FOR: THE RECORD
Continuation of MKUL.TRA,
The purpose of MKULTRA,s to enable TSD/BB to utilize the service" olfHBHIJtop^pilJp^Biology at
During the first year of theas made significant contributions to the all too scanty knowledge of the mechanisms
of mineral transformations.echnical discussion of these accomplishments is attached hereto, with an outline of proposed work for the coming yeax. It ib possible that these investigations may well lead to new approaches for energy transfer systems (bio-batteries) and deterioration of metals.
and cutout during the first year of this project. This service will_-. be furnished by thecoat of -
"program for the second year will.o which must be added
0 which% service charge to be retained by the cutoutjj^ The total cost of the program, therefore, will not Charges should be made against Allotment No.
4. It is not anticipated that permanent equipment other than that listed in the budget will be required for this program. Title to tho
equipment listed will be retained by the^rittitute in lieu of higher overhead rates.
and accounting for travel expensesreimbursable by
the accepted practice of that organisation.
has beennd ib unwitting
and will remain unwitting of the true nature of the
APPROVED FOR OBLIGATION OF FUNDS:
Project Summary and Proposal
your consideration of our proposaL will be appre elated and we look forward to hearing from you.
from sphalerite, and Arthrobacter. isolated fromgalena, pyrrhotite, realgar, and sphalerite may constitute partormal flora. The action of any of these organisms with respect to the mineral with which they were found associated remains to be established.
fter aurface-aterillzatlon, som of the above mineral sulfides, when enriched ln mineral solution, have yielded iron-oxidizingrophs. These minerals include arsenopyrlte, pyrlte, pyrrhotite, chal-copyrlte, enargite, galena, marcasite, and sphalerite. At least some of the isolated bacterial strains are not restrictediet of Iron for energy, but can use sulfur or, probably, some other oxldlzable metals.
The ability to grow on any of the above sulfide minerals was tested by Inoculating surface-sterile samples in oxidizing columns with Ferro-bacillus ferrooxldans. and attempting to recover the organism from effluent feeding solution over a period of two months or more. So far, positive results, have been obtained with arsenopyrlte, enargite, chalcopyrlte, marcaslte, galena, pyrlte, pyrrhotite, and sphalerite. Negative results have been obtained with aiabandlte, bornite, cobaltlte, covelllte, chalco-clte, and one sample of galena. Cinnabar, orplinent, and realgar are being currently Investigated.
- In addition to the foregoing qualitative work, quantitative studies on the rates of oxidation of synthetic CujS and natural arsenopyrlte are presently being undertaken. Prom chase studies Lt has become clear that
synthetican be oxidized at leasts fast by bacteria than by autoxldation, and that arsenopyrlte can be more rapidly oxidized by bacteria than by autoxldation. Results with the latter material are not yet sufficient to establish an exact rate comparison. The precise mech-
WMMI FIR RELEASE
anlem of bacterial oxidation remains to be established. The work with syntheticroves, what some other workers seem to doubt, that F. ferrooxldiina can oxldlzi- aetalahan Iron, b. Manganese Modules
Oceanographers have felt pretty strongly In the past that the origin and development of manganese nodules ln the oceans is attributable to purely pbysicochemical processes. However,*
in finding organic nitrogen in nodules, concluded that biological agents vere Involved In nodule genesis. At his suggestion, the principal Investigator attempted to find out if bacteria mightole In this. He found that bacteria vera Indeed present in tbe nodular substance after surface-sterilization ough estimate at presenter gram). They Included Achromobactgr, Arthrobactcr. Bacillus. Brevibacterlum. Staphylococcus, Vibrio. an unidentified rod, and an unidentified' coccus. The principal Investigator showed in quantitative experiments that nodular substance can adsorb manganous Ion from sea water, and that this adsorption is accelerated by bacteria that grow from the nodular material. The acceleration of manganous ion adsorption ison the basis that the bacteria oxidize the adsorbed manganese, which facilitates further adsorption of manganous manganese. The acceleration requires the presence of peptone, to permit bacterial development. If peptone and glucose are present, manganese is released from the nodular substance rather than adsorbed, at leastet effect. Since some nodules were apparently initiated around shark's teeth, ear bones of whales, pumice,n the sea, attempts were made to see if oyster shells can
adsorb manganous manganese and thus serve as possible foci of nodules.
was found that they do adsorb It and that peptone did not stlswlate this adsorption (no bacteria were As farurvey of the lterature has gone, these observations with respect to eanganese nodules have not been reported before.
The early literature dealing with microbial action on minerals his been covered by. eview by Lyalikova summarizes much of the past Important work on Thlobaclllus ferrooxldans and Ferrobaelllus. An Intimate association of iron-oxidizing autotrophs with natural mineral sulfides has been Indicated by the work of'
by that of. Differences of opinion exist betwtan Bryner and, Malouf and, and Ivanov, Narglrvyak,
echanism of mineral sulfide oxidation of chalcopyrlte, molybdenite, chalcocite, and sphalerite, for Instance. Hostudies on bacteria In manganese nodules has been reported. However, bacterial manganeseand reduction by soil bacteria has been known for some time. An important quantitative study on large-scale bacterial manganese metabolism li that of Mann and. Descriptions of manganese nodules are given
by) and hemical and physical study of nodules
was made by Buser and The finding of organic nitrogen ln nodules was first reported by) and Graham and Cooperho alsoiological origin of the nodules on this basis.
rV'RIWI FIRItUAsI UTLMI7II?
NTRODUCTION TO SOIL MICROBIOLOGY, John Wiley
Bryner, L. C, and R. Anderson, Ind. Eng.
Sazzel'l, W. Annual Western Meeting, Vancouver,0
nd J. H. Quastel,
OYAGE. CHALXZNGER. DEEP SEA DEPOSITS.
Her Majesty's Stationary
. Calif. Mines and
Buser, W. and A. Cruetter, Schwelz. mlneralog. petrogr.
J. W. and Susan Cooper,ublications by Principal
Contlnuatlcm of present lines of investigation:
1* Continuation of survey of natural sulfide mineralsormal flora, with particular emphasis on large-scale microbial action on minerals.
2. Characterization of Isolates (physiological and
Examination of Isolates for specific mineralizing activities.
lucidation of biochemical mechanisms of mineral trans-
Qualitative and quantitative bacteriologicalf manganese nodules from different oceans.
Study of the biochemical mechanism of manganousndeduction in the various bacteria isolated.
etermination of the mechanism of Iron-incorporation Into manganese nodules.
The methods to be used ln these studies will be adaptations of standard procedures of bacteriology, physiology, and biochemistry.
Undergraduate student: (HSP undergraduate research fellow)
Principaline-academicime-summer months Technician-full time
PERMANENT EQUIPMENT Fluorimeter
CONSUMABLE SUPPLIES Chemicals Glassware
To scientific meetings
OTHER EXPENSES Publication Telephone
f Total Direct Cost
Total CostOriginal document.