy Act6 establishedEnergy Commission to succeed tbe Manhattan Engineer DistrictArmy's Corps of sbgineers as the federal agency responsible foratomic energy prograa. Poraal transfer was carried out31*

The Atomic Energy Commission inherited from the Manhattan Engineerast complex of Oorernuent-oaned laboratories, manufacturing plants, and ccesexaity facilities. Tbe aanbattan District did notte these facilities with Its own personnel. Through contractualt drew'upon the recognised ref academic andorganizations for management and operation. One of the first major decisions of the newly created Commission vas to continue with tha contract method of prograa execution established by its Tbe Comalaslon bas adhered to this early decision and It la an Integral part of the Government policy to give impetus to privateIn atonic energy vork.

Tbe Conmlsslon's charter vas amended by the Atomic Energy Act4 which broadened the objectives of the national atomic energyand relaxed some of tbe restrictione of the original Act,with respect to private participation and internationalin the development and use of the peaceful atom. The new Act

this dooimffl oitykl bk! um tt

MJflnnriisA^wk m

general vmlfkre, subject at ail time* to th* paramountIre of making the mexicun contribution toe-fenae end eecurlty; *Bd

the de^cpment, mme, and control of atomic energy ehall be directed eo aa to promote vOrld peace. Improve the general velfare, Increaae the atandard of living, and strengthen free competition in free enterprise."

To implement thla policy the Act provide* for:

program of conducting, aa slating, and foaterlng researc end development ln order to encourage maximum scientific and industrial progreee;

"b. rogram for tha dissemination of unclassifiedand technical Information and for the control,and declasmrlflcation of Beatrlcted Data, subject to appropriate oafeguards, so as to encourage scientific and industrial progress;

c. rogram for Government control of tbe possession, use, end production of atomic energy and special nuclear material so directed as to mala the aaximna eoertrlbutlon to tbe cannon defense and security mod ths national velfare;

"a. rogram to encourage vide spread participation In the development and utilisation of atomic energy for peaceful purpoee* to theextent consistent vithmavniand security and with the health and safety of the

public;

"e. rogram of International cooperation to promote the cccsson defense and security end to make available tonation* the benefits of peacefuA application* of atomic energy a* videly a* expending technology end considerations of tbe ccsmaon defense essd security mill permit; end

"f. rogram of administration vhlch mill be consistent vith the foregoing policies and programs, vith Internationalend vith agreements fox cooperation, vhlch vill enablo the Congreaa to be currently Informed so as to take further legislative action as may be appropriate."

In fo raning It* tha rTmmslsfllon seeksol tltion with the private indnatrlal snd research sector of the nation's economy. It lt further the policy of the agency to erearte opportunities for private initiative by withdrawing frcsj or reducing its own effort in areas vhexe private organ! rat lone demonstrate both the capacity and the deelre to mndertake activities on their oan account.

Dnder the Atomic Energy Act, the Commlasion Is aasigned principal responsibility for regulating private participation In the development and use of stearic energy fox peaceful purposes. InIts regulatory powers, the agency seek* to reduce control to thedegree consistent with the security of the nation and theand safety of the public and the atomic worker.

Military requirements for nuclear veapons are fulfilled by the abc consulting vith the Department of Defense, through the statutory Military Liaison Coavsittee, on all atomic energy matters relating to thenanDOtacture, use, end storage of nuclear weapons, the allocation of special nuclear material for military research, and the control of Informsticae relating to the manufacture or utilisation of nuclear weapons, weapons development at the laboratories has been conducted to meet specific DOD weapons systems requirements fox better reliability, greater safety, greater versatility, and increased effectlveneas per pound of warhead weight. The production of nuclear veapons by the JSC according to DOD requirements Is conducted under Presidential consent and direction, which Is obtained by the ABC at least once each year.

The Coasalaslon's international activities are two-fold: a) Mutual Defense agxeeoenta under which the exchange of classified Information relating to nuclear weapons with other nations and KATO; and b) technical cooperation with other nations and with International agencies to increase the world-wide utilization of atomic energy for peaceful purposes. Both activities are conducted through the Dernertnent of State, in conjunction vith the Department of Defense vhere appropriate, ln support of. foreign policies and programs.

3

H. Hucleex Beactor Program

A. Peeearch and Tretlng menctora

As of the cad of Junethere vereeat, research, andreactors operable In the Dhlted States; anotherere being built, and lb nore vere ln the planning stage. Very different sizes ofare Included ln this category; for exsasple, the Advanced Test Beactor planned for coapletlnaillapacity0 thermal megawatts,eaching reactor locatedniversity may herve negligible capacity.

The number and versatility of the OS resemxch and testing reactor program permit considerable capability to obtain basic physics data, to perform irradiation testing, and to advance the technology applicable to all types ofivilian, ailltary and space, o ran reactor types are represented.

In auaxatry:

esearch, and Teaching Beactora

General Irradiation Test

Special test

Research

Teaching

Operable

3

83

Being

irradiation and test reactors are tank-type, light vater-aoderated and coated reactors used for materials and ccasponenta testing. Thermal capacity of reactors in thla category range fromVtVt. Inclnded in this category are the engineering Test Beactor and the Advanced Teat Beactor.

Special teat reactors are used toariety of problems related to the fundanentalnd the effects of enctresely rapid pover surges. The Special Pover excursion Beactor Teat (SPKBT) series consists of fewrr reactors. One Is open tang, tvo are pressurized vater, and the fourthool type. They are used to perform experiments on various core types, to conduct transient testa vith various coolant flows

re-

nd to study the insta

tnltlng froahe Kinetic Kxperlaieirt oa^Bater Boilersomogeneous reactor designed to provide data on thaof simple homogeneous reactors. The Transient Beactor Test

raphite-type reactor, la used to conduct etudlea In faatsearch reactors are those reactors osed primarilyeeearch tool

for basic or applied reeearch regardless of operatlmg power. The nation's oldest operating remctor, the Oak Ridge" Graphite Keactor, vhlch began Operatingblls ln this category. The capacity of the research

reactor varies greatly. The High Flax Isotopeool, xOxoc trap reactor being bmllt primarily for the production of research ouan-

tlties of transuranium radioisotopes, is to come lmto operationnd willapacityWt. On the other band, the LI Termor* Wateromogeneous reactor which began operatingas

a capacity of only 5O0 thermal watts.

eactor* are operated primarily for the purpoae ofIn tha operation and utilization of reactora and for instruction In reactor theory and performance. In thla area certain manufacturers hare adapted general standard designations for the reactorsthey produce.

B. Huclear Power Stations

Our civilian iwaclear powerhich are under review -have Included the following: to achieve economically competitive power in high cost areas of the United States (defined aa areas where foeail fuel coats are" per million BXO's or higher)o improvetechnology so as to extend the benefits of rwwlear power to wider areas; to maintain United States world leadership lniT^ir power technology and to assist friendly foreign nations to achieve economic nuclear power; and to develop breeder-type reactors to make full use of the energy latent ln both uranium and thorium.

To achieve theme goals the United States by tbe end2 will have twelve reactor experiments and experimental reactors ln operation to determine the feasibility and develop the technology for varioussystems: water-cooled, organic-cooled, liquid -metal -cooled, gas-cooled, and advanced concepts. Some reactors In tbis effort have served their purpose and bare been dismantled. Others are being used In further advanced developmental programs. Thet Idaho, for example, vhlch produced the first node or electric power In the United States ans being modified to operate with its fourth core, vhlch will be used In tbe investigation of the use of plutonium fuels.

5

ttUted States participation with Canada in the de^loAeot of heary water reactor technology &od with Furatom in Joint progrsmTVf research and development and nuclear power should be considered significantto our doaeetic nuclear power program. These efforts arein nore detail under Interrsstlooal Cooperation.

The technology tor the water reactors has advanced to theit Is believed that large-scale units of these types arethe objective for high cost areas. In general the OS hasvorkln* on the following basic power reactor types: boiling water, boiling water-nuclear superheat, sodium fast breeder, organic-cooled, pressure-tube-heavy water,

at the enda there vill be in operationentral station prototype plantsotal capacityet electrical aegmwatta. Severer, there have been tvo principal factors which have caused delay Theae are the selection of economy)rally attractive plant locations which are also suitable frees safety aspects, end the reluctance of industry to undertake privately financed projects.

The Government baa offered incentives to encourage privately and publicly owned utilities to construct nuclear power plants. Types of assistance offered to privately financed utilities Include: waiver for five years of use charges for fuel and heavy water, end support of specified research and development. For cooperatively or municipally owned plants, the Covexnment will provide (and own) the reactor portion of the nuclear pover plant and sell the steam to the utility, pendlne: authorUation legislation vould permit in addition to waivers and^port of research and developseart, design assistance forind, large; coraw-rclal size nxtcleeur pover plants.

For the purposes of this paper military power plants are also Military power reactors are being developed for use ln remote locations and for major ailltary Installations requiring substantial blocks of power independent of conrentlcoal fuel supply. At the endeven solitary power plants win be in operation. Tvo of these plants are at locations outside the continental Onlted States.

Certain advanced reactor concepts are being explored. These Include the molten salt, the pebble bed, bexylHas oxide moderated and gas-cooled, high-temperature gas-cooled, and plrrt/wilnm fuel concepts. In addition research and development la being carried forwardhermionicsystem to generate electricityuclear fission heat source.

sirjljhar POBSB STATIONS

nd completive

3

6

Central Station Prototypcu

3 Ik7

1/

(net kmh,

Tlf't end Expcripental Reactors

5

8

19

3

Povex Plants and Reactor Experiment

4

7

8

9

Daal Purpose Reactoro

0

2/

-if

te ginningW equivalent fxom conventional superheat are included. EXHdissipatedeat sink: at SMppingport are included.

he nev plutonium production reactor at Eanxordfox completionnd ls aeaigned toinstallation of electric pover. 4

C. SUCli

Tasaele Surface

Surface

abular

Tba navy haasurfncm ships authorised- in aircraft carrlar,uided alaalXe crulaar are laestroyer ffrigate) la about to undergo aaa trial,ecoad aceUyjau frigate haa

of the aarfaca ahlpa follows:

guided Miaelle cruiser

Beach

Aircraft carrier

Bee*rtora

Btatna

laaliiient

19fil

1

(frigate) Balnbrldga

Deatroyer (frigate)

trials

Construction to start2

HS ^inuaahoint AaC-Marltlaa admnnlstratlon project directed toward the derelopaent of econcedcally ccarpetltlvw naclaar emr-chant ships. Tbs ship is engaged in demonstration runs cart of Tcrrtown, Tlrginla. eries of adnor cornrtruction delayseclalon to extend tba prescribed tasting period toelativelystart-Bp periodelay in plarlng tbs ship la operation- Bat Savannah la drivenreaaurired vartex reactor rated atVt far normal operation, and which canari ana ccsstlnaooa shaft boraepowar0ingle acre*. Poal Is ODo with avwraga mnsamisercent. Otber charactariatlcs an: isplace-sasnt -abort tons; cargo0 abort tons;fficers andO; and normal operating speed ofnots.

f whichill be Polarla-

goclear powered submarines). AtC, tha Smvy badnclaar powered submarines authorized of whichare la operation.

al;ay the

type submarinaa

Reactor

Includes under construction.

b/ Bine are for Polaris eubaarinca.

c/ Twenty are for Polaris subaarines.

d/ Total abaft borsepovervo-reactor system.

Land uioiotypes. Land-baaed prototypes vere used ln development of certain of the naval reactor propulsions systems. There are nov fire land-based prototypes ln operationixth la under construction. The one under construction Is to be completednd vill be used to develop the natural circulationoncept vhlch offers quieter operation, greater Inherent safety, and simpler an lute nance. The other land prototypes are being used primarily for core Improvement work.

1, JTi i -ilT'i ?the falln exMrtarrntai

1 ." temperatureV Present plana

etttftrtbittrtof,flight-type cor*.boot 6oo

in the aummer The reactor6 Q's in all direction-. urthertest program for Project PLDTD la being developed. he Airlnd tunnel teats, airnd other worka ground teat

Studies have been undertaken on nuclear ramjetJ?tth o- eS^lolSia

3- Space Propolelon.

objective for Project ROTES, the effort to

develop nuclear rocket propulsion for apace missions, la toreactor of approximately^^

megawatt* for flight demonstration Three reactor testa

he feasibility of niob^^blS'claror.rod-type fuel element*. Testaerie* of reactor.approximating the rocket engine reactor beganthe spring

Pound* of thruatOp. Concurrent-

3aking placeuclaar rocket engine. fllfihVtcatflioelear rocket engine are planned for the fir* part7hird stage of an Advanced Saturn vehicle.

withtheSUP8Project i. beingor twolectric kilowatt turboelectric^

he system will be used In orbital teat,amsii ax eiectn-

s

capable of providing

f^^JF** ^range a. the primary pover sourcTfor ion propulsion,elevision, and radar satellites. Ion propulsion for deep space missiles, and the reqoirements ofspace vehicles and satellites, require relatively high pover level.. or part of the effort ishe designation for an advanced

11

prototype reactor for useurboelectrlc system*. Objectivespower levellectricalounds per electric kilowatt, and unattended operation lnenvironmentinimal period0 hours. Thecalls for flight testing Test operation of aexperiment to demonstrate the technology required forscheduled for the spring Thisepresents arange prograa than those of the otber SHIP reactorthe higher power levels require the development of antechnology beyond that used In.other reactor systems. I

8. Huclear Auxiliary Power Supplies

Satellite Power Sources

The objectives of the "Systems for Huclear AuxiliaryProgram Is to develop small, light weight nuclear powersatellites, space craft, and other unattended equipment.SHAP projectD utilise heat from radioisotope decay. SHAP projects utlllie beat from the operation ofr'"* '

eontainsjlftt units, j

Already performing in^cessfully In'orbit ere tvoype units powering Instruments for tvonavigational satellites and tvo SHAP isotope units for remote weather Installations. Another SZAP Isotope unit was ln experijsental operation to provide powererrigatlonal buoy.

Tbe reactor system to be used In thla effort uses" the Li-Cb technology developed for tbe Indirect Cycle Aircraft Huclear Propulaion prograa.

The following table eontalna_dataapplicable to the flrat-of-type SHAP isotope and reactor

*. a

and Small Power Source*

m. yrocleax Materials Production

Cranium OreOq) Prcductlon

Donestlc Production and Foreign ProciireacutQ

otal ^

tone .ore,3 at January2

Canadian: ons of ore, containing

ons9 aa of1 (latest officialvailable)

Ore Concept rat loo Techniques

a total ofrivately owned uranium processing stills are Inthe united States. Ore treatment proceeaea

ing vlth uranium recovery by alkaline precipitation or by Ion exchange, and (b) acid leaching vlth uraoluvj recovery by Ion OTchnnge or by solvent Ion exchange practise la divided between reein-in-palp and colcontractors. The highly efficient processes of recovering nxenlua by ion exchange and solvent extraction vas initiated in the OS5espectively. Tbe processes In use are summarized as follows: ,

of Hills

rnllne Leach

Alkaline precipitation resin-in-pulp

1*

Process

Add Leach

Column loo exchange

resin-in-pulp Solvent extraction

f^reat Ore StocinxLLeB

Somber olf Vlllfl

are no stockpiles of uraniun concentrates. normal working Inventory at the allls at2ons ore containingons TJ-Og. ABC-held ore stocks vhlch are cccmaltted to tbe sdlls for processing-totaledons of oreg.

Other.-.

There are substantial -tonnages of recoverablen the partially depleted gaseous diffusion plant tailings.

The OS ls no longer depoident on foreign sources0 tons UfQ remain to be deliveredforeign contracts. OS productive capacity and ore reservesto meet anticipated civilian and military needs forthe next ten years. Delivery rates could- be increased, ifa high rate of production for an extended period vould requireexploration and the discovery of nev ore deposits^ uranium also could be obtained.

B-

The Importance ofes recognized very early Inevelopment of the OS unclear program. What vas not' knovn vashe technical difficulties foreseen could be overcome, or which vouldbe tbe most effective end quickest means of. separating 'the Isotope from natural cranium. Accordingly, It was decided tog the several most promising lines of attack, and development began on the gaseous diffusion, electromagnetic, thermal diffusion and ultrocentrifuge methods of isotope separation. Initially, gaseous diffusion,and thermal diffusion plaate vere constructed and operated at the CLrotdte at Oak Ridge, and all threemethods contributed to the production ofor tbe first atomic boob. The success of the gaseous diffusion plants eventually led to tbe shutdown of the other methods of separation.

15

rt

If 1W

Although expanding over the ensuingak Rrdge remained the sole OS isotope eeparetlou plant until the Padccah and Portsmouth facili tie" vent on atrcaa ln3 andespectively.

quivalent top product production are:

Kg. Equivalent Top Product)

Total zrjorr.aVsipJhs Ose

Total

for

* Key transmitted separately

As the three gaaeoua diffusion plants feed or are aupported by one another at varying levels of enrichment, individual rate* of equivalent top predact production are not meaningful end have not been presented. Quantities pfroduction have been Included far comparative purpose*.

Research and development on gas centrifuge technology forIsotopes Is being pursued by ABC at an annual level ofillion.

The gas centrifuge, unlike the gaseous diffusion process,echnique for producingmall scale and at alow capital cost. rimary aim Is to asaeas the likelihood that the gas centrifuge process might enable additional nations touclear veapons capability. Development work Is also being carried out ln Vest Germany, the Netherlands, and the DDI tad Kingdom. To minimi re dissemination of current results, agreements for classification have been concluded with these countries.

C. Plutonli

Development and construction of the first research reactor (CP-l) vhlch vent critical on Decembernd design of the firstreactor at Ranford progressed simultaneous ly. The first Han ford reactor became critical in The ahamjjajj separation

facilities at Baaford vere reedy to receive the first batchVer' irradiated slugs froa,ile In Btoford remained the principal plutonium production site until* vhen Savannah River becaae operational. Ihe first production reactors st Eanford vere graphlta-moderated, vhereas the Savannah River reactors are heavy-vater code rated.

Cumulative production of plutonium eeuivalent (inclndea tritiua) are presented be lev:

CIJKTLATJYK FUJTOSVM ^JJITATJorrrilo grams7)

*

Key transmitted separately

J>. Other materials

The original heavy vater separationoablnedand catalytic process established at Trail, British Columbia ina rate ofons per month, followedater distillation process at three Army Ordnance Works at Morgantova, Wabash River end Alabama Ordnance Works vith estimated ratesons per month. These remained the principalof heavy vater until the first dual-tearperature operationvas built at Dana In2 (design annualons) followedual-temperature installation at Savannah River inmp salkO tons). Eventually, OS requirements for heavy vater vere more than met, and the Dana plant vas placed on standby status in7 and since^ the Servannah River heavy vater production has been curtailed considerably.

ithium production vas initiated at Oak Ridge in3ombination of the Oat tray electrochemicalof separation (KIXX) and therhnngn electrochemical method (COIXC). The ELEX process vas terminated6 and the present lithium production is accomplished by the Co lex process at Oak Ridge.

3- ritiua has been produced at both BanfordRiver using the excess radioactivity from tha reactors. Attime. Savannah River heavy vater piles produce all theby the atomic energy program.

IV. Buclear Weapons Program

f the Atomic Energy Actntitled "Military Application of Atomicefinea tbe Commission's autborltlei and responsibilities In the area of nuclear military application:

AimiKITl."

"a. Thela authorized to

onduct experiments and do reeearch and development work ln the military application of atomic energy; and

ngage In the production of atomic veupona, or atomic weapon parta, except that such activities afaall be carried on only to the extent that the expreaa consent and direction of the President of the united States bas been obtained, vhlch consent and direction shall be obtained at least once each year.

The President froa time to tine nay direct the Ctoaudaslon (l) to deliver much quantities of special nuclear material or atomic weapons to the Department of Defense for such use aa he deems necessary ln the Interest of national defense,o authorize the Department of Defense to manufacture, produce, or acquire any atomic weapon or utilization facility for military purpoaes: Provided, however. That such authorization shall not extend to the production of special nuclear material other than thatto tbe operation of such utilization faculties."

A. Research and Development 1. Origin

The Los Alamos Scientific Laboratory (LASlJ, operated by the University of California, vas formed3 under the Kanhattan District to solve the mass of technical problems Involved In constructing aatonic bomb from the fissionable material being produced at Hanford and Oak Ridge, and to produce atomic weapons.

In the early days of the ABC, all atomic boob production vaa performed by the Loa Alamos laboratory. Bovever, the rapid expansion of the atomic weapons prograa resulted in transferring the actual work of mass production of atomic veapons to nev plants designed for this purpose.

Tbe physical limitation of the Loa Alsace Scientificboth ln equipment and manpower resulted in tbe formation In the Summer2eparate project under the University of California Lawrence Radiation Laboratory, at Live more, to do basic research and development work on thermonuclear devices; andawrence

18

safer

Radiation laboratory, ax Liveroore, vas expanded to provide for developoentoint vhere the design can be relcaaed tochannels.

In order to relieve Los Alamos of production problems, the operation of" laboratory vas transferred on aovembero the Sand Is. Corporation, formed specifically to take over this Sandia Corporation develops, designs, and engineers forthe portions of nuclear veapons vhlch are primarily related to the adapting of the nuclear assenbly* (initiators, fissionable material, HE, and detonators) for operational utilization by the Armed Forces. The Sandia Corporation has responsibility for the engineering, design, and development of "non-nuclearhlch Includes such things as ballistic cases, fuzes, pover supplies, testing and handlingand basic studies related to delivery systems in general. Surveillance of veapons in the stockpile and supervision ofto these veapons; adaptation of nev veapon models to variousadaptation of nuclear varheads to guided missiles; and testing and quality control of production items, are performed by Sandia.

In addition to these, other installations do BOtoe research andsound Laboratory la doing research andln such areas as high explosive detonators.

2. Current Status

During recent years the OS veapons laboratories have been kept up to date vith tbe latest equipment andand the level of competence In technical and scientific manpower has been maintained and quantitatively Increased. They are novosition toery aggressive veapon development program. During the period of the8% veapons development van limited to vork vhlch could be carried out in the laboratory, without testing, andesult the enthusiasm, imagination, and vigor of the laboratories declined substantially. Thus upon sudden resumption of testing by the Soviets, the laboratories vere hampered in the rapid formulationomprehensive and progressive test program.

3- Trends in Program Knrphasls

Veapons produced5^ vere fission Implosion end gun-as aeaably types.

Although. Kuclear veapons stockpile is constantly changing as nev types of veapons are introduced, some veapons of the early fission implosion type are still In stockpile In varying sizesiameter' ln diameter. Fission Implosion veapons have

19

luSW

been constantly improved over the years through the development of hollov shells,ing,o provide more efficient utilisation of fissionable material, increased invulnerability to enemy counteraction, and increased operational readiness. At the same time, emphasis has been placed on the development of very lightweight weapons.

Thermonuclear weapon development really got underway in thes andhe first thermonuclear weapons were produced for stockpile.

Dp to2 test series, tbe trend of weaponsties has been to smaller, lighter, plutonlnm bearing weapons,of greater proportion of warheads (missile application),greater yields for comparable sizes. This la turn Involvesconcepts ln major components such as. Initiation, gaafiring. This also involves Increased use of plutonium. Inhasronounced design trend (in LRL designs) towardmore

ins rowan

i bob win**

sqjreti

* Series incomplete as of2

. S. bTOCLEAR TEST SERIES

of

Shots

Shot

Mexico

tok Proving Ground

Proving Ground

Test Site

Proving Ground

-Jangle

Test Site

Teat Site

Proving Ground

-Knothole

Test Site

Proving Ground

Test Site

(DOD)

Proving Ground

Test Site

Proving Ground

I

(DOD)

Atlantic

Test Site

JJ

Island

Islands

21

C. Weapon Fabrication Sites

mi

President. Once each year and after coordination vith the DOD, the submits to tbeequest for authority to produce certain certain types.

is, of course, necessary that there be long-range coordination vith the DOD to establish tbe facilities and resources for effecting the annual production anthoriied by tbe President.

There are eleven prime facilities used by the AEC for theand sssemhly of veapons" not counting the modification centers at stockpile sites, etc. The plants concerned are generally ovned by the government and primarily built by the AEC, but are operated by civilian contractors.

The OS vespoo production flow chart Is rather complex, vith each installation generally but not necessarily uniquely carrying out one part of the production process. For example, enriched uranioa andlithium are produced at Oak Ridge and fabricated intot either Oak Ridge or Rocky Plata. These components then flov to one of several fabrication or assembly installations.

0- Stockpile facilities

nuclear veapons storage policy end procedures have undergone several changes since the establishment of the Atomic Energy COanrlesion.

Initially, all veapons produced vere held under AEC custody in certain central storage locations.

Onhe President authorised Initial dispersalumber of unclear veapons to specified locations and the transfer of these to the DOD.

Beginning vith an initial authorization onhe President established certain allowable figures aa to the number of weapons vhlch might be transferred to the DOD. Thereafter, theae were called for and transferred as requested by the DOD. The veaponsfor transfer during the early years after this period vere only the low yield fission design.

a*

r

By earlynail number of thernoriucleer ! sites. The DOD believed thatthe fission veapons, .hould be acred out vhera necessary tothey vould be closer to using unite and leaa vulnerable ln case dlaperaeTof

fT) but directed that all those dispersed Including thoae vlthln the United Statee, on ahlpa at aea and on overseas bases renaln In ABC eustodv Tt

^ CMtodya ^re^S'in-

sure inaedlate readiness for use.' ABC custody vas Initiallyby the presence at each base or cn each ahlu concrrvd ABC custodian vlth an assistant. Onhe President approved ln vrlting the use of allltar>of the various bases and ships concerned as ABC custodiansto the ABC vlth regard to their custodial

PrealdeQt "PProved the tranafer of high yield veapons dispersed to the DOD and specified that all dispersed veapons be in the custody of the DOD. The ABC retains control oT^ veapons at Katlonal Stockpile Sites.

Subsequent to World Warrograa vas Initiated toeries of Rational stockpile Sites (NSfl's) to house the stockpile of

nuclear veapons. Souetlne later, this prograa vas enlarged to Includeperational Storage Sites (OSS' s) vhlch vere very sSilar Sine

Hatlonal Stockpile Sites except that they vere analler and usnsJo/S.

Jacentelivery force. These sites vere funded by ABC andoper-

ated Jointly by ABC and

t vas recognized that nuclear veapons vould have to be placed near our delivery forces overseas. esult, tvo Overseas Operational Storage Sites vere constructed. Since that tlae. the nro-graa has expanded considerably and the President has authorized the storage of veapons in other countries.

B. Weapons in Stockpile

For coctfaratlve purposes, the OS stockpile figures have beenin Annex A, Table UJ, ln the nearest equivalent tabulation to the stockpile allocation used In the -InteiUgence Assumptions for Planning.

F. Treads lnespon Development

course not

yet been fully evaluated. Thus an up-to-date coaparlson of the OS and OSSB developments in nuclear veapons cannot be made. It should be noted.

i

that DS veapons oev-elopeent In terse of efficiencies, yield to Might ratios,s discussed relative to the OSSR veapons development on pagesnd U, Comparison of US and USSR Atomic Energy Programs, andf AKSEX C, Soviet Atonic Energy programbeen oade on the basis of US Weapons testing6 and Soviet testing

Puclcar Vcapcns Research

Is probahla that the United States could, vith continued unlimited testing, during the0 years approach the practical upper Halts of performance in both thermonuclear and flasion designs. In addition

progress could also be made ln the developmenture fusion veai

as veil as other advanced concepts.

RESTIM. DATA

TwiiwnncSik EffirBMiaS kfki rrsm

Y. Peaceful Uaee Program Other Than Power Production

Basic Philosophy

Tbe basic philosophy of the. peaceful uses prograa lalnf the Atomic Energy Actfc (see

3 and especially aince* passage of the Atomic Energy Act* the Dnlted States has advanced steadily ln theof the various applications of the nuclear sciences andfor the benefit and progress of mankind. During this period the Atomic Energy Commission haaunber of steps to encouraae industrial participation in the Atomic Energy Prograa. Tor example it has withdrawn froa areas of service vhen industry shoved ato provide the services on an economic and competitive basis- It has taken steps to make greater quantities of radioisotopes recovered from fission products available; and it has taken steps to Insure that the grovth of the me Tear prograa vas carried outanner consistent vlth protecting the public health and safety.

Consistent vlth the Atonic Energy Act* the, Comalssion has continually reviewed data vithln the definition of Restricted Data to determine that vhlch could be declassified and published without the undue risk to the common defense snd security, snd has, through its technical Information prograa, furnished technical materials of aid to the scientific and technological community.

International cooperation to advance the civilian uses of nuclear energy ls an important segment of D. S. foreign policy. nd assistance consistent with this policy has taken nany forms Authorization for the major cooperative activities ln the "stoma for peace prograa Is provided In the Agreement for Cooperation nov in effect withations, tbe International Atomic Energy Agency, the European Atomic Energy Comnunlty and the City of Pest Berlin. Some ctivities such as the shipment of radioisotopes have.been admlnlateredeas formal basis.

B. Besearch in High-Energy Physics

The. after Porld War TJ initiated an intensive and broadly-based reeearch effort ln high energy physics, founded initially by the Navy and later by the atomic energy program, prom the outset. has established andosition of vorld leadership In this frontier area of basic science.

2,

Traditionally the strength of. effort has lalnNInwork. In recent years, the American effort in theoreticalhas Improved. This, coupledlose cooperation between experimentalists and theoristsuch greater extent than in the Soviet Onion, has givenosition of unquestioned leadership.

. program has dwelt mainly on the following: search for nev particles (the bulk of the so-called "strange part idee" has been discovered byearch for new phenomena, determination of such particle properties as mass, structure, lifetime, spin, magnetic aoQjent and mode of decay, the behavior of matter due to electric forces via electromagnetic Interactions and studies of neutrino Inducedat high and low energies. These studies, both experimental and theoretical,assive attack on the frontiers of high energy phenomena and it is likely that the present mosjentum of. program, if sustained, vill keep. In the lead relative to Western Europe and the Soviet Bloc. Increasing concern Is being felt in this country, however, about the coat of. program both in scientific manpower and physical resources and the balance of scientific effort betveen high energy physics and other areas of basic science such as nuclear or solid state physics.

High energy accelerators (defined as those vith energies of acreev) presently in operationlectronroton accelerators. Tvo additional proton accelerators and one linear accelerator under construction are scheduled for completionespectively. The list of accelerators may be organized by function, type, and energies as shown belov:

Range of

Electron acceleratorsotal)

- 6

Protonotal)

_ 33

* The Stanford University linear accelerator, under construction iato deliver particles vith energies of fromoev.

Two under construction

The nevest and highest energy accelerator In the vorld, theGradient Accelerator (AGS) at Brookhsven, successfullyean of protons to nore thanev Inhus exceeding design energies. Subsequently, bessi energies In the range ofev have been obtained. Work to date vith the AGS has been directed tovard analyzing the yields of atonic particlesesons and Antlprotous) vhlch are produced in secondary beams vhen the primary proton beam strikes targete suits obtained withevshov that secondary beams arc especially richesons and antlprotons vhen the secondary beans are in theoev range.

The Stanford Dhiveraity linear accelerator, being constructed near Palo Alto, California, vill give scientists an advanced tool for re search In high-energy physics bylgh-lntensity, vell-collimated beam of

C. Controlled Thermonuclear Reactions Research

Research on controlled fusion reactions Is conducted by the AEContinuing annual coat ofillion. There arecientists directly vorklng on the' US controlled fusion program. Successive goals of thla research effort are as follovs: First, to heat andlasms of ionized gas at particlesufficient to yield significant amounts of thermonuclear energy during confinement. lasma of deuterium-tritium, temperatures of the order ofillion degrees Centigrade are required. Second, to study an ignited plasma to ascertainilot plantnet pover can be produced. And Third, to assess the possibility of economical generation of fusion pover.

0onsiderable progress vas made tovard achievement of the first goal, using different experimental devices. Although ignition energy has not yet been achieved, severalare producing plasmas vith Ion energies so high that It is reasonable to expect such achievements in the near future. Emphasis is therefore being placed on the second goal, and more specifically, upon attempts to Increase plasma confinement times to practical periods. This effort can be expected to continuetoears and the out-cone cannot be predicted, ultimate achievement of the economical generation of fusion pover, should it prove technically and economically feasible. Is many years avay.

Major vork is carried on at four laboratories; the Lavrence Radiation Laboratoryt Berkely and Livermore, California;

ifeo DATA

THIS WMR mmS iim ft Iff ATOM ENEKY ACT4

the Los Alamos Scientific Laboratoryos Alamos, New Mexico; the Oak Ridge National. Laboratoryak. Ridge, Tennessee; and tbeResearch Laboratoryashington, D. C. Specialized support la provided by several other laboratories. Jive approaches are being followed: In tha etellerator at Princeton, gas is heated in an end-leas tube provided with very strong externally applied, spiral magnetic fields; In the magnetic mirror devices at LHL and ORNL plasmaeam of particles (ions or neutral atoms) are suppliedeutral source, and trapped ln mirrors or cusp magnetic field configurations; in self-confinement and fast-pulsed devices at LASL, HRL, and LHL, the plasma la heated either by Inducing strong currents in the plasma or else by rapidly applying very strong external fields; ln the Aatron device at LRL, electrons having velocity approaching that of light are Injected tootating cylindrical layer. The magnetic field of this layer, together with external fields, is able to confine Ions, and the fast electrons Impart kinetic energy to tbe ions; in the rotating pT^wjM devices at Los Alamos and LRL, ions and electrons are accelerated by electric fields applied to the plasma lnay as to impart rotational motion.

D. Plowshare

Peaceful uses for nuclear explosives (PLOWSHARE) have beenconsidered In the united Statee since7 and actual nuclear experiments in the field have been poasible since the end of the moratorium on nuclear weapon testing in Two major areas are under development:

applications which Include excavation,improvement of water and oil resources, which are based on datahigh explosive experiaents and weapons effects tests;was begun2 with Project SEDAN on Julyndat the rate of about tvoear; and

applications which Include unique research

In chemistry, physics, transuranium elements and other fields and which is based on data and techniques from past weapon tests; the firstof this type vaa Project Gnome onI, and future experiments will be conducted at the rate of about one each year.

Development of cheaper nuclear exploaives with leasvill also be pursued using technology from the weaponsvhlch vill be tested ln scheduled Plowshare projects. n fiacal3 ofillion are expected to rise in the next five yearsillion.

28

E. International Cooperation

. 5 the United Statee has cooperated Internationally In the peaceful usee of atonic energy under provisions of research and pover agreeaente entered Into with other countries. At presentilateral agreement! for cooperation in the civil uses of stonic energy are in effect withountries and the City of West Berlin. Ofor research,or power. The United States alao has bilateral Agreementa for Cooperation with the International Atomic Energy Agency and the European Atomic Energy Comuunity (FXJHATOM).

_An important sspect of the US program of International cooperation haa been the requirement of safeguards provisions in its bilateral agreements to assure that assistance furnished would not be diverted to military uses. Periodic Inspections are made by US safeguarda"inspectoi to assure that the terms of the'safeguards provisions are being honored by our bilateral partners. The united States with the assistance of other .friendly Member States of the International Atomic Energy Agency washable to secure sdoptionafeguarda system administered by the

US participation in the International Atomic Energy Agency haa provided Information, equipment, and financial assistance to the Agency program. 82 the United States hasillion for the IAEA assessed budgetillion to the voluntary budget. Included in US assistance have0 worthffered cost-free for research, two mobile radioisotope laboratories,for constructionermanent Agency0 worth of equipment for Memberellowships, and the services ofoat-free consultants and erperta.

Cooperation between the US and EURATOM has been carried out under two prograaa, the US-EURATOM Joint Huclear Power Program and the US-EURATOM Joint Research and Development Program, To date two pover reactor projects nave been accepted under the Joint power program. Under the.first round invitation Issued in9 SEOTY (Soc lets Elletronucleare Hationale) lalectrical-megawatt boiling water reactor in Italy at Punta Plume, now near completion and expected to be in operation On Julyhe US-EURATOM Joint Reactor Board announced acceptance of the proposal from SERA (Franco-Belglan Society for Huclear Energy for Ardennes) toVE pressurized water reactor near Olvet, Prance, on the Franco -Belgian border, to be operable by One other project of comparable size will be included under the second round Invitation.

20

.

Since its initiation inhe US-RfclATOM Joint Research and Development Program has authorizedrVpoeals for0 of them to be carried oat ln Europe,n the United Statee and ssxxmtlng to about Billion. Forty-two European andoited States organizations are represented in this prograa which has as Its objectives the improvement of the performance of types of reactors to be constructed under the Joint nuclear power prograa and the lowering of fuel cycle costs.

a number of major technical exchange programs arepay* dividends for the US domestic prograa as well as forpartners. One.of the moat extensive of thesethe cooperation between the United Statesthe

development of heavy water reactor technology, to which the US ls contributingrinion inreaearch projects In thlo country, in addition to the usual exchange of personnel.

Transfer of special nuclear materials bilaterally and through international organizations has already reached algniflcantand will be increasingly important within the next few years. Anillion worth of special nuclear materials will be required for the EURATOM prograa over the next ten years, an Item of some Importance to the US economy. Materials transfers to date are as follows:

MATERIAL SUPPLIED TO OTHER CO0NTRIKS UNDER AGREEMBBTS FOR COOPERATION

enriched

Heavy water Normal uranium Depleted uranium

7 grams kl$ 3 kilo&rsms

1 Wbw tfl If iJ54

mi

the us program of international cooperation has offeredto other countries and international organizations byof libraries and the opening of OS facilities toand trainees. eighty-eight depository libraries havetoountries and fiveotalersons fromoreign countriesformal training courses and received individualat aec facilities. moreoreign nationalsAEC field installations, and during tbe period0 ABC and contractor personnel traveled abroad

under its program of reactor and equipment grants, the os has made connltmentsotal ofesearch reactor grants to other countries, each grant not to to date,f theae "grants have been..paidotal expenditure

completely equipped la bora-

A total ofountries have received grants of nuclear energy equipment, other than reactors,otal valueo. included in these equipment grants are toriea,

hows the status and type of aid the us is providing to other countries.

o an itemized account of us support to the IAEA.

31

TABLE 3

United States Atonic Energy Assistance to Other Countries I. . Builtrchperating,%

as*.

Sveden

Japan

Japan Japan

Japan

Netherlands

Austria

Austria

Australia

Brazil

Brazil

Canada

Congo

Type (KW)

0 KV (General Irradiation teat)

0 KV (General Irradiation teat)

BesearchV

Teaching,power

V

General Irradiation0 KV

Pool type.V

Triga Mfc. XJ,B

eachingV

Pool type.V

Triga Mfc. I, TeachingV

Pool type,V

Triga Mfc. I, TeachingV

location

SteaMl

Status Operable0

Tokal-Mura Osaka

0

Tokosuka City Operablel Petten

Operable7 Operable1

Seibersdorf

Vienna

Operable ininlnHeights Operable0

Belo Bbrizonte Operable0 Operable9 Leopoldrille Operable9

Country Natl. China

Denmark

Denmark Germany

Germany

Germany Germany

Greece

Israel

Italy

Italy Italy

Italy

Italy Portugal

Spain

Type (KV)

Pool type,V

Tank type.

K

Pool type.V

Pool type.W

Teaching,V

Teaching, negligible power

Pool type,V

Pool type.V

Tank type.V

Tziga Kk.V

Pool type.V

Teaching, negligible pover

Teaching,V

Pool type.V

Pool type.V

Rlso

El so .Munich

Geesthacht

Frankfurt Dulsburg

Athens.

Hebl Rubin

Ispra

Rome

Saluggla

Palermo

Milan Sacavem

Moncloa

Operable8

Operable7 Operable7

Operable8

Operable8 Operable8

Operable1

Operable0

Operable9

Operable0 Operable9

Operable0

Operable9 Operable1

Operable8

33

RESTOH) DMA aawmalsBiKniwiH aBisr

Country Switzerland

Switzerland

Switzerland

Turkey

Venezuela

Korea

Vest Berlin Finland

Pool type.W

Teaching,

poser

Teaching,

pover

Pool type.

v

Pool type.

v

Trigs Mk. XT, Research V

Teaching,V Trigs Mk.V

Status Ope table5

Operable6

Operable8

Operable2

Operable0

Operable2

Operable8 Operable2

Italy Indonesia Japan Japan

Be the rlands Pakistan

type. BeV

Pool type,V

Trigs Mk. IT,V

Trigs. Mk. LT,V

Tank type.V

Pool type,V

Pool type.V

Bandung

Kawasaki City

Kyoto

Delft

Rawalpindi

2

2

2

2

Completion

I965

2

3

scheduled

scheduled

scheduled

scheduled

scheduled

scheduled

scheduled

seW^VsS

Country Philippines

Thailand

Vietnam

Type (KV)

Pool type.V

Pool type.V

Triga Kk. n,B

city

Bangkok

Dalat

Completion2

Completion

Completion2

35

OTAL -Type

Status

0 MHZ

Operable0

Italy Italy Japan

ol

Pressurizedhb

Pressurized voter,

Boll lugBX

Boiling water, 12

Coepletion2

Completion*

Completion3

Completion3

HI. Cyclotrons

. aid for this type of equipment)

Electrostatic Generators

MBV

Status

Location

Rational Autonomous Grant madeof Mexico, FTyet de lire red

MKT

Huclear Research Center, Athens

Grant made ln0

I

SECRET

TABLE *

SUPPORT TO THE IAEA ETJi STATES

teas 1. Regular Budget

2

8

Total

Operational Budget

2

3- Cost-free Hate rials for Research

*. Pacill ties:

Remanentobile Radioisotope Laboratories

5- Special Equipment Grants

Research Contracts Finaneea

Fellovehipe Offered

/

305

1/ AtI. Subject to Increase up0 to match contributions from other measbers.

2/ llocated to Finnish and Yugoslav research reactorsffered

37

IRET nc mm

BIOI

Cost-free Experts and Consultants

Snail Pover Beactor

Assistance

10. library Items

U. Materials Available for

Sale or

31

provided 3/

IAEA participation in US projects

0

ource Materials

If not available commercially

36

T. Medical and Biological Re March

Tne ABC'a medical, biological, and envlro oriental Deaearcn prograa consists of reeearch In three broad categorlee: Scientific area* underlying the interaction of radiation vlth biological ayateas, vhlch acconnta for about sixty percent of the effort; Health and Safety in atomic energy programs and devices, vhlch accounts for tventy-flve percent; and beneficial applications of special nuclear andmaterials.

Approximately tvo-thirde of the prograa coata are incurred in support of vork at Government -ovaed facilities, and the remaining vork ls accomplished under approximately six hundred researchvith universities, colleges, and other institutions.

In order to study the interaction of radiation vlth biological systems, research la being carried on in the areas of molecular biology, genetics, somatic effects, internal emmitters, environmental sciences and radiological physics.

Health and Safety probieas arialng during the exploitation of nuclear materials snd energy are studied through applied research ln health physics, radiation instrumentation, prophyuaxis and therapy, chemical, toxicity, nuclear energy civil effects, and fallout. '

Beneficial applications are developed- through research vhlch promotes utilization of special nuclear materials, and Includes cancer research, utilizing radioisotopes and other unique radiation sources; medical and biological reeearch; agricultural research for theof economically importantnd crops; and research tothe nutritional, microbiological, vholesomeneaa snd health aspects of foods processed vlth relatively lov doses of radiation.

0. Isotope Envelopment

Besearch and development of technology required for extending and speeding up the application of radioisotopes in engineering, agriculture, medicine, and research Is supported by ABC at an annual level of aboutn. This vork Is aimedrttlng technology nov employed by moreicensed medical lnatitutlons andndustrial concerns, andther licensed users.

Of special interest ls the investigation of the radiationof foods, looking initially^to prolong the shelf life of fiah and fruit products.

DSTft

mLCTB units

E. Eagt-VgBt Exchange Pregran

Exchanges ln the peaceful applications of atomic energyart of the. exchange program and are developed by the AEC and coordinated vith the Department of State. Exchange contacts -vith the Soviet Bloc have Increased United States knowledge of the Soviet Bloc's capabilities and technical and scientific advances ln the field of atomic energy. Soviet Bloc scientists have received considerable technical Information of. value to the Soviet nuclear program. |

I. Mutual Defense Cooperation

Agreements for Cooperation vith other nations for mutual defense purposes may provide for the exchange of certain classified information concerning nuclear veapons and military reactors and for the transfer of tha less sensitive non-nuclear parts of atomic veapons systems necessary to improve the training and operational readiness of Armed Forces. Under certain conditions, these agreements nay also provide for the transfer of military reactors, non-nuclear parts of veapons/ and nuclear material for military purposes. The United States presently has mutual defense purposes agreements under provisions of tbe Atomic Energy Act vith HATO, Australia, Canada, France (tvo, one of vhlch provides for transfer of nuclear materials for prototypepropulsionederal Republic of Germany, Greece, 'Italy, Betherlands, Turkey, and the United Kingdom. The United States-United Kingdom Agreement for Cooperation is considerably broader than other agreements, providing for the exchange of store detailed atomic veapon information and the saleubmarine propulsion reactor. The Mutual Defense Purposes Agreement betveen. and Canada, while not so broad as that vith the United Kingdom, Is more extensive than those entered into vitb other countries or HATO. 1

this nmn mm

ki1ne9 itKKm*

The Chief Directorate for the Utilization of AtohSfcnergy attached to the Council of Ministers vn* created intake over the non-military application* of atoaic energy. Including developingbetveen the USSR and other countrlea in theilitary uses of atonic energy, the introduction of atonic energy into industry, and the coordination of research in nuclear technology. Its first chairman was Te. P. Slavakiy, nov the Minister of Medium Machine Building. nder the chairmanship of V. S. Yemelyanov, the Chief Directorate was reorganized and elevated to ministerial level aa the State Cocaalttee of the USSR Council of Ministers for tbe Utilization of Atoaic Energy. esult, lt probably acquired more authorityigher priority In carrying out Its "peaceful uses" efforts. Recently, iemclyanor vas relieved of hla position as chairman, apparently for reasons of health, and vas succeeded by Petroeyants, vho hadeputy Minister of Medium Machine Building.

There is very dose cooperation and coordination betveen the Ministry of Medium Machine Building and the State Committee. The Ministry, In all likelihood, controls the availability of nuclear materials for peaceful purposes, and the State Committee actauffer betveen the sensitive production ministry and the consumer Industries, Including representatives of all other countrlea.

4Mb

"uclear Reactor Program (Ptor.-prcduction Types) A. Research and Testing Reactors

5 the Soviets have constructed and placedperati research reactorsifferent types vitbln the USSR. The Soviet research reactor facilities are uaed both for the nuclear training of personnel as veil as for extensive studies of neutron physics, materials testing and developnent, radlocheelstry, isotope production, and nev reactor concepts. This progrea Is of fundamental Importance in the areas of fissionable material production and weapons development However, it is not known to what extent the program has aided the" Soviets In achieving their technological goals.

The variety of research reactors indicates an excellent capability in this field. However, in recent years the Soviets have adoptedRT type as their general-purpose research reactor.

The following comments can be cade on certain types of reactors uaed to perform special functions:

(a) Theank-type reactor, Is used principally for general studies in neutron physics, such as cross-section acasurement. and has been sent to many Soviet Bloc countries.

(bj The IRTreactor is lov cost and very simple ln construction. It is recommended by the Sovieta for use in universities and research centers. This type is adaptable to radiation damage, shielding, and general Irradiation-type etudiee.

Theank-type reactors are primarily being used for research on electronic equipment associatedeactor program.

The RPT graphite-moderated reactor Is the Soviet version of the materials test reactor and Is used primarily for inpile testing

of nev fuel element designs, coolants, and other major reactor cooponents.

(ej The BR series of fast reactors at Obninak is significant not only for the development of breeder-type reactors, but also for the development of compact reactors for future propulsion systems. Theeactor vas the first reactor tolutonium oxide fuel.

(f) The TRR merry-go-round type pulsed reactor at Dubna, with lta associated one-kilometer tine-of-flight spectrometer,ery impressive experimental instrument. Itulse8$ neutronsime Intervalicroseconds. At present the full length.of the spectrometer has not been used because of excessive scattering of the neutron beam.

The WR-Tsank-type special lied

negawatt, Intermediate fluxorentral water cavityhermal neutron flux ofeutrons/caz/sec Is obtained.

MWt organic cooled and moderatedreactor was recently constructed to provide data on thetransfer, and coolant characteristics.

Despite considerable research, the Soviets also have not undertaken to construct any homogeneoua reactors or liquid-metal-fueled reactors.

Soviet research reactors built or contracted for In other countries are carried under the section on International Cooperation.

Table 1

Soviet Test, Reaearch, and Teaching Reactors

General Irradiation

Special

Teaching (k)

TOTAL

2

7

9

1

3

Built

2 1

3

No Information la available as to the number of research reactors being planned.

Includes thend RET reactora.

Includes the fast-reactor experiments, (BE series), the ZBR pulsed reactor andeactor.

he WR-S, WR-Ta, anderiea of reactors. (U) IRT-type reactora.

1

B. Nuclear Electric Power Station

a the Soviets bad put into service "the fl>st atonictype electric power station in the world"We. Elated with this he Soviets planned to lead the world in atonic power generation. 6 lt was announced in the sixth Five-iear-Plan that five large power reactor Installations were to be built and go00 MWe.

success vith nuclear pover stations beginning with Calder

Ball In6 end American successes beginning with Shlpplngport7 began td deprive the Soviets of leadership in the field. In8 the Soviets put IntoWe generating plant utilizing heatlutonium production reactor at Tomsk in Central Siberia.

echnical difficulties, and the fact that the nuclearcost several times as much as thermal or hydroelectric powerthe Soviet attitude toward nuclear power. As of JanuarySoviet Union claimedWe of nuclear power generation inalthough the sixth Five-Year-Plan6 had called forMWe TheWe plant at Voronezh was reducedMWe capacity, and the0 MWe plant at Beloyarsk reduced to

MWe. Voronezh and Beloyarsk nuclear power plants are both behind

schedule and are due to start operation Technical difficulties nay further delay these installations, but It is quite probable that both reactors will go critical

Besides the installations at Voronezh and Beloyarsk, areactor similar to the Voronezh reactor had been planned for anear Leningrad, and an experimental program was to be carriedUl'yanovak. Bare it vas planned torototypeaat breeder,odium graphite reactor, all ofcapacity,0 MWe homogeneous thorium breeder. the Leningrad reactor Installation has been Indefinitelythere ia evidence that onlyHWe boiling water reactor bas been

built at Maldek in Ul'yanovsk Oblast. Apparently the fast breeder, sodium graphite, and homogeneous thorium experiments have been postponed.

tfe heavy water moderated, gas-cooled reactor, planned by the Soviet Unionas aesl gned to Czechoslovakia..for Joint development by both countries. This reactor is covered in the International Section of this appendix.

For the future, Soviet aclentiats have been considering the use of super-critical steam as the medium for carrying heat from reactor tohermal efficiency of ko percent could be realized by this use of super-critical steam as the coolant compared to the presentercent

RESTRICTED DATA

T

lISTHClfO DITA C

war ait it is-y

i. Ccnaideriu;

efficiency of tbe pressurized water syetea. ConsldeJ-lng the fact -that the Soviets have not yet built any large super-critical steam boilers for conventional fuels, it is not likelyoviet nuclear power station employing super-critical steam will be constructed within the decade.

Table 2

Soviet Nuclear Power Stations

Year

4

3

4

4

(MWe gross)

Central Station

2

Experimental Power

200

200

Military Power Plants and Experimental Reactors

Dual Purpose

We each. No Soviet claimWe. Six reactors previously planned.

m I

C. Nuclear Propulsion Systema for Naval and Marine Vessels

Surface Ships. The Soviet development of nuclear propulaion for naval and marine vessels began shortly after the successful operation of the "first" atomic power station in By6 plana had been completed and the keel laid for.the atomic Icebreaker "Lenin" . The "Lenin" was launched loegan lta dockslde triala lnnd completed its sea trials ia December of the same year. The "Lenin" propulsion plant consists of three pressurized water reactors (PVR) each rated0 KV*.. One of the reactors is kepttandbywhile the other two are used for ship operation,aximum ofabaft horsepower to the turboelectrlc drive system. The reactor fuelercent enriched uranium dioxide. Two of thehave' zirconium-niobium alloy as the clad material and the other stainless steel. The coolant loop ls designed to operate at highand.pressures, conditions which tend to accelerate theate within the eystea. Thla haa led to frequent repairs and equipment replacement.

During the sea trials and0 voyage, theonsiderable number of probieas, both with the nuclear andunits of the propulsion system. After extensive modifications

of .which were undoubtedly baaed on information obtained during the

Soviet visit to the "NSt vas placed on expeditionary-type

and used in October and1 to establish polar ice

stations.and position numerous autoastlc weather stations deep. In the Arctic Icepack. The Soviets hare considered utilization of atomic power for. constructionarge tanker, but latest Information indicates that such plans have been postponed or canceled.

Nuclear-Powered Submarines. Tbe Soviet nucleardeveloped concurrently with that of the "Lenin". The keel.ofnuclear submarine vas laid at Severodvinakaunchinginnd it vaa at aea in This submarineidentifiedorpedo attack-type" class). rue tion on the second" class) of nuclear submarines was begun

shortly after the "N" class, and first began lta sea trials In The "IT clase ls armed vlth three ballistic missiles estimated toange ofm and capable of being fired from thevhileurfaced condition. Tbe third claea of nuclearfrmed vlth six cruise elsBileaangem, is being constructed in the Far East at Komsomolak-on-Amur. It is believed the delivery of the first submarine of thla type vas made In All the classes of submarines are believed to be poveredtandardized reactor system builtersion of the "Lenin" reactor gad vhlch could deliver00 shaft horsepower depending on the modifications Incorporated.

Kl IF ISM

Improved Soviet nuclear submarines are believed under It ls expected that some of these will be capable of firing from

a submerged position ballistic missilesange perhaps aa'nJgh

Land Prototype. The crews of the "Lenin" and presumably those of the submarines have been trained at Obninsk nuclear power station. We mobile atomic power station basedressurized water system was probably the FUR prototype and is now being used for training purposes.

It is estimated that as2 the USSR has up touclear submarines, of which aboute*"cent nisslle firing, not all of which are operational. The USSR is expected to construct nuclearat the rate of

Chronological Development. The following are related dates in the Soviet naval nuclear propulsion prograa:

Design of nuclear submarine began

- Keel laid for the first nuclear" claae)

Icpile teats of PWR fuel element completed

- First nuclear submarine launched

VR prototype and training reactor operational

ea triala of first nuclear submarine

9ea trials of first nuclear ballistic-mlaslie" class)

- Sea triala of first cruise-missile submarineclass)

mproved nuclear ballistic-missile submarine expected

D. Nuclear Propulsion for Aircraft, Missiles, and Space

If the Soviet AMP program was Initiatedas supported continuouslyigh level, ead progressed with no major setbacks, the Soviets could possibly produce an aircraft nuclear power plant as early. This mightirst militarily-useful rtuclear-powered aircraft to become available However, the lack of evidence of the continued existence of the pro gran, the decreasingof Soviet statements on progress, and the apparent general level of reactor technology Indicates that the effort may have encountered serious obstacles.

nuclear Ramjets. To date there is no specific evidence whichthat the Sovietsuclear ramjet missile under development, although analysis of the Soviet literature and other information indicates an excellent conventional ramjet research program. If the Soviets haverogram, it la not expected that they will flightuclear ramjet engine

Nuclear Rockets. In0 the Soviet rocket. Sedov, stated that the Soviet Union badheoretical andresearch study on nuclear-propelled rockets ln progress but as yet did not have an existing engine. In August of the same year Sedov made the statement that the Soviets did not haveonic-powered rocket program and that they would wait until the Americans finished their atomic rocket motor. Then they would see if this problem could be solved without investing tremendous sums of money lnroject. There is no other information on tbe possible existence ofrogram.

Electrical Propulsion Space Systems. It appears that the major Soviet effort toward the development of electric propulsion systems is directed toward an ion propulsion system. Much' of the experimentation on ion propulsiony-product of CTR research, especially in the areas of loo sources, plasma-ion Interactions, and diagnostics. Currently available information Indicates that the USSR is aflnatuhnsj for in-flight Instrumentation to be completed ln2 for subsequent testing of an ion engine In 6pa.ce. As the range of measurement of the Iretruacats has been reported to0uclear reactor would be the most likely power source for the ion engine. Since ion-propulsion-type

-

hove been conducted by Soviet fast reactor scientists. It Is

likelyast reactor vill be the nuclear power source forkllovmtt ion engine. ystem could probably be flight testedarring major difficulties in the developing of the pover source

E. Nuclear Auxiliary (Ron-Propulsion) Power.

Based on Soviet capabilities in reactor technology, theradioisotopes, and thermoelectric materials development, vethey have the current capability, to develop nuclear heat.sources

producing in the order of aeveral hundreds of vatts, vhlch are auitable for use af auxiliary pover supplies in aero-space vehicles. Ue have no evidence that the Soviets have utilized nuclear auxiliary pover supplies In their space program. In addition to the ion-propulsion pover supply, there is good evidence from the literaturehermionic-type nuclear power supply ii being actively developed. Thla vill permit an increase ln the expected lifetime of the space pover system bythe moving parts normally associated vith turbo-electric pover supplies.

-

* .

Nuclear Materialb Production A. Oraniun Ore Production

Table 3

Ert'.nated Domestic Production and Foreign Procurement

Tear

3

otal Projected

TJrwtrftTBi Metal (Metric Tona?

Uranlurj Metal (Metric Tona)

Total Uranium Metal

Ton n

Tone

Tona

(Metric Tone)

am

Soviethare, through the ye are, obtained aboutercent of their uranlua froa the Satellitea, the largest contributor being East0 metric tons of recoverable uranlua Bulgaria, Rumania, Hungary, and Poland together supplied the USSR with0 metric too* There expected to continue to supply the Sovietslightly expanding rate during theeare.

It la estimated that? Soviet domestic recoverable uranium will beO metric tone. The Krivoy Bog district in the Ukraine la the leading uranium producer ln the USSR with an annual output of0 metric tone of recoverable uranium. The Fergana Valley ln Central Aala is the second largest producer, followed by the Frunze-Lake Iasyk-kul' district and the Pyatigorsk area in tbe northern Caucasus. Many other small widely scattered operations each produceetric tons of recoverable uranium annually. As the Soviets have no large sedimentary deposits similar to tbe Ambrosia Lake deposit ln Nev Mexico, this factor

- 12

The Soviets have used many ore concentration techniques eiollar to those used ln the US. Hovever, their recovery of uranium from coals and from Iron ore slagsative development. Tbe older Sovietplantsrecipitation process, while the plants builthe acre efficient, more economical reein-in-pulp Ion exchange technique. Hovever, the Soviets have, experienced difficulty inlarge quantities of hlgb-quallty resins and have been forced to rely on East German and Western sources to furnish an adequate supply. This isery satisfactory situation to the Soviets, and consequently they have becooe very interested in the solvent extraction process. ["

The Soviet Bloc has est lava ted reserves of atons of recoverable uranium. In addition, the USSR has over the years probably maintained uranium stockpiles of uranium concentrates or feed materials vhlch vould enable them to operate fissionable materials plantso It years In the eventailure of their ore supply.

B. .

> ia thes anda, Soviet scientists, vith the aid of German scientists, conducted research on tbe various methods for separating uranium isotopes. Production-scale facilities vere constructed utilizing electromagnetic, thermal, and gaseous diffusion processes. It la believed that the interest lo the ultra-centrifuge method has continued, but/ve do not knov that the Soviets are using this aethod onroduction scale. Tbe Soviets are using the gaseous diffusion method aa their primary process for production of

-

Table k

Estimated Soviet ProductioD of) (Cumulative, in Kilograms, rounded)

fMM

4

C. Plutonii

for Weapon Use

major plutonium equivalent production altcs have been Identified ln the USSR: the earlier and larger ls located near Kyahtym ln the Urals, and the second la co-located vlthroduction complex north of Tooak ln central Siberia. The large atomic energy site northeast ofprobably Includes underground facilities for plutonium production. It la also possible that plutonium production facilitiea may exist at the Angarsk atomic energy site.

Construction at Kyahtym started shortly after World War H,mall graphite-moderated, vater-cooled production reactor vent Intoabout siid-igUS. Additional reactors vere built over the next several years, although the type and alze of these reactors la not definitively knovn. They undoubtedly include several large graphite-moderated, vater-cooled reactora, and probably Include at least one heavy-vater-moderated reactor. It la believed that tha productive capacity of the site has Increasedore froa the increase in pover levels of existing

Table 5

Estirated Soviet Plutcniua Equivalent Product] (Cumulative, in Kilograma, Rounded)

D. Other Huclearithium.

elieved that the USSR has Gufflciect amouata of both natural

and enriched lithium to meet their weapons requirements.

Tritium.

Heavy Water. Heavy water production in the USSR is believed to have startedather moderate scale. By the end9 at least five planta were in productionate of approximately h$ metric tons per year. Since that time at least four more plants have been constructed and current production is estimated to beetric tons per year. This amount is believed to be ample for the reactor and weapons needs of the Soviet nuclear program.

-

IV. Nuclear Weapons Program

A. Kuclear Weapons Research and Developcent 51

Soviet nuclear veapon program has been supportedumber of Institutes and laboratories In the OSSR, probably Including the Institute of Atomic Energy of the Academy of Science, Moscov; the fast reactor Installation at Obninsk vhere basic nuclear and metallurgical research Is conducted; and the Institute of Chemical PhysicB, Moscov, vhlch is concerned vith the theory, design, and application of high explosives. Of all these institutes the last probably has the most Important auxiliary role in Soviet nuclear veapon development.

installation near

TTafsc

in tbe Urals indicates that lt also Is concerned vith nuclear veapon research and development. We estimate that the Kasli installation became operational during the latter half9 and that itajor addition to the Soviet nuclear veapon developcent potential.

Weapon Test Sites

The original Soviet proving ground is locatediles veet of the city of Semipalatinek in Central Asia. At leasttests have been conducted here9 vith yields ranging from

Hovever, since the fallhe Soviets have tiestecSea Ipalst loss fission devices vith yields no larger thej

-

LT

am

The Novaya Zenlyo island area in the Barents Sea/ has teen used for testing high yield thermonuclear devices as well as for conducting naval effects tests. In all,! Ttests have been detected here with yields ranging from several8 MT.

The majority of the high yield tests detonationa tookewinland from Mya Sukhoy Hoe on tbe vest coast of the island; teats were held near tbe southern coast; and on severalhave occurred over the east coast of the island north of

fabrication Sites

A major nuclear weapon fabrication complex has been identifieda somewhat .mailer

03e egrtMrB Ural*. robable third

Biteentral nicer!*

National atoc kpile aites are co-located vith toe*hich cone under the jurisdiction of the Ministry of Medium Machine Building.

Facilities

national. Ia addition to th* three national stockpil*with fabrication faculties, national asseobly and

I iiiee* uwi prooaoiy--contain reserve"

- aaa wyeratlocal storage sites. It Is bel'e

ownsi sites, it Is believed

that theyeapon aodlfication and retrofit capability but do notaaic fabrication function. They are also under the Jurisdiction of the Ministry of Medium Machine Building.

Military. Nuclear weapon storage sitesJutilizlng threedeelgns'have been Identified at Soviet military air bases. These are all believed to come under the Jurisdiction cf th* Ministry of Defense Each type has been associated with air bases of various subordination and their construction apparently has been coordinated with different' stage* of Soviet nuclear weapon development and strike capability J

-J

In thehe USSR constructed three'Typesites at long-range air bases along its western perlpEery andaviation base in the Crimea. Designed in th* era offission weapons, they were only moderately protectedand were located adjacent to airfield runvays. Pita were usedstrike-loading of bombers at these sites, flbc presence ofuclear loading pit at Minsk/Machuliabcb* in Julysuggests that some weapons for tactical use were also storedsites in that

In theleven known'Type II {Orsha) sites were constructed, all but one in the western USSR. ^The Type II'design marked the introduction of site hardening and the beginningapid"-expansion of storage capacity at Soviet air bases. Their constructloQ coincided with the acquisition of Jet bombers, and they primarily serve strategic requirements for nuclear weapons. All but two of the a* s'tes were fully operational by two of them are at naval aviation bases, and most of the remainder are at long-range aviation bases.

9 an additional storage bunker of somewhat

modified design vas built at nany of thend Type II sites.

Sinceat least nine and probably nore sitesolon) type have been constructed near airfields. The cruciform design is hardened and reflects somewhat simplifiedrequirements and presumably bas resulted iTa reduction of response times

1 P"ystem at airfields witt cruciform sites la also consistent vlth reduced response times. Known

* long-range avlaScT and at least three subordinate to tactical aviation located near the western perimeter. However, the cruciform sitesumber of are difficult to Justify solely in terms of the re^ements^ associated Soviet air force orden of battle. Thus it seems likely that sererai cf these airfield sites provide nuclear weapon support to other de*ivery means in their vicinity. Those located near the western border may provide support to Soviet forces deployed in the Satellitea.

.. . . tovixs theeriod, known cruciform storagehave been under construction at seven military regional storage depots. Although the precise function of the atorage depots themselves been determined, their deployment pattern suggests nuclear storage related to military districts, possibly including support of ground, rocket, and air defense forces located within these districts:

Tvo nuclear weapon storage facilities are located in the

ation staging airfields in the Arctic,

pa the Kola Peninsula, and the other near

the Chukotsk Peninsula. These sites are core

tnaa the airfield operational storage sites, but less elaborate than the national sites. It is believed that no additional storage sSea have beep constructed near Arctic staging bases.

E" Allocation of Fission Materials to Soviet Nuclei Weaoons Stock-

I Soviet test series included tests ofweapons as veil as devices vhlch could enter the stockpile in the near future. Other intelligence, together with the estimates on of fissionable material, permit the setting of some guidelines and boundaries for the alternatives open to Soviet planners in the current period.

future projections, the evidence is much weaker. While the

est series yielded much useful information on the status of Soviet nuclear technology and trends in weapons development, it could not, of course, indicate the numbers and types of veapons to be stockpiled. projections of Soviet delivery systems available In future years are less reliable than current estimates. Finally, estimates of futureslonable materials stocks are necessarily eubject to wider margins of error than are those for the current period.

ED Dm

airs asrarotfjtt

c wots54

-

Table III Inives tvo possible alternative allocations of flaalorable materials to Soviet nuclear veapons stockpiles

Aa provided ln the table, .there are tvo alternative estimates for the allocation of fissionable aaterlal to nuclear veapons. Froabaaed oo evidence, lt is believed that the USSR has given the largest allocation of fissionable aaterlal to its long-range striding forces. Thus, both cf tbe alternative allocations assumed forre heavily velghted on the side of the Soviet long-range striking forces. Major differences betveen theseermed Alternatives "A" andie in the numbers of veapons allocated to Long Range Aviation and to support of Theater Field Forces. Allocation to Strategic Mlasile Forces, Air Defense, and Ravel Operations are held relatively constant in both cases.

The assumed alternative allocations of aaterlala to veapons stockpiles are computed on the baala ofnd plutonium equivalent estimated to be available for veapons purposes. Within these limits it oust be recogniieduaber of other alternative allocationsvith the available evidence can be made. These vould result lnof veapons and total yields different from'those presented.

afrplanatory Details of'Table HI, Annex A

Range Attack Forces. Tbe Long Range Attack Forcesof Long Range Aviation and the Rocket Forces. The currentto Long Range Aviation are based on the estimated totalof long range hooters, less those estimated to be serviceable andtankers, and provision has been made for re strike by surviving aircraft.

The Rocket Forces Include the ICBM, IRBM, and MRBMand ballistic missile submarine a, less the MRBM's estimated to be allocated to theater operations.

Field Forces. Theater Field Forces includeAviation, short range guided missiles, free rockets, andcurrent estimate depends on aircraft availability estimates,alssiles on launcher, and assumptions as to allocations of nuclearto free rockets and artillery.

3- Air Defense, the anoestlons to *ir Defense depend onsates and assumptions of tba deployment of nuclear Varbaada to surface-to-air alaaila altaa. Currently, tbere la llttls evidence of deployment of nuclaar varbaada to thsee altaa, and future projections aaauaa that extensive deployaaat la mil Italy due to the lack of evidence ofncrease la plntonlum production.

Naval Operations, laval cperatlou Include air-to-surface alaallta, abort range cruise nlssllea for use by destroyers and submarines and tba aaauaed use of bombs,nd mines vlth nuclaar varbeada. Tha number of veapons currently allocated depends on animates of naval medium boater strength eculppad to handle the air to surface missile, tbs estimated number of deetanyera and submarines equipped to launch cruise ml sails s, and assumptions on the use of other veapons.

'Discussion

usages and allocations assumed forearly all of tha fissionable aatartals stocks estimated for this year. Production of large quantities of all-oralloy or high yield veapons sight consume an. bat no requirement ls seen for such large scale programs in these categories. Future deployment of antimissile systems vill require large numbers of rsadear veapons, and many more such veapons couldbe allocated to air defense systems than has bean assumed. lovaver, there ls no evidence of all-oral! py veapons suitable, for such uses. In viev of the present state of Soviet veapons technology, veapons suitable for anti-missile and air defense use vould Inccorporete plutonium equivalent. Allocations for aa extensive deployment of such veapons. In addition to the other allocation! already assumed, vould require plutonium capacity over that presently estimated.

It has been estimated that nev veapons baaedesigns tested in1 series could begin to enter the stockpile in significant numbersear or snr* after testing. ider variety of vespons, including improved, sore economical types, will be available to Soviet planners ln selecting vespons for delivery systems.

T. Trends la Soviet Weapon Development

Later that aonth the Soviets also demoustrated theirwo-stage thermonuclear design. From this point in time the Soviet-

- S3 -

The first Soviet nuclear teat, conducted Inas ln all probability, closely related to the first US fission

SECRET

i

is quite apparent that thean achieved aextensive fission veapon stockpile. They have tested different unboosted cores in the sane over-all geoaetryesire to achieve different

I

fromp

-

V. Peaceful Uses Program Other Than Pover Production A. Baalc Philosophy

Promntilhe Soviet Union probably derived more propaganda value than real value from lta peaceful uses program. Excepting the nuclear pover program,oken effort seems to have been made to introduce atomic energy Into Soviet Industry,arge amount of material hae been published on the Industrial benefits of atomic ena-jry Sinceigher priority vas given to the peaceful uses pro-ram, there has been as. effort to expand the field of nuclear research and technology and to hasten the development of the practical industrial applications vhich should be derived from the results of the research.

Originally the Soviets used their aid and exchange program to improve and tighten their relationship vith Bloc nations vfaile maintaining adegree of control over, the atomic energy activities In these This concept has been extended under the direction of the Standing Committee for Peaceful Uses of Atomic Energy created by the Council for Mutual Economic Aid (CEMA) vbose long range plan Is toingle integrated atonic energy program by dividing the various tasks In Atomic Energy among the sai^Hite nations. This type of inter-countryvill probably delay, if not prevent, the development of an independent nuclear capability, anduclear military capability, by any of the participating countries.

The Soviets shov no haate in fulfilling their commitments underagreements vith other countries and appear to offer aid only vhen tangible political returns can be expected. Soviet participation in the exchange program and ln international conferences vith the Pree World appears to be slanted tovard propaganda purposes and collection ofinformation on Western atomic energy developments.

B. Research in High-Energy Physics

The USSR after Worldnitiated aa intensive research program in high-energy physics funded and controlled by their atomic energy During the past eight years It has made highly significantin this field, especially in Its theoretical aspects. Hovever, the experimental vork in this field is considerably inferior to that In the West, due primarily to the poorly-eaglreered design of existing machines.

The Soviet theorists have done some pioneering vork in the areas of veek interactions, meso-molecular processes, dispersion theory, andradiation and are moving Into the study of dispersion, theory of strong Interactions and becoming more proficient in the theory of

tary particles. Lesseing paid to the areas of is variance and selection rules. The veaknesa in the experimental high-energyran in the USSR, however, places Sovietisadvantage and often coapela them to depend on second-hand data obtained from the West after publication.

Experimental research onflev proton synchrotron at Dubna,proton accelerator operating above one Bev in tho Soviet Union,severely limitedeam current fifty times lower than thatWeatern machinea. ev strong-focusing protonvent into operationl is also plagued by lov beamand haa yet to produce any vorth-vhilo experimental data. ev synchrocyclotron, which haa no such handicap, theresearch, vhlch previously vaa quite high, has degenerated duringtvo years, due primarily to the unimaginative cess of thecurrently assigned to this machine. The eituation withelectron accelerators apparently coaparea favorably vlth similarthe West. Por unknown reasons, the Soviet prograa in thla areato be highly classified. The Soviets have ia operationelectron synchrotrons,,ev energy,fourth machineev under construction innthese. It la believed that three linear electron acceleratorsbeen completedite north of Khar'kov, but theof these linear accelerators are not known becauseof Soviet

measures.

v

_. Controlled Thermonuclear Reactions 'Research

6 prominent leaders In the Soviet government and in the Academy of Sciences have repeatedly stated that the achievementuseful power fron controlled thermonuclear reactionsask of the highest priority for Soviet science.

Research on controlled thermonuclear reactiona (CTR)n the USSR and since then haa been pursued on ascale. At present, there arecientists

snd engineers engaged in this program. The general level of competence of the scientists involved is very high, and the number of outstanding' senior physicists ln the prograa exceeds that in the West.

The Soviet CTR prograa is supported by an extensive, high-quality research effort ln plasma physics,trong area of research in the Soviet Union and vhlch haa attracted the best scientific talent and technical resources available in the USSR.

si

bp.

for differences In emphasis, the Soviets have attackedof CTR along the same lines aa the CS. In past yearsIn toroidal and fast magnetic coapression devices hasvhereas Cusp magnetic field geometry and the use ofelectromagnetic fields for heating and confining plasma have

been extensively developed. In addition to these general methodsthey have concentrated on developing high-current ion sources,

studying the interaction of charged particle beams andvith plasma, and investigating collision ionizationplasma diagnostic methods have leaned heavily on microwavespectroscopy, whereas In the Vest tho tendency has been toplasma probes and photography. Vitb the exception of anon fast magnetic compression experiments, the Soviets will prob-

continue to direct their research effort along these same lines.

In general, the Soviets have recently reoriented theirfusion program away from their earlier large-scale, brute-forceand are concentrating on research directed towards exploringproperties of high-temperature plasmas. The currentis not likely to result in the attainmentommerciallyreactor within the next ten years. Hovever, theknowledge acquired in the Interim from this research has been and

will continue to be of extreme value to other vital areas of Soviet

Program

The"Soviet Onion is not known torogram for investigating the peaceful uses of nuclear explosions per so, although the feasibility and practicality of using nuclear charges ln place of massive amounts of conventional explosives have been discussed in Soviet literature. On the other hand, the Soviets have used kiloton amounts of high explosives (BE) for industrial projects since thes and have developed sophisticated and reliable directed explosion techniques. In thes, Soviet scientists and explosives expertseries of experiments using HE in yields upT to study crate ring. Nearly all this massive explosives work has provided the OSSR with data applicablelA^'SHARE-llke program. According to OS experts, itlear that in the sphere of massive HE explosions the So via be, have done much more workuch larger scale than the US.

Cooperation

5 the USSR began its program for international cooperation ln nuclear energy by establishing the Joint Institute for Nuclear Research (JXNR) at Dubna, near Moscow. All of the Satellite countries and China are members and contribute to its support. At the same tine, bilateral

2S

op;

agreements vere concluded vith most of the satellites and subsequently concluded or axe being negotiated vithther countries. The amount of eld and type of assistance differ vith each country. Support provided by the Soviets under the bilaterals have included research reactors, elec-tric pover reactors, accelerators, nuclear physics and radic^heaistry lab oratories, assistance In prospecting for uranium, and training ofpersonnel.

Although the OSSRember of the IAEA, it has provided very litt: assistance to either the IAEA or to other countries through the IAEA, but prefers to provide assistance to other countries through Independent or bilateral programs.

hovs the status sad type of aid the OSSR is supplying to other countries.

Table 6

I.

Atoaic Energy Aid to Other Countries Research Reactors

Afghanistan

Bulgaria

Chiii'i

REACTOR TIPS (KW)

unknovn

2 KW)

W)

Proposed

urJczovn

Atomic Scientific Critical, Experimental Base, Sept.m SE of Sofia

Critical, Oct. 58

Institute of Atomic Energy,iles SW of Peiping

2 KW)

of Nuc- Critical, leer Research, Sept.0f Prague

W)

Energy Establishment, Inshass,iles HE of Cairo

July 61

Germany 2 HW)

Institute Critical, for Nuclear Research, Dec.osseadorf,f Dresden

Research ReactorsTYPS (MW)

Hungary

W)

2 MW)

Indonesia

Subcrltlcal Assembly (zero pover)

Iraq.

W)

LRTV)

North

)

Rumania

Subcrltlcal Assembly (zero pover)

3 Mtf)

W)

STATUS

Contract alittoperat

ar. 59

LOCATION L

Possibly Kuaasl College ofKunasi

In operation Nov. 61

Ceotral Physics Research Institute, Czillebercuburb of

University ofSerpong, suburb of Djakarta

Gaejah MadeDJogjakarta

Tacmuz ReactorS suburb of Baghdad

Contract sig: Ex pected opera:5

Kin II-SungPyongyang

Under coostn tion, expectc operation.

Under constru tion.

Institute of Nuclear Critical, Hay Research, Svierk, 0 miles SE of Uarsav

Institute of Nuclear Under

iles SE of Varsav

Institute for Nuclear Critical, Physics, Magurele, 6 miles SW of Bucharest

Boris Kidric Institute Nuclear59

f Belgrade

30

TYPE (MU)

CzechoslovakiaE

East Germany Z

III. Cyclotrons

(MEV)

EV)

Rumania

* MET)

ev)

German Democratic

EV)

EV)

Czechoslovakia EV)

MEV

Equipped

Egypt

5uclear Physics Laboratory

J Bohunlee Neuglobsou

LOCATION

Institute of Atomic Energy, Peiping

Institute of Atomic Energy, Peiping

Institute for Nuclear

Physics, Magurele,

iles SW of Bucharest

Central.Institute for Nuclear Research, Rossendorf,f Dresden

Institute of Nuclear Physics, Krakow

Institute of Nuclear Research,ilesf Prague

LOCATION

Atomic EnergyInshass,iles NE of Cairo

Atomic EnergyInshass,iles NE of Cairo

k3

STATUS

8

8

9

8

1 -Ml* ,

COCTTSY Egypt (cont.)

Iraq

Indonesia

LA5CRAT0HY

Radlc-chez'-stry laboratory

Rod iochem1stry Laboratory

RadIochem1atry Laboratory

Radioc bamistry Laboratory

for Nuclear 9

Physics, Magurele,

To be Installed

6 nlles SV of Bucharest

Tamouz ReactorS suburb of Baghdad

University of Indonesia, To be Serpong, Suburb of Installed Djakarta

iocheaistry Laboratory

Kuaaei College To be of Technology, Kumesl installed

Medical snd Biological Resesrch -

Prior6 Soviet eedical and biological scientists aade little use of the major tools and resources available froa the atonic energy effort. The tvo International Confereocea on Peaceful Uses of Atomic Energy sparked najor Soviet efforts along these lines and the present volume of projects ln the USSR is large. Thus the Soviets are using isotopes or radiation for medical diagnosis and therapy, sterilization of foods and medicinal products, tracers In biological and chemicalto provide clues about metabolism, sources of radiation for plantH studies, studies on effects of fallout, studies on voste dia-poaal and problems of biological shielding, and other purposes.

Notl vas any important Soviet biological vork noted at atomic energy controlled institutes, but the trend is evident. We nov expect to see emphasis on cooperation between physical scientists and -biomedical investigators, vlth increasing biological use of theat atomic energy Institutes. So far Soviet biomedical research has produced no notable contribution to uses of atonic energy. They have, bovever, pursued many ideas suggested elsewhere. One example of this is the extensive development of potato irradiation to prevent sprouting axd spoilage. This prograa ls currently producing multi-ton lots of potatoe for storage and later use.

Soviet radiobiologists believe that very lov doaea of radiation are more harmful, especially to the central nervous system, than their Western

32

jui* ant

*ii u

-

Original document.

Comment about this article or add new information about this topic:

CAPTCHA