Created: 7/1/1962

OCR scan of the original document, errors are possible


Economic Intelligence Report



CENTRAL INTELLIGENCE AGENCY Office of Resenrch and Reports


Economic Intelligence Report




ThisInlormatton aftccOng the<>iwithin Uifti<npiOatBx laws. TiUe ia.^ tm. th* irans-

CENTRAL INTELLIGENCE AGENCY Office of Research and Reports


This report consistsummary of Soviet plans for technical changes in various branches of the economy, with the principalof agriculture and retail trade. The plans discussed are those now operative during the period of the Seven fear. Data on the Soviet industrial labor force and the productivity of various sectors of the economy are basedide variety of Soviet statistics of varying degrees of reliability or comparability and, although they are useful indications of the general orders ofthey must be regarded as tentative. It should further be stressed that this report is concerned only with Soviet goals and therefore should not be considered as an estimate of expected achievements.

Data in this report are, for the most part, from Sovietof goals for the Seven Year Plan or from articles in Soviet technical trade journals- No material used in the preparation of this report is classified higher than SECRET. Complete lists of sourceand methodologies are available in the files of this Office.



Summary and Conclusions

I. Metal Working and Machine Building

Programs for Technical

Planned Gains tn Labor Productivity

H. Wood and Allied Products


Programs for Technical Advances

3- Planned Oaina ln Labor

III. Construction Materials Industry

Programs for Technical

Planned Gains in Labor

IV. Light

Programs for Technical

Planned GulnB In Labor Productivity

V. Food-Proeesolng

Programs for Technical

Planned Galna In Labor

VI. Chemical

Programs for Technical

Planned Gains In Labor

VII. Ferroua Metallurgical


Co lV

Programs for Technical

Planned Gains in labor

VIII. Honferrous Metallurgical Industry

Programs for Technical

Planned Gains in Labor Productivity

IX. Coal Industry

Programs for Technical

3- Planned Gains in Labor

X. Production of Electric

Programs for Technical

Planned Gains in Labor

XI. Petroleum

Programs for Technical Advances

Planned Gains in Labor


Programs for Technical

Planned Gains in Labor Productivity

XIII. Railroad

Programs for Technical Advunces

Planned Gains in Labor


Programs for Technical

Planned Gains in Labor

- vi -

XV. Handling of

Programs for Technical

Planned Gains ln Labor

XVI. Equipment for Administrative Control


Definitions of Terms Relating to Automation and


Relating to Productivity in the Soviet Seven Year

, by Major Sector of the Economy

Output of Automated Equipment in the Machine Build-


Mechanization of Construction Work, by Selected


k. USSR; Changes in the Park of Construction Equipment, by

Selected Types of85

5. USSR; Gosplan Data on Requirements and Supply offor Administrative Reeds andnd January

- vil -


Summary and Conclusions

Under the Soviet Seven Year Flanndustrial production is to increaseorcent, whereas industrial employment is to increase no more than aboutercent. Achievement of these goals willajor increase in Labor productivity.

At present the level of labor productivity In moat branches of Soviet industry ia far belov tbat of the US. Soviet planners expect, however, to achieve rapid Improvement in this field andevel of Labor productivity comparable to that of the US by (l) supplying more and better machinery by meansarge capital investmentmproving the organization of production (including increased specialization of production facilities and more use of mass-productionmproving the training and utilization of labor, and (U) using more advanced forms of technology (including automation).

During the period of the Seven Year Plan, automation, as It ls understood in the Vest, will notajor role In Soviet induatryignificant applications will be made in the electric power, oil and gas, and metallurgical Industries. In Soviet Industry generally, emphasis will be on the lnotallatlon of integrated production flow lines, theof labor-intensive operations such as the transport and handling of materials within plants, the use of improved data-processing and production control, and the replacement of obsolete plants and equipment with modern and more productive counterparts.

Potential gains from the introduction of relativelyof labor-intensive tasks arc substantial. or example,illion workers were employed in the transport and handling of materials within plants. Althoughercent of the materials were moved with the use of mechanical handling equipment, at least half of the workers did aamount of manual Labor. The Seven Year Plan calls for an increase ir. labor productivity ofoercent and an estimated increasen the volume of material moved, with an implied labor saving5 ofcm workers.

ummary of factors relating to productivity ln tha Soviet Sever. Year Plan for the major sectors of the economy, see*

* The estlmatca und conclualonshis report repreaent the bestof this Office aa* ollowu on p. S.

Table 1

Factors Relating to Productivity in the Soviet Seven Yeary Major Sector of the Eeonooy a/

Cipittl Xnvostran (BOlloa aey ruPles?

Stat* industry


W e/





7B1 1/

vortlne aod wlir. fralldlos "Ml kill (Iliad produsta

COEBtniitlCO MtTlllI


Tafi prosaaalog




Ferrer* Dotallwo Koniarrous natdilursy Coal

Elootrlc povor a/ Oth.r

Ofior aotlvllla.

Ccna'.nicUon Railroad trniwpcrt Comsilcotlons

FioWlngatal!nd aatm carrtvr traeipwt olhir than

Ualai- olfcarvlaa InilcaUd, Mclodlng oppr-BUeaa, anglnaara, nod taoBalolana. Ualghtadf tea tbiw aaclora of vocd oaf allied pre Junta lsluetry. Baaed sn tha lnciaaaa Is prod'xLlvlty ln Uaactor. Eatlaatad.

ln production of iron and itoal predMCta.

uii UeBnlsll

Val(atad av.rag. of taa ContralliM aleotrlo pc*erroduction and rofining cely.

Believednclude apprentices, Operating eqilQyeea cely. BascS so antlcipatad roie'iue.




Ufcor Prodjc-.lvlto


o 37

JO to (-

I. Metal Working and Machine Building Industry

Introduc tton

The Soviet machine building induatry produces the machinery, equipment, precision instruments, weapons, metal goods, consumergoods, and transportation equipment needed by the economy. 8 the induatryillion wage workers, orercent of the total industrial labor force.* Approximately one-half of the workers in this industry perform manual production operations or do workow degree of mechanizationas is especially true of assembly work, painting, and auxiliary operations such as internal plant transport.

According to the original plansroduction of this industry is to increaseercent above that8 andercent. Capital investment vas originally planned to8 billion, orercent of totalin industry. According to newly revised plans, production is toevelercent above thatnd laboris to increase by ol percent. Revised capital Investment plans have not been announced, but investmentxceeded the plan. Soviet planners expect that abouto hO percent of the increase in labor productivity will result from the introduction of more equipment and improved technology. They also place heavyon Improved organization of the industry and improvedof lubor.

Immediate Soviet plans for technical advances ln machineemphasize the following lines of attack: (a) more extensive use of automatic equipment and transfern those parts of thethat are concerned with mass production;ystematic effort to increase the share of the total output that is mass-produced (aboutc) mechanization of labor-intensive operationsin assembly work, small-scale production, and auxiliaryand (d) applications of new technologies to reduce machining time and metal inputs. According to plans,f automation

" Excluding apprentices, engineers, and technicians. ** Ruble values throughout this report are in constant new rubles (based on tlie Soviet currency reform. [few rubles may beto US dollars at the approximate rate of exchange for investment goodsuble to This rate does not necessarily reflect the value of the ruble in terms of the dollar.

or brief definitions of Soviet terminology relating to automation and mechanization, see the Appendix.

will be strongly concentrated inlants specially designated to utilize and display applications of tbe latest achievements inmechanization and automated operations. Thooe applications will assume greatest Importance in tbe four industries that are planned to have aboutercent of the park of automated ae tal working transfer linesbe Industries producing motor vehicles, bearings, tractors, and agricultural machinery.

2. Programs for Technical Advances

a. Introduction of Automatic Equipment

For the parte of the industry that have large production runs, it is the Soviet Intention to use more processing equipmentsignificant elements of automation, Buch as the automatic feeding of work pieces and the automatic control of process variables. In addition to the automation of individual pieces of equipment,advantages in productivity are planned to accrue from Unking lines of automatic machinery with transfer equipment, bunkering, and adding devices for the synchronization of operations and for thecontrol of line operation. In Soviet terminology, such lines of automatic machinery nay be "automatic" or "semiautomatic" according to the degree of worker intervention required in the production For the parts of the Industry with smaller production runs. It is planned to produceachine tools with programed control.

Production of automatic equipment planned5 ia most significant for the following categories of equipment, as shown in forge-presa, welding, heat-treating, and galvanizing. Even in these categories, more than one-half of the equipment will bc nonautomatic, and more than three-fourths of production of metalcutting machine tools also will be nonautomatic. Successful reorganization of the industry may permit longer production runs in more of the machine building Industry and thusarger proportion of automatic equipment at acne future time. In some types of operation, such as assembly, engineering problems remain to be solved before moreuse can be made of autoasatlon.

Soviet plans stress the desirability of using automatic transfer lines of metalcutting tools. Some existing ir tal cutting equipnent may bc utilized for automatic and semiautomatic transfer lines, although not all existing equipment would be adaptable. t is plannedines will be formed by adapting existing equipment andines will be manufactured for use in machine building enterprises. Although these plans are ambitious when compared with8 park of fewerutomatic and

* ollows on p. "y.

- h. -

Table 2

USSB: Output of Automated Equipment in tbe Machine Building Induatry

5 Plan

Automated Unitserment of Total Units Produced




5 ID

2 :.

. Type of Equipment

Foundry Forge-prose Welding Heat treating Metalcutting machine tools Assembly work Painting Galvanizing Storage and packing Shop and Intershop transport

This figure is higier than theercent of production planned5 as Implied by earlier data; as later information it may reflectevised planhange In definition.

semiautomatic lines, fulfillment of the plans would representeginning toward fulfillment of the scale of effort believed to be daairable. By the end5 it Is planned for all automatic and semiautomatic lines tootal ofachine tools, or less than one-seventh of the automatic and semiautomatic machine tools used by the machine building industry-These figures include lines and machine tools that have been modified to automatic functioning. In turn, the total park of automatic and semiautomatic tools5 is planned to constitute onlyercent of the metalcutting machine tools ln the machine building industry. Present Soviet plans also stress the desirability of more automatic lines for forge-press operations.

Plans0 are extremely ambitious. By that time, more than one-half of the annual output of metalcutting machine tools is planned to consist of automatic und semiautomatic units. Plans call for0 automatic lines to be In operation,oundry0 forge-preur. lines,0 lines for metalcutting and mechanical assembly. These plans assume that bypproximately one-half of the gross output of machine building will be produced in plants with integrated automation.

b. Mechanization

At present, about one-half of theillion workers in the Soviet machine building Industry perform manual labor or useor very lov productivity. This extensive pool of manual labor is concentrated in the following types of work: the operation of non-automatic machinery requiring manual loading, positioning, adjusting settings, and receiving processed items; tho manual assembly of the finished product; painting and finishing; packing and handling of materials; and maintenance and repair activities. Honoutomatic machine tools constitute more thanercent of the present park. Fainting ls ratedoercent mechanized; assembly work,oercent; and Internal plant transport,ercent. oncerted effort ls being made to reduce tbe importance of manual labor, and present plansthat5 the rated level of mechanization (includingln the induatry will beo YO percent of full mechanization-

Modernization and Replacement

Plans for the modernization of the machine buildingare largely concerned with adapting machine toola wherever possible to automatic or semiautomatic operation and combining machine tools ln automatic lines. In addition, some of the extensive park of machine tools that are aore thanut leas thanears old may beto improve performance characteriatlcs. According to the Seven Year Plan, the following quantities of machinery (including someIn agriculture and in repair shops) will be modernized: at leastmetalcutting0 forge-press machines,0 units of foundry equipment. The metalcutting tools represent nearlyercent of8 park. It ls planned thatodernization will equaloercent of the cost of new equipment and will increase machine productivity byoercent.

Plans for the replacement of equipment are now extensive. In recent years the government has been moving from an annualrateercentuteercent. For the economyhole, the Seven Year Flan calls for the retirement ofachine tools, or approximatelyercent of the park. In machine building and metalworking it has been announced that moreieces of obsolete machine tools and foundry mare toieces of modern equipment.

d. Introduction of Bcw Processes

Technical progress in machine building is closelyin the USSR with measures to establish economies of scale inend to reduce requirements of processing time on articles

being produced. To this end, efforts are being continued to reduce the number of components required in machine building, to standardizeto make components interchangeable wherever possible between different machines, to develop group specifications so that slight variations may bo handled by adjustments in automatic lines, and to establish specialized production facilities that can take advantage of economies of scale. Technological changes are oriented to theuse of such techniques as precision casting, simultaneous multiple operations that reduce the machine time per unit of output, nev types of mechanical working such as electro-erosion and, and continuous flow production techniques. At the present time, specializationroceeding slowly, with the greatest progress being made ln the establishment of specialized plants to produce fittings, cutting tools, machine tools, automotive ports, andaachinery.

3- Planned Cains in Labor Productivity

that the original planned production goals of the Soviet machine building Industry ere met, achievement of the labor productivity torgeta wouldabor saving of moreillion wage workers5 (although the total number of persons employed would grow). Revised production goals5 and present consideration of plans to make more extensive use of multiple-shift operationa ln machine building plants may raise, but present evidence indicates that the laborgoal also hae been raisedlanned increase inoforcent5 above that6lanned increase ofercent.

XI. Wood and Allied Products Industry

The Soviet wood and allied products industry includes logging, sawtnilling and woodworking, and the manufacture of pulp and paper. Employment of wage workers in this industry8 Of this total,illion were employed in logging,illion in sawmilling and woodworking,illion ln the manufacture of pulp and paper.

Production in logging is scheduled to riseoercent;awmilling and woodworking, anand in pulp and paper, anercent. The total planned capital investment is to amount toillion rubles during thi6 period, kO percent of which is earmarked for logging,ercent for sawmilling, andercent for woodworking and theof pulp and paper.

lhe greatest technical advancesre planned for the pulp and paper and the sawmilling and woodworking sectors, with diminishing emphasis on development of the logging sector.

for Technical Advances

of Automatic Equipment

Logging does not lend itself readily to the introduction of automatic equipment, but there are important potentiul applications in sawmilling and woodworking and in pulp and paper enterprises. Inand woodworking enterprises. Some of the most5 are planned to be (l) the use of flow lines to doplaning work in an annual volumeillion cubic cetera,

automated productionillion cubic meters of pressboard,

automated productionillion square meters of woodand ft) the introduction of automated and semiautomated linesof panel doors. In the pulp and paper enterprises,to be given to integrated au-omation in selected enterprises. and Mariysk pulp and paper combinea have been designated asenterprises for applications* of integrated automation.

In the period following World War II, Soviet planners were greatly concerned with increasing labor productivity in logging and

timber transport, and the investment program in these arena reflected this Interest, esult, the level of mechanization ln logging rose sharply, and the use of seasonal labor vas reducedelatively negligible level. Meanwhile, the development of mechanization inand woodworking enterprises suffered. It is estimated that at the present timeercent of the equipment in these enterprises is obsolete, being characterized by hand feeds and low cutting speeds. Plans5 lay particular stress on tbe mechanization of storage operations in the yards, on the Improvement of processing operations (materials foed, transport between operations, and positioning ofand the development of techniques for handling bulk materials.

The operation of the pulp and paper enterprises iswith the exception of yard and transport work. Aboutorcent of the wage workers ln the pulp and paper Industry are engaged in yard and transport operations, which are mechanized ln aboutopercent of tbe volume of operations.

c. Modernization and Replaceaont

Modernization and some replacement of equipment ln sawmills and woodworking enterprises will be required to reduce tha present high ratio of obsolete equipment. ery Important program is the planned modernization of papermoklng machines. In recent years,f these machines have been modernized profitably, and It is now planned to modernize the entire park Approximately onc-thlrd of the planned growth of papermaking capacity is to result from theof existing papermaking machinery.

3. Planned Gains ln Labor Productivity

The Seven Year Plan collo for the following increases in labor productivity: logging,ercent; suwailling andnd pulp and paper,ercent. On the assumption that planned production and productivity goala areabor savingpersons5 Is estimated. Apparently aboutercent of this total labor saving will originate in the sawmill leg and woodworking According to Soviet estimates, achievement of labor productivity plans wouldeduction of employment in tbe logging sector


III. Construction Materials Industry

The Soviet construction materials industry produces cement, brick, precast concrete, rock products, and other materials used in construction but excludes such important construction materials as lumber, steel, and flat glass. 8 the Industrywage workers at approximatelylants and quarries. The gross output5 is planned toimes the levelnd the total planned capital investmento achieveillionillion rubles.

Few data are available on over-all Soviet planB forin the construction materials industry, except for somethe cement industry. This scarcity of information is due in partwidespread and highly decentralized nature of the industry. Industry, however, has fewerlants and, althougha minor share of the wage workers in the, is of major concern to the central

planners because of its importance to the over-all construction effort and because cement is in short supply. Initially the cement industry was to receive approximatelyercent of the capital investment planned for thu conetmctloa materials industry,illion rubles during the Seven tear Plan. Subsequently the investment plan for the cement industry was raised so that during theears ofearotal5 billion rubles was to be expended.

for Technical Advances

The primary means of achieving technical advances in the cement Industry is by installing new, more highly productive equipmentkilns and grinders) at existing plants and by constructing very large new plants. The total addition to capacitys planned toillion tons* atew plants and h'y expanded orplants atew production lines (kilns andequipment) are to be added. esult of the planned programs (including larger equipment, increased mechanization, modernization, andhe average hourly productivity per rotary kiln Is to increase5 toercent above the levelhe prime costs of production are to be decreased by at leastercent; capitalper ton of added capacity are to decrease; and laboris to increase byercent compared with that Inoperating economies and increased kiln efficiencies are expected

Tonnages are given in metric tons throughout this report.


to result from the substitution of natural gas for coal as fuel. Soviet sources estimate that this shift ln fuels will permit an increase in production of cement ofillion tons, without additional capital.

Soviet designers ore working on the designully automated cement plant, and present plana call for serial production of newfor automatic control of the processes in the manufacture of cement, including closed circuit television, programed control of the preparation of slurry and the drying of admixtures, the automatedof rotary kilns, and the operation of electric filters Inwith gas analyzers. Soviet designers estimate that integrated automation atxisting plants willillion rubles andoutput of cementons.

Plans for technical advances in other segments of thematerials Industry include continuous production of asbestos cement sheets, an automated brick planteramic tile line, and mechanized flow productionumber of other materials.

3. Planned Gains in Labor Productivity

In spite of the vagueness of the plans for technical advances in the construction materials industry, the resultant planned increases in labor productivity can be estimated. 6 lhe Industryillion wage workers. roduction is to Increase0 percent abovo tha level On the assumption of an increase in labor productivity ofbe implied reduction offor wage workers5 would beillion persons, and the Increase in employment thus vould be onlyillion persons. Because vages accountarge share of costs la the construction materials industry, the reduction in wages par unit of outputignificant factor In the planned reduction ofcosts of aboutercent.Increases In the productivity of labor tn tho cement industry are of minor significance to thematerials Industryhole because of the very small share of the total labor force employed ln production of cement.

3seedreliminary plan for the RSFSRpcrccnt increase. ** Basedlan for the RSFSRpercent reduction.



IV. Light Industry

1. Introducbion

Soviet light Industry consists of the manufacture of textiles, clothing (knitwear andnd footwear. Excluding those employees who are members of industrial cooperatives, employment of wage workers ia light industry8 amounted to almostercent of the totalemploymentrillion persons,ercent of which were women. Including employees who were members of cooperatives, the total employment wasillion. Slightly fewerillion of this total were employed in the manufacture of textiles,in the manufacture of clothing, andillion in theof footwear.

The total production of light industry is scheduled to rise aboutercent during the Seven Year Plan, and capital investment ln theis to amount toillion rubles. Late0 and early1 these figures probably were revised upward by an indeterminate amount.

Or the various components of light industry, the plan is for the manufacture of textiles tb receive the largest share ofillion rubles, orercent of the total allocated to light industry. During the plan period, output of textiles is scheduled to riseercent, and productivity of labor is scheduled to grow 36 The use of new equipment and improved technology is to account for one-half of the increased productivity.

Soviet plans for technical advances in light industry havethe greatest attention on the manufacture of textiles. Although the textile industry relies heavily on mechanized processes euch asspinning, and finishing fabric, itarge number of wage workers, predominantly women. Because thereelatively largeof women on the labor market, there cay be some tendency to move Slowly in the direction Of substituting capital equipment for human labor. On the other hand, forms of mechanization were to be introduced during the plan period to improve gener&J. working conditions, to permit reductions in the work hours, and to eliminate unsuitable heavy manual laborhus facilitating the employment of women. In order to achieve the desired increases ln production of textiles, the Seven Year Plan calls for the introduction of automatic equipment, the mechanization of tasks previously done by hand, the modernization of obsolete equipment, and the introduction of new processes.


2. Programs for Technical Advances

a- Ictroduction of Automatic Equipment

The Soviet textile industryide range orproducts and final goodside assortment of production operations, some of which are automated, most of which areew of which are done manually. In preparing cotton for spinning,ercent is prepared by automatic processes, andercent of the yarn Is knotted automatically. In sizing cotton,ercent of the equipment that is used has controls to regulate the temperature, the level of the sizing, and the stesa pressure. In spite of suchof partial automation, Soviet writers have stated that the uses of automation in the textile industry lag behind those of other advanced countries. They particularly note that the USSR is laggard in the use of automatic yarn rewinding; of air-conditioning in plants; of automated intraplant transport; and automation in the processes of bleaching, dyeing, and finishing fabrics.

The Seven Year Plan calls for the rapid Introduction of automatic looms, yarn rewlnders and knotters, hosiery-making machinery, units for unwinding cocoons, and air-conditioning equipment. These items, however, reprcaent the application of technology or automationartial basis, not on the basis of the introduction of fully automated textile plants.

As of the beginning of the Seven Year Plan, kk percent of tba weaving was done by automatic looms. Priority in the plan ls given to the replacement of tbe nonautoaatlc units, with the following planned changes ln the percentage of the total weaving to be processed bylooms: in eotton weaving the share is to rise from fcfl percent8 toercentn linen, froaercent; and in wool, from St toercent. In tho cotton Industryutomatic looroj are scheduled to be0 of which will be forpurpose*.

b. Mechanization

Although the main emphasis in the development of lightand especially of the textile industry, is being placed on the use of machinery that la more productive, there are many types of activity in which hand tabor la to be replaced by machinery. Manual labor is extensively used in feeding and unloading machinery, in transporting material, and in cleaning machinery and work areas. Thus more workers are employed ns receivera for taking cops of yarn from spinning machines thur. are employed aa spinning operators, and most of the transportation work in the plants and shops la done with the use of hand carts (thereuch hand carta ln the textile Industry Of the BSKSR).

The Seven Year Han calls for equipping the textile industry with transport mechanisms and systems, with attachments forhlne output mechanically, and with pneumatic devices for cleaning machinery and vork areas as veil as vith other devlcee for replacing hand labor.

and Rcplaccccnt

Many of the facilities of the textile Industry are equipped vith obsolete machloery. In the cotton textile industry, almost all of certain classes of equipment is more thanears old. The effec-tivencBS of modemlKatlon of the spinning machines has already been demonstrated In some plants, and an extensive program is underway. The result of modernization ln the textile Induatry during the Seven Year Plan haa been expressed in termslanned additional outputillion linear meters of cloth from existing weaving plants, or aboutercent of the total planned increase. Of thisillion linear meters represent cotton cloth, orercent of the plannedfor cotton. izable share of the new automatic looms Is being designated for replacement purposes (especially new cotton looms,ercent of vhich are to be replacements).

of Hew Processes

The basic production processes of the textile industry are veil-established, and the direction of change la toward increasedof operation through higher machine speeds aad Improved control of process vnriablea. In addition, there la heightened emphasis on control of the quality of the final product. Wort also is being done toward improving th* organization of operations. Thus spinning is beingontinuous flow process, whereas it now consists of six separate operations. If this improvement Is achieved, there couldoaalble gain ofpercent ln labor productivity. Finishing operations also arc being modeontinuous flow process, thus eliminating manualbetween Intermediate operations.

3. Planned Gains ln Labor Productivity

Assuming that planned production goola of the textile induatry are met, achievement of the labor productivity targets wouldabor saving of moreersona5 (although the total number of persons employed would grow). Of this saving, nearly one-half could be attributed to the use of new equipment and of improved technology. Because of the absence of pertinent data concerning the manufacture of clothing and footwear, the total labor savings ln all of Industry cannot be calculated, but rough estimates can bc nade by making aanumptiona of the ponsible magnitude. If lt IE assumed thuL the


V. Food-Processing Industry 1. Introduction

Tho Soviet food-processing industry Is concerned primarily with processing meat, fish, dairy products, and sugar; with canning food; and with baking bread. It employedillion wage workerslie present level of labor productivity in the food industries israther low, mechanization is incomplete, and the use of automatic equipment is very limited. Under the Seven Year Plan, productivity of labor is to be increasedercent while holding the gain in employment to approximatelyercent.

The gross output of the food-processing industry is scheduled to rise more thanercent during the plan period, and capitalin the industry la to amount to at least illion rubles. These figures were recently revised upward by an indeterminate amount. During the plan period,ercent of the capital Investment ln the food Industries will be concentrated in four branches: the meat, dairy, sugar, and fishing industries.

Soviet plans for technical advances In the food-processingemphasize primarily increased mechanization and improvedof production flows. The uses* of automation that are planned at present ore limited to particular operations, auch as packing,control in processing, und measuring and weighing.

2. Programs for Technical Advances

a. Introduction of Automatic Kqulpcent

Plane call for the introduction of automatic equipment inew branches of tba Soviet food-processing industry. During the plan period, technical advances in the dairy industry are beingwith particular attention to increased use of automaticautomated production of condensed milk, automatic drying of ellk, and automatic bottling or packaging units. In the processing of sugar beets, individual production operations, although not necessarily all operations in any given plant, will be automatedlants, androduction lines with Integrated automation will be Installedome Increase in the use of automatic equipment in the Beat industry is planned, but information Is limitedew meat products.


b. Mechanization

Previous to the Seven Yearow priority had prevailed for the supply of equipment to the meat-proceasing Industry. It Is planned that this situation be remedied during the plan period, and, through the replacement of hand labor by machinery, ouch of tbe heavy and unpleasant work ln the Industry is to be eliminated. The Seven Year Plan calls for the following changes ln the percentage of meat processed from livestock that Is to bo mechanized: Tor cattle the share is to rise from percent8 toercentor aheap and goats, frompercent toercent; and for ovine, fromoercent.

Although much had been doneoward theof centers for the distribution of milk, Soviet planners stress the need for further work. Receiving points for milk are characterized by the extensive use of hand labor. In the RSFSR,ercent of the dairy enterprises are basically nonmechanlzed. More thanercent of the city milk plants do not have mechanized flow lines or automatic units, and in them the work of packaging and handling milk products is done manually. Only Id percent of production of butter comes from fully mechanized flow lines, and in production of cheese such basic operations as framing, pressing, and commodity handling ore done manually.

, plans call for significant changes ln this situation. Equipment to ba Installedechanized flow lines in the RSFSR and, in the USSRnits to manufacture and fill paper silk containers;low lines for the production of dried "ilk;low lines for producing butter (which will bring the totallow lines ln the USSR). Mechanization of production of cheese will double output froa existing facilities.

The beet sugar industry employe moreorkers in loading and handling materlala. The unloading of freight carriers is mechanized aboutercent, whereas stacking and storage work are mechanized onlyercent. At present, not one plant has mechanized fully its production processes. Extensive changes have been planned for this Industry, as indicated by data now available for tha RSFSR.0 percent of tlie sugar is planned to be processed andin mechanized lines, Including some automation. nlyercent of production come from such lines. Equipment ls to be sup-pi ied to permit substantial replacement of hund labor in loading, stacking, and handling materials, freeingin the RSFSR0 employees now performing this type of work.

The Soviet fishing industry has become very productive in tans of the fish catch but not in terms of the manpower required in processing the catch. Most of the work of cleaning, curing,and storage handling io done manually. Even In the new seagoing


trawlershichelatively high degree of mechanization, the work of cleaning fish is done manually. Onlyercent of tbe operations performed In canning fish are mechanized.

5 It is expected thatercent of the fish catch by the RSFSR fiefaing fleet will come from the new BMRT trawlers. echanized production lines for canning fish and additional lines for processing fish products Including fish meal are to beIn the RSFSR.

The technical level of food canning is quite low ln the USSR. Most operations involving the handling of materials, the loading andof autoclaves, and the preparatory cleaning of raw food materials (onions, potatoes, and fruits) aro done manually. The Seven fear Plan collsodest Improvement of this situation, freeing some workers from the more labor-intensive processes of loading, cleaning, and handling containers. In the RSFSR, 3U0 mechanized canning lines are planned to be put into operation.

A few bakeries In Moscow and Leningrad are now highlyincorporating programed production In some phases of the baking operation. Tho Seven Year Plan callsountrywide Introduction of the mechanized bakery.

e. Introduction of New Processes

Soviet plans stress raising the level of technology in the food-processing industry to levels now found in advanced countries. An effort is to be made to establish flows of operations so that something like continuous processing can evolve, reducing in importance costly batch processes. There also ore to be changes in the nature ofsuch aa the Increased use of paper cartons and Betel cans.

3. Planned Cains in Labor Productivity

The productivity of labor in thu industry le planned to increase approximatelyercent, and output Is plannedercent. If productivity and output goals are achieved, there willet gain In employment of. If there were no increase lndditional wage workers would be required to achieve the planned production Of the total labor saved, somewhat more than one-hair would be attributable to the effects of the Introduction of integrated mechanization and theof automation.

ii U li V* V

VI. Chemical Industry ^ Introduction

The Soviet chemical Industry is concerned primarily with theof chemical ruw materials (potassium, apatite, and the like),of banic inorganic chemicals (acids, alkalis, fertilizers) andproducts (rubber, fibers, plastics,nd the fabrication of rubber and asbestos articles. The estimated employment ln tbo chemical industry8 wasillion workers. 7 the organic products segment of the Industry employedercent of the total number of wage workers ln the chemical industry; the basic chemicals and mining segments,ercent; and the rubber and asbestos segment,ercent. The share of the chemical Industry in the total industrial fixed assets early0 amountedercent.

Production of the chemical industry is scheduled to triple during the Seven Year Plan, and capital investment is to amount toillion5 billion rubles, or aboutercent of the total Soviet industrial Investment. Somewhat moreillion rubles are to be allocated for equipment, and nearly one-third of this sua is to be for chemical pro-ceasing equipment. Aboutercent of the total investment in the chemical Industry is to be allocated during this period to branches producingmaterials (rubber, fibers, plastics) and fertilizers.

The Soviet chemical industry io characterized by the use of large amounts of mnaunl labor and outmoded batch processes. Proaont Soviet plans call for the widespread introduction of highly productive equipment and advanced processes, both to facilitate fulfillment of the ombitioua production goala with minimum inputs of labor and toadical improvement ln tho quality of chemical products. Mechanization Is to be Btreaaed lo the mining of chemical raw materials and ln plant operations Involving the handling of large amounts of bulky raw and finished In addition, the Induatry is scheduled toadical ahlft to tbe use of petrochemical raw caterlala and to improve the dealgn of new chemical facilities In order to achieve savings In capitaland to utilize byproducts more effectively.

2. Programs for Technical Advances

a. Introduction of Automatic Equipment

Soviel plans for the Introduction of automatic equipment tn the chemical Industry have beer, published only in sketchy and ambiguous outline. Thus lt la stated that it is planned to "automate" morehops and production procesaea of various plants of the Industry.


The definition of automation is not given, but the term probably is used in the sense of integratedhich embraces the activities of the entire shop or process. The information on the products most likely to be affected by this type of integration is somewhat better. Most attention is to be paid to automating production of synthetic(rubber, fibers,heir products (tires, plasticand theertilizers, alkali products, dyes, and alcohol.

Information as to the degree of automation is ambiguous, but

hnr^r, iue-* miSS rubies

tto?Vf* Industry, itillionillion are to be spent forthe ndicated share isercent of thefl?aa6consisting largely of control equipment, and various regulating devices. As noted

.< r*iclei even ne" chemical plants, expenditures on automation do notercent of the total cost of equipment

atth;8i* *laQtGeve? achieve

as mucnoercent.

ne'"X* aOUr,e8 stafce that' b* theroduction of synthetic rubber and synthetic alcohol win be fully automated, that

production of plastics will beercent aut^^rS* that production

of synthetic fibers will beercent automated, lhe measure of auto-

0 thQ, Shnr"tion processes that arefull automation" in this sense means that all of the

f^eJJn dOCfiB,Ma that ali Potion comes from fully integrated automatic plants.

Although there is stress on automating shopsowis^ comparatively few plants have been designated forWetHu^Sonf'

at ZZT, arT ?Tt0 UlC ^ablishment ofautomated plants at Voronezh, Lisichansk, and Novomoskovsk (formerly Stalinogorsk). Alco-

the SSiVj^f' Ufa'- -

mT"S' whereis applied extensivelv friCal indu8try- theStatus or automation in the Soviet

Sat JuE^V'deal Ol'autoStJon ^ ,? ? US coord!,lated "Or as productive as it should be. Part ofoe is attributed by Soviet experts U> the inadequate variety and quality of instruments being produced, to inadequate process design

i^^fuutoaK,tSon- ew plans for automation have been

- ;:

made on the oasis of priority being assigned to developmental work on those cneancal processes that are most labor-intensive.

Soviet writers hove dot. commented, on the expected effect of implomentation of the automation program ia terms of the entire Industry. They have given some partial data that appear to apply only to the effect of automation on those parts of the Induatry that are automated. Thus It Is stated that automation will Increase outputercent.the productivity of labor by at leastercent, lover the cost of production byoercent, and decrease the number of service personnel byoercent. The labor-saving effect is noteworthy and ls consistent with the priority given to automating labor-intensive

The level of mechanization In the Soviet chemical Industry Is extremely low, and great savings in coot and manpower are possible If operations such as loading and unloading, charging of raw materials Into process equipment, and weighing und puckaging of materials are mechanized. Aboutercent of the total number of wage workers employed Id production of chemicals perform maoual labor, including aboutercent of the total force who are engaged in handling materials. Soviet planners expect that fulfillment of the mechanization plans will permit the freeingorkers. Details have not been published on the total Investment in mechanization.

and Replacement

Growth in the chemical industry Is characterized by reliance on new production facilitiesreater extent than in other industries. Enterprises being constructed, and those being reconstructed. Because obsolescence is so rapid in this Industry, it must be assumed that there will be extensive replacement of equipment In plants being reconstructed.

of Kew

The Seven Year Plan omplmftlzes the development andof new products that require the use of new processes, newmaterials, and new sources of basic materials. Development of the chemical industry, therefore, lo highly unpredictable, especially ln the realm of organic intermediate materials. Nevertheless, some of the broad outlines of development have been depicted by Soviet planners.

Many of the new chemical processes planned for introductionnvolve the processing of petrochemical raw andmaterials. The plan calls for the chemical Industry to uee natural gas extensively. 5 the industry is toillion tons of liquid hydrocarbons derived from gas. Major products to bo

produced from petrochemical feed materials include synthetic rubber ammonia, acetylene, detergents, plastics, and fibers. It is important to note that this entire field was not highly developed ln the USSR previous to the Seven Year Plan and that in large part its development will involve the applications of technologies relatively new to the Soviet engineers. In addition to the native efforts to develop newizable volume of technical process data relating to production of fibers, plastics, motor vehicle tires, and other chemical products was purchased from the Free World.

Because production is scheduled to increaseery high

^ PerCCnt Per year' tneo undertakedesigned to increase production efficiency and to reduce cost. It plans to take advantage of larger production runs from more productive units to gain economies of scale, thus spreading overhead costs and capital costsreater volume of output and permitting process changes away from batch processing and toward flow processing. This line of development will Involve specialization of production,productionew major units that can thus produce in greater

n tQe basic design of production processes; and greater effort to increase the utilization of waste and byproduct mate-

Planned Gains In Labor Productivity



' target on labor productivity is available for the chemical but it appears probable that the Increase of productivity is intended to be more than theoercent planned for Industry as a

B8UBied t0 at0 percent, it is possible to indicate the labor saving necessary in the plans for the industry The number of wage workers in the chemical industry8 has been esti-mutea to. If output Is to triple and productivity is to

^ lBpliCltQU3es

VII. Ferrous Metallurgical Industry

The Soviet ferrous metallurgical industry Is an integrated industry that performs the operations of the metallurgical cycle from the mining of ore and other raw materials through the smelting of metal and the rolling and finishing of Steel. 8 the Industry employedagendf these were in basic productionn transporting and handling materials,n repair and maintenance activities.

, production of crude steel is planned to increaseercent0 million tons and rolled steel to increase6 million tons. Capital investment in the industry for this period probably will exceedillion rubles, approximately one-third of which are to be devoted to the development of facilities for mining and ore-preparation. illion rubles have been allocated for mechanization and automation.

Soviet plans for technical advances during the plan period are directed essentially to the extensive application or furtherof known techniques that also are being adopted increasingly in steel industries in Western countries. Attention is to be conccntrutcd on improvements in the beneficiation of ore, the increased use offuel injection and other practices in blast furnaces, the use of oxygen in blast furnacesarticularly in steelmaking, the further development of continuous casting capacity, the construction andof high-capacity production units embodying advanced design and technology, and Increased mechanization and automation in all segments Of the industry.

for Technical Advances

a. Introduction of Automatic Scuipment

According to Soviet plans, tlie "level of mechanization and automation" of the Soviet ferrous metallurgical Industry is to be raised touring the Seven Year Plan. rojects of the iron

If wage workers in ferrous mining and coke chemicals are included, employment in the industryorkers.

** The statistical basis of this figure has not been defined. Ia many eases in Soviet practice lt applies to the percentage of the labor force directing tbe operation of machines; by implication, then,ercent of the labor force would be involved in manual work related to the handling of materials, the repair and servicing of machinery, and other manual work.


ore Industry, Ilk blastpen-hearth furnaces, androlling mille ore to bo automated.' Although the degree of automation has not been defined, lt would appear, in most cases, to Dean partial automationhat is, automation of one or more operationsine, furnace, or mill rather than automation of the entire producing unit. More complex automation will be undertaken at six plants that ore to become models for mechanisation and automationhe steel plants at Kuznetsk, Magnitogorsk, Nlzhnly Tagil, and Dneprodzerzhinsk, tbe Baglcy coke-chemical plant, and the Zaporozh'ye refractories plant.

Although the Soviet claim is thatercent of Soviet Iron and steel is produced in "automated" fumacoB, the statement refers to production ln furnaces on vhlch some specific operations arecontrolled, not to completely automated furnaces. Reportedly, nil blast furnaces are partially automated ln tbat they ore equipped with devices for automatic charging and for regulating the temperature of the hot airercent of Soviet blast furnaces are said to be supplied with automatic moisture-regulating equipmentith devices for regulating gas pressure. In steelmaklng.and devices for automatically measuring and controlling the intake of fuel, air, and oxygen and for measuring and recording pressure and temperature have been developed and applied to varying degrees. work has been undertaken on the application of computers toatee]making unite, and0 at leaet part of the operationsessemer furnace at the Dneprodzcrchlnak metallurgical plant wee controlled automatically by meansomputor installed atilometers from the steel plant.

In the automation of rolling mills and finishing Unaefforts are being directed to the Installation cf modern continuous rolling mills and heat-treating and coating lines, which ln tho Westdevices for automatically controlling the quality, dimensions, andll of the product. Such devices presumably are beingln the new, modern Soviet mills being las tailed. In general, however, automation of rolling and finishing facilities has progressed Inadequately, according to Soviet evaluations. In theseeven available technology has not been applied to the sameaa ln blast furnaces and open-hearth furnaces. Present plane are to have ln operation by the end of the plan periodarge, contlnuouB roll ing mills embodying extensive application of automatic control and reguict tlon devices.

1 These figures may include some projects of the aenferrcus metallurgii

One of tbe basic problems affecting Soviet progressigh degree of automation of the ferrous metallurgical industry Is the very limited degree to which lt Is presently mechanized. Present plans provide for the extensive mechanization of operations in all segments of ferrous metallurgy. Immediate planaide range of standard measures such as the use of larger capacity cranes, fork-lift trucks, and conveyors as well as core complex measures such as the Installation of automated conveyors for charging blast furnaces and open-hearth furnaces. Long-range plans envisage Integrated automation and the mechanization of handling materials and plant transport,the introduction of such measures as the use of automated conveyors for charging furnaces, the hydraulic removal of granulated slag, and the removal of pig iron by Induction pump. Such systems, however, are not anticipated during the current Seven Year Plan.

and Replacement

Aboutercent of investment funds allotted to the ferrous metallurgical industry forare to be directed toward theand reconstruction of existing enterprises. The modernization will occur in the form of the addition of instrumentation and of controlto existing facilities, increased mechanization of auxiliaryreconstruction of production facilities to now operatingand the introduction of improved practicea at existing plants. Retirement of obsolete facilities plannedncludelast furnacesotal capacity ofillion tona, U'l open-hearth furnacesotal capacityillion tons, andolling millsotal capacity ofillion tens.

of Kew Processes

Major benefits ln the form of increased rates of production, reduced costs of production, and savings in capital investment arein Soviet plans for applying moreelatively few technical development*. The plan provides for improvement la methods of concentrating ore, the increased use of sinter (fromercent cf the blast furnace charge9 toercent, and theof some palletizing facilities. Plfty blast furnaces are to be equipped for the use of natural gasuel. xygen is planned to be used ln production of aboutercent of the output of steel for the year compared withercent Most of the output will be from oxygen-fed open-hearth furnaces. Considerable difficulty is being experienced in developing basic oxygen converters.

The Soviet industry has made much of the development of continuous casting facilities forecade, with industrial-scale equi^nt already installed in six plants and with five more installations plannedlthough the easting of atillion tons of steel In such facilities is planneds the advantages to be derived from the processonnage basis remain to be demonstrated both in the USSR and in the West.

oBt impressive gains during the Seven Year GXtentuhich toe Sort* steel industryP!?d, ? eqUipm0nt for roniaS and finishing steel and with efficient faculties for handling materials. There is nothat any such facilities Involve technology that is new to tte

3- Planned Gains in Labor Productivity

The implicit labor saving of plans for technical advances In

S apP^Xl^telywhers- Of the total labor saving,0 will be attributable to thein automation and in Integrated mechanization. Much of the remainder will stem from such other measures as thery (as in the handling ofains in

ES TdeBi&instrumentation,

and organizational

T.WOrlterS Uaincluded, the

implied labor saving would amount to0 workers

VIII. Honfprrous Metallurgical Industry

The Soviet nonferrous metallurgical industry Includes the mining and processing of base octale, noble metals, ferroslloylng metals and minerals, rare metals and earths,ariety of nonaetalllc elements. With the exception of nickel and such nonaetalllc elements as asbestos and salt, the base metals, which Include copper, lead, zinc, aluminum, tin, titanium, and magnesium, account for the major share of the gross output of the Industry.

The Seven Year Plan calls for Investment in the industry ofillion rubles. Aboutercent of all capital outlays are to be expended on the aluminum, nickel, and copper segments of theand about two-thirds of all capital outlays are to be expended on the mining sector. arge part of this investment is to be devoted to enlarging and modernizing existing mince and ore-processing plants.

Although Soviet engineers appear to have been familiar with the most advanced technology for ore and metal processing, and to have been thoroughly aware of tbe shortcomings within existing plants, the Industry haa been slow to adopt new methods. radual improvement In this regard haa been noted ln the last few years, however, and at the present time the USSR probably can extract the principal metals from intermediateabout as efficiently as can Western Industrial countries. The USSR continues to lag behind the West, however, In mining, ln concentrating ores, and In the extraction of many byproduct minerals. The concentration of investment on raining and the processing of ores is designed to help correct these deficiencies.

for Technical Advances

a. Introduction of Automatic Equipment and Mechanization

Automation and integrated mechanization of various processes have been planned at all stages of ore and metal processing In the Industry. The automation proposed does not take the form of plant-wide automation but rather the automation of the control and regulation of variouslo individual production processes. In nonferrous ahaft mines, for example, equipment for water drainage, ventilation, heating, lifting und loading, and transportation are being automatedreater extent than in the past,orreapondlng reduction in the labor force lo being made.


The principal goal of the Seven Year Plan for the mining Bee-tor of the Soviet nonferrous metallurgical industry is to Increaseand to reduce unit costs. This goal is to be accomplished by enlarging existing mines, by introducing more efficient methods of mining, by increasing mechanization of all operations, and by Introducing better mining equipment to replace obsolescent equipment.

In order to Increase the rate of recovery froa ores tobulk-selective flotation is being introduced in many plants that process polymetalllc ores. This method will resultrowth in productivity In some ore-dressing plants ofoercent. The USSF Is further Improving the performance of its concentration plants by Introducing high-speed flotation machines, multistage concentration tables, high-speed Inertia crushers, screw ceparators, and centrifugal mills.

Many Soviet metallurgical plants are relatively inefficient by Western standards, but improved techniques and equipment are being adopted and installed. Two processes that are to be Introducedider scale nnd that oro expected to resultignificant saving of copper, lead, and zinc duringear period arc (l) the use of oxygen and preheated air In smelting, which Is expected to Increase productivity of reverberotory furnaces byercent and to reduce the outlay of coke byercent,he electrothermlc method of amelting. Efforts to reduce looses still further vlll be mado by introducing additional sing-fuming facilities and by establishing installations for collecting and processing dust and flue gases in the copper plants of the Urals and ln the lead-zinc enterprises of Kazakh SSR. The wider use of these techniques for recovering metals loat in processing ia expected to yield several hundred thousand tons of nonferrous metals during the plan period and will result in sizable Increments to output at lower capital costs per ton than vould be obtained by constructing nev

3- Planned Gaioa in Labor Productivity

The Seven Year Plan provides for an increase In the groaa output of the nonferrous metals and minerals Induatry ofercent and an Increase In labor productivity ofercent. Although gains incannot be translated readily into quantitative terma, these goals suggest that output will be doubled vhile tbe labor force will be increased only aboutercent.

Much of the lncreaae in labor productivity planned for theprobably vill be realized ln the mining sector. An increase ln the proportion of open-pit miningonsiderably less labor-intensive method of mining than abaft mining) fronpercent toercent of the total ore extracted probably vlll accountajor part of the


planned increase in labor productivity in the industry. Greaterand mechanization in both open-pit and shaft mining may increase labor productivity stillains in this sector could be large enough to ensure thatpercent increase ln the extraction of non-ferrous ores planned5 will be achievedmaller labor force than was employed in this type of mining


DC. Coal Industry

1. Introduc tIon

The Soviet coal Industry consists of all coal mining activity (open-pit and underground) and all preliminary processing activities such as briquetting, screening, and cleaning. When the mining and processing activities are conducted at the same installation, as they frequently are, the related transportation activities also are included in the industry classification. oreillion wage workers were employed in the coal industry, and roughly one-half of these were employed ln basic production work. In comparison with all other domestic Industries, the Soviet coal industry has the highest proportion of workers,ercent, engaged ln transporting and handling materials.

The Seven Year Plan for production of coal calls for aincrease abovo the level of outputith production of coal scheduled to reach 6l2 million tons* Plans for capital investment stipulate an expenditureillionillion rubles, of which only aboutercent (compared with moreercent) is to be used to increase the rated capacity of mines. The Soviet coal investment programreat deal of attention on mechanization and the replacement of equipment, whereas the opening of new productive capacity will be somewhat offset by the retirement of old marginal producers. In the short run the effect of such an investment program would bc to raise the average investment cost per ton of the coal mined, but in the long run the over-all effect of the continuation ofrogram will be to reduce labor requirements, reduce costs, and improve the quality of coal.

The Soviet cool industry has been and continues to be plagued by high costs, poor quality, and overemployment ln auxiliary and service activities. eault, Soviet plans for technical advances in the coal industry strongly emphasize Increased mechanization, especially in transporting and handling materials and in the cleaning of coal. Lack of adequate capacity for the cleaning of coal has retarded growth in the industry, especially in the diversification and expansion of consumption. Excess pithead stocks of uncleaned coal of poor quality89

* This goal is not expected to be achieved. According to presentproduction of coal5 probably will be onlytons.

Fn .1

attest to the need for additional cleaning facilities. In order to reduce both the coat of production of coal and the size of the labor force, the USSR plans to expand significantly strip and hydraulic mining und to introduce mechanization and, to some extent, automationreatly expanded scale.

2. Programs for Technical Advances

a. Introduction of Automatic Equipcent and Mechanization

Present Soviet long-term planning strongly emphasizestho mechanization of the Industry, especially ln the auxiliary activities of transporting and handling materials, and Introducing some partial automation in the form of automatic control devices and Borne remote control systems. This course of action is strongly influenced by the objectives of eliminating hard physical labor (presently done by Kb percent of the labor force) and reducing the total employment in the industry

The Seven Year Plan calls for Increasing the proportion of coal loaded by mechanical means from Uo percent3 to Although the cutting of cool is almost completelymuch of the vork is still labor-intensive and ia done by vorkers with pneumatic picks. With the development of machinery and machine systems for performing all face work (cutting, loading, and even roof supportt le planned thatercent of the mine working faces will be exploited by Integrated mechanical syatems, or machine complexes, comparedercent

Important to the increased use of mechanized operations is the planned shift to two core productive methods of extractionstrip and hydraulic mining in which the coal is removed from the face by water Jets under pressure and transported hydraulically to the surface. Coal extracted by strip-mining techniques Is to amount to slightly more thanercent of output planned5illion tone) compared withercent of output8illion tons). Th* development of more highly productive equipment to remove the overburden useumes greet importance because lt Is planned that5 morecubic meters of overburden will be removed and that approximately one-half of this amount will be transported froa the working areas. Coal mined by hydraulic techniques is planned to increaseons5 comparedillion tons

lhe present level of automation is not high ln the coal 90 there was, however, extensive conversion to remote control or automatic control of pumps, ventilators, conveyers, winches, elevators, and systems for hauling and dumping cool cars. It

- ih -

is planned5 to mechanize and automate the basic auxiliaryin surface work, including all operation of winches, ventilators, and pumps; It is planned to introduce integrated automation andfor transportation and cleaning operationsines and for extraction workines. Target levels of integratedand mechanization proposed for the Soviet coal industry5 compared with levels0 are shown in the following tabulation:

Percent of Operations

Type ofPlan

Transportation and(pumping, ventilation,

Plans for increasing the amount of coal that is mechanically cleaned emphasize the improvement of equipment and the application of automation. In the USSR,h percent of the coal was mechanically cleaned8 compared with aboutercent in the US. The USSR,, plans toew cleaning plantsotal capacityillion tons. Significantly, onlylantsapacity7 million tons were constructed in theear period.

Soviet studies indicate the feasibility of achievingmechanization and automation of mines producingercent of output of coal within the nextoears, therebyorkers. Fulfillment of this program might help cool to compete with liquid fuels.

b. Modernization and Replacement

From the plans for adding new production capacity, which are large relative to the planned increase in production, lt may be inferred that some marginal facilities are to be retired. Furthermore, it is known that ut leastleaning plants arc scheduled to be reconstructed, nevertheless, the primary emphasis of the plan is one of expansion of tbe equipment park rather than one of replacement of any significant amount of equipment.

* Not specified as integrated systems.

c. Introduction of Hew Processes

Soviet plana call for increasing extraction of coal by acacs of strip mining, and they alsoefinite emphasis on hydraulic mining. Strip mining docs notew technology and may be viewed as an economical method of extraction to be used wherever poasible. Limitations on its uae arc cstoblluhed by the nature of the geological formations and, to some extent, by the availability of equipment. The USSR is making satisfactory progress ln the development of massive and very efficient equipment for strip mining, although schedules forend installation probably will not be realised.

Because the development of hydraulic mining could virtually transform deep mining oporatlonslow extraction proceao, more susceptible than conventional methods to automation, Soviet planners have displayed great interest ln this technique. At present It does not seem likely that their hopes, as embodied in the planill be fulfilled. Certain technical problems still are not completely solved. In particular, efficient procedures for drying the coal, such aa centrifuges, have not been developed, Furthermore, satiafactory deslgna have not been developed for the hydromonitoro (waterigh-preaBure pumps, feeders, and other necessary equipment such ss pipe that will withstand pressures uptmospheres. Theseappear to have discouraged mine managers from using the newto the extent desired by the planners. Finally, the workerstotrong aversion to the difficult and unpleasant working conditions created by the use of large quantities of water.

3. Planned Gains in Labor Productivity

abor productivity In the coal Industry is planned to increaseercent above the level Becauae reduction of the work week la significant ln this Industry, it should be noted that the plan for an increase of labor productivity corresponds to on increase ofoercent on un hourly basla.

Assuming tost tha goals5 are achieved and that output docs Increaseercent and productivityercent, the number of wage workers needed5 wouldomparedlight net reduction ln the labor force.


X. Production of Electric Power

1. Introduction

AlnOBtercent of production of electric power in che USSR takes place lo the powerplante of the centralized electric power industry, which is composed of the state regional powerplants producing for the public supply plus the Industrial powerplants that are connected to the regional power systems. The electric power loduotry uses techniques of mechanization aod automation more fully than any other Soviet industry and is one of the most technically advanced branches of industry in the Soviet economy- Tb^ remainingercent of tbe electric power isln aoreaal! inefficient noncentrail zed powerplante, which furnish electric poweringleimited number of consumers. These small powerplants are outside the power industry, are technically backward, and produce power at very high cost.

here wereillion wage workers engaged in production of electric power in the USSR, ororkers per megawatt of installed capacity. Of theage workers were employed in the centralized power industry, whichorkers per megawatt of Installed capacity, whereas the nonccntralized powerplants employedon workers and requiredorkers per megawatt.

The total capital investment allocated to the electric power induatry ln the Seven Year Plan5 billion9 billion rubles. Approximatelyercent of this amount Is to be used for theof hydroelectric powerplants andercent for the construction of transmission facilities. Exceptmall allocation for hcuting networks, the rest, or aboutercent, will be used for theof theraal electric powerplants. The total new capacity to be added in tbe Industry isillion toillion kilowattsillion toillion kw in thermal electric powerplants andillion toillion kw in hydroelectric powerplants. In addition, it is estimated thatillionillion kw of powerplant capacity la planned for Installation outside the Industry,otal cost ofillion rubles.

Significant technical advances in the electric power industryill come not so much from the greater utilisation of automation aad new processes as froa the use of equipment of higher parametersthat Is, generating equipment with greater unit capacities, operating at higher steaB temperatures and pressures. New technology will be Introduced onlyimited degree ia the large number of small powerplants that operate outside the centralized power industry. However,


increasing the share of the larger, more efficient centralized power-plants In the total production of electric power5 percent6 to an6 percent5 would raise the averagelevel of power production In the USSR and thus in itself willechnical advance.

2. Programs for Technical Advances

a. Introduction of Automatic Equipment aad Mechanization

In the Soviet electric power industry the development ofhas entered an advanced stage. Fullith the useelectrical feedback, and telemechonlcal control -in production oforcent of the power produced by thepowerplants are characterizedigher degree ofthan thermal electric powerplants, whichore complex By8 percent of the production capacity ofhydroelectric powerplants was equipped withercent of this capacity with remote control. Most of theprocesses in thermal electric powerplants have been automated,ls now centered on Integrating the automation of entirepowerplants. Means are being worked out for controllingof fuel automatically and removing ashes aod slag, and devicesdeveloped to regulate the automatic starting and stopnlnff of 0

Further development of automation in the Soviet electric power industry will be predominantly In the use of closed-loop computer systems for the control of powerplant operations and transmission systems.systems are currently in the experimental stage in the USSR and are only in very limited use in the electric power industry in the US. At present, Soviet experimental work with computers in the field of electric power has advanced the furthest In the atudy of power system problems Although this application of computers Is limited at present, it con be expected to advance more rapidly than the use of computers to control powerplant operations.

b. Hodernlzotlon and Replacement

Technical progress in the Soviet electric power industry also calls for an increase in efficiency through modernization or replacement of old equipment. Soviet technicians reportedly have worked out methods of modernizing steam turbines and installing automatic controls that will result in more reliable and economical operation. They also have men-tioned the necessity for dismantling small and obsolete powerplants. Sporadic statements concerning the replacement or modernization of power-plant equipment at specific powerplants indicate that replacement and


modernization is taking place, but no Indus try-vide plans have beenin spite of the factercent of the generating capacity vill be of retirement age

of New Processes

During theearn, electric power will continue to be produced predominantly by conventional thermal electric and hydroelectric powerplants. It is unlikely that moreercent of the5 will, even Id part, utilize nev processes.

In the more distant future tbe most significant nev process will be the utilization of nuclear energy to furnish heat for theof steam, vhlch will then be used to drive conventional The USSR has fallen far short of the nuclear power objectives announcednd the program has continued to fall even further behind Soviet officials have stated that they have reduced the nuclear power program for economic reasons, as their nuclear reactors are not yet competitive with conventional power sources. At the endhere wereegawatts (raw) of nuclear powerplant capacity in operation in the USSR. It ls unlikely that more than JO0 aw of nuclear capacity will be In operation by the endnd nuclear powerwill not be economically significant in the USSR during theears.

The USSR is expanding research on direct power energysystems, including magnetohydrodynamics, semiconductors, and thermionic and fuel cell generation. Such systems would eliminate the necessity for boilers, turbines, and other intermediate transformera of thermal energy Into electric energy and could increase greatly theefficiency in power generation. Experimental work alao Is being done with the solar generation of electric power. Although these sourcea of power are becoming increasingly importantubject of research, they are not expected to become economically Important ln the immediate future.

of Larger and More Efficient Equipment

, priority has been given to the construction of thermal electric powerplants aa the quickest way to acquire additional power-producing capacity with the least capital outlay. In this type of powerplant the coat of fuel representsercent of the cost of Technical development, therefore, ls aimed primarily at reducing the consumption of fuel per kilowatt-hour (kwh) produced. Thishas led to the Installation of progressively larger units, operating at higher steam pressures and tcmperoturee. At the endhere wereurbogeneratorsapacityaw each in operation ln the USSRapacityw coch, repreeentingercent


of the total installed capacity. , percent of the capacity planned for Installation will be in unitsw and more. The plan calls fornitsw each,nitsw each,nitsw each,nitsw each. Large new boilers are being designed to be used in connection with the new turbogeneratora The boilers in use8aximum capacityons of steam per hour. Seven boilers capable ofons of steam per hour for operationav turbines are now in operation, and boilers capable of producing as muchons of steam per hour have been designed.

In hydroelectric powerplants, amortization represents almostercent of che cost of production. Technical innovations areaimed principally at reducing the cost of construction per unit of output. Efforts in this direction have led to the designing of both larger Individual hydroelectric powerplants and larger generating units. In addition, new construction methods are being introduced that areto reduce considerably both the time and the coat of powerplant construction.

e. Increased Use of More Efficient Processes

Another major technical advance In production of electric power in the USSRs to be the expansion of the share of the electric power industry in the total production of electric power. The centralised supply of electric power increased5 percent81 percentnd it Is estimated that it will increase6 percent Because production processes are so much more efficient In the centralized power industry, this expansion will resultignificant economic gain for the economy. In addition, within the electric power industry, the proportion of production by hydroelectric powerplants, where the cost of production is much lower than in thermal electric powerplante, is scheduled to grow fromoercent, and production from the more efficient high-pressure thermal electric power-plants is scheduled to grow fromercent to almostercent of the total production of thermal electric powerplants.

3- Planned Gains in Labor Productivity

Soviet planners expect that the total number of workers in the centralized electric power industry in the USSR will increaseevel8uring the same period, production by the industry ie planned to increase by about Iho percent,rowth in lubor productivity of more thanercent und an implied saving in manpoweruarter of aworkers.


It ie estimated that the total labor force in the centralized and noncentralized electric powerplants will Increaseotal ofillion wage workersr an average of aboutorkers per megawatt of installed capacity. If the labor factor8 were to continueoreillion workers would be required,abor saving ofillion workers. This great increase in the efficiency of labor would result in part from the further decline in the share of power produced in thelabor-intensive, small, noncentralized powerplants and in part from further technical advances in the centralized power industry. Labor savings in the power industry will result not so muchreater degree of automation as from the increase ln the average size of operating units and from the progressive use of liquid and gaseous fuels, which require very little handling compared with solid fuels.


XI. Petroleua Industry

1. Introduction

The Soviet petroleum industry encompasses the extractive phase of the oil and gas industries; the complex of refineries, synthetic liquid fuel Installations, and natural gasoline plants; and the broad andnetwork of oil and gas pipelines, including the many related pump and compressor stations, oil and gae storage facilities, and port storage and handling facilities for petroleum. 8 the totalin the industry amounted touarterillion wage workers, nearly UO percent of whom were employed inn production, andercent in refining. *

The total production in the petroleum industry is scheduled to rise substantially- It is estimated that production of crude oil probably will increase from about U3 million tons^ to as muchillion tonsut production of gas, which is planned to increase from aboutillionillion cubic meters, probably will amount to no moreillion cubic meters.

he USSB plans to allocateoercent of its industrial capital Investments to the petroleum industryan investment amounting to betweenillion3 billion rubles. Of this amount, direct capital investment in automationthat is, investment ln control and regulation devicess expected to bend probably will notillion rubles, about one-half of which will be for automation in the refineries and the other half for the oilfield program.

The program for technical advances in the Soviet petroleumislearly defined, large-scale operating program calling for immediate action (at least not in terms of the availability offunds) butong-range planning program, especially with regard to automation. Long-range pluns for automation orewith remote control and the direction of extraction processesroad scale. he USSR Intends to automateew refineriesery limited number of pipelines. In the oilfields the emphasis appears to be only on partial automation, each well to be equipped with some type of limited automatic operation. On the other hand, there is immediate emphasis on technical advances in the industry, especially in mechanization and the introduction of new technology. bout three-fourths of the wage workers iu the industry performed auxiliary work without much mechanical assistance. The USSR hopes toubstantial improvement through the Introduction and application of well-known basic production technology.

* Official Soviet Statistics for the petroleum industry8 included as wage workers only those engaged in production andotalersons.


j^A* blank]


Increased Labor productivity9 already reflects some success in mechanization. Tbe introduction of new technology in the industry ie expected to continue to be fairly successful, especially lo the drilling and extractive phases of the industry, where the USSR has made marked Improvements in recent years (the introduction of the turbodrill and the electrodrill are among the more notable developments).

2- Programs for Technical Advances

a. Introduction of Automatic Equipment

The USSR is now introducing Improved control systems in oil wells and oilfields and5 plans to introduce self-od Jus ting control, systems and full automation In eight refineries. Future oil and gas lines arc to have remote control of line operations.

In oilfields the immediate emphasis is on automation ofwork aad service operations of individual wells. Q, about one-half of the wells were equipped with some type of automatic operation, such as air injection, measuring, or the control of pumping Jacks. boutercent or the wells are to he equipped with varyingof partial automation.

Planners in the Industry have demonstrated great interest in beginning the use of integrated automation and the remote control ofprocesses on the scale of entire fields or administrative areas. To this effect, during the Seven Year Plan the Zay-Karataycv area in the Tatar Council of National Economy (sovnarkhoz) is to be establishedodel automated petroleum industrial enterprise. otional total of0 wallsells were under remote control. By the endoreere under remote control.

Other oilfield operations that are planned to be automated in varying degrees5 include the following: ercent of thestations,ercent of the water pumpingercent of the water collection installations, andercent of the oil reservoir park.

Soviet studios have indicated the feasibility of releasing up to one-half of the refinery employeesesult of measures to be taken toward the accomplishment of integrated automation. Extensive work has been done at the Omsk refinery, which Is classifiedodel experimental plant; the work done here9 was quite successful and has served as the basis for much future planning. automation is planned for eight refineries, Including threein operationthose at Moscow, Ryazan', and Novo-Croznyy. 'Ihe plans project extensive use of instrumentation in the plants and the development of self-adjusting optimizing systems for plant control.

- kk -

,or oil andor gaa) are scheduled to be installed or equipped with central dispatcher control (renote control) of operations affecting the flow. So far, no gas lines have been set up for remote control, but present instructions say that all future lines are to be so equipped.

b. Mechanization

In the drilling industry, about TO porcent of the wage workers perform auxiliary work with little mechanical assistance. Efforts are being made to reduce this figure by using portable rigs that reduce the requirements for assembly labor, devices to simplify the replacement of pipe sections, and tractor hoists. Recent efforts to increase the mechanization of pipelaylng havo virtually transformed the process to one of continuous operation of high efficiency ln which the productivity of labor grew rapidly as the new equipment became available.

C Modernization and Replacement

The work to be done at the Moscow refinery amounts toof the plant snd willrecedent for work to be done ln other refineries. Present policy emphasizes the desirability ofand modernizing all refineriesapacity of aoreillion tons annual throughput.

d. Introduction of New Processes

Much of the more interesting new technology in the Soviet petroleum Industry has been associated with drilling and extractionfor example, water injection, turbodrills, electrodrills (used for deepnd snail-diameter pipe in drilling.

In refining, one of the most important developments isof automation, although Soviet publications in the field ofcarefully avoid any specific definition of the term automation. Basic refinery technology le well known throughout the world, and, exceptrowing need for secondary refining (particularly catalyticthere appear to be no particular developments of note in this operation.

3- Planned Gains ln Labor Productivity

he Soviet petroleum Industry employedeople,f whom were employed in production and refining. Assuming an Increase in productionercentlanned Increase ln labor productivity of aboutercent, the implied savings ln manpower in production and refining vould amount toage workers. Applying tho productivity and production goals to the industryhole, planned savings would amount toorkers. The growth of the industry is expected to be so rapid that the labor force will expandin spite of the Introduction of new labor-saving measures

- -

XII. Construction

1. Introduction

Tbe Soviet construction industry consists of the construction-installation organizations that contract their services to otherand organizations. Construction work also Is performed by Individual collective farms, by private citizens, and by Industrial enterpriaea under force account (that is, the enterprise does its own construction). In Soviet capital formation the volume of construction-installation vork accounts for about two-thirds of tbe total capital investment (moat of the rest of investment is lo capitalnd approximately two-thirds of the total construction-installation is performed by the conotruction industry itself. In recent years the labor force engaged directly in contract construction-Installation operations has runercent of the total nonagrlcultural Labor force.

Capital investment in the construction Industrys planned to amount toillionercent of tbe Investment planned for the construction and the construction materials industries togetherittle moreercent of stateplanned for all industry. The Seven Year Plan calls for tho volume of state construction-installation work to lncreano85 and labor productivity in construction byoercent, with tho labor force ln construction thereby being held to approximately the level At the same time, the cost of construction-lnatallatlon work Ib to be reduced by atercent5 compared with that

Construction work by its nature is not conducive to automation. Soviet plans for technical change In construction are primarily along two lines: (a) greutcr mechanization of construction work and (b) tbe avoidance as auch as practicable of heterogeneous, cuetoej-bullt projects ln favor of more uniform, standard end-products in construction. In. the latter line of action are the increased use of standard designs of buildings and structures and the increased uae of building materials and coaponente prefabricated off-site (particularly precast reinforced-concrete components) as the means of "industrializing" constructionthat la, simulating the more efficient assembling (production) techniques common to industrial enterprises. The Seven Year Plan calls for the transition from simple mechanization to complex

- U7 -

mechanization in construction to be completed by the endhe levels of complex mechanization planned5 do not quite reflecthey do call for substantial advances above the levels achieved The level of prefabrication in Soviet constructionas the share which prefabricated componentsexcluding theircoBtsassume in tbe cost of all building materials andused lo construction of buildings and structures) is to be raised from kO percent for construction in general8 The economic impact of these planned technical changes in construction can be approximated in the assessments made by Soviet planners, who estimate that slightly more than uO percent of the planned minimum reduction in the cost of construction-installation work would be attributable to the planned increases ln mechanization and that coa-structioa costs could beercent by the end of the Seven Year Planeault only of the reduction of the weight of structures achieved through Increased prefabrication of lighter building components. Of the planned increase in labor productivity in construction, nearly kO percent is to come from greater mechanization and slightly more thanercent from the greater use of prefabricated components.

2. Programs for Technical Advances a. Mechanization

The necessity of raising the levels of me eh an izat ion, if tbe labor force in construction is to be held constant, is indicated strikingly by the following increases planned ln the physical volume of work to be performed (cubic meters of earthwork, toas of loading and unloading work, ond the like)5:

* Complex mechanization in construction does not hove quite theof integrated mechanization in industry. In the context of the construction Industry this process should be interpreted not as complete mechanization but as "comprehensive" or "over-all" mechanizationiven type of construction operation. In complex mechanization of concrete work, for example, the Soviet definition colla for the use of machines in transporting the mix to and within the structure being built and in pouring, placement, and vibration. At the same time, considerable amounts of hand labor would be involved in form work, in tying ofsteel, and in finishing work ln the concreting operation, ** That is, the planned increases ln these types of work are obtainable only by increased mechanization or by additions to the labor force.

- UB -

Type of Construction Work

Loading andand unloading lumber and


Loading and unloading

Installing construction

Thua the Seven Year Plan calls for quite substantial Increases In the levels of mechanization of various construction operations (see

Table 3

USSR: Mechanization of Construction Work, by Selected Category

5 Plan

Mechanized Workercent of the Total Volume of Work


Complex mechanization

Installing construction




Mechanization of loading and unloading materials


Construction components, lumber, and

In the basic operations, construction machines ore extremoly efficient substitutes for hand labor, r'or example, tho volume ofperformed entirely by hand wasercent of tho total volume of earthwork performed in constructionetf the total number of construction workers employed in earthwork were required to performercent; in loading-unloading work,ercent waa performed entirely by hand, requiringorcent of the total number of workers in loading-unloading operations. In total (including the large number ofworkers required even in the portions of



construction work partly or complexly mechanized and inpproximatelyercent of the total number of construction workers were engaged in hand labor,illion out ofillion.

According to Soviet estimates, achievement of the plans for mechanizationould permit the transferworkers from manual to mechanized labor. Thusercent of the total work force8 is planned to be transferred from hand labor to mechanized labor (orercent of the work force engaged in hand labor) ln the short spanears. Even if this goal were achieved, however, there would stillarge reserve for further transfers of hand labor to mechanized labor, with roughly k2 percent of the construction work force still engaged ln manual labor compared withercent

As the major means of raising the levels of mechanization ln construction at the same time that an ever greater volume ofis to be performed, the Seven Year Plan calls for substantialto the park of basic construction equipment used ln construction (see Table Changes In the quality and capacity of the equipment are not revealed in these data. eduction in the average capacity of the excavator park5 appears to bc certainonsequence of the plan, but it is impossible to determine whether this changeise adaptation to changing requirements in excavating operations or simply the inadequacy of Soviet planning indcxeu. Except for excavators, however, it is likely that fulfillment of the Seven Year Plan generally would increase the average capacity of the equipment park5 and also would mean an improvement in the assortment of given types of

Fulfillment of the Seven Year Plan for the basic park would result in substantial increuses in the numbers of excavators, bulldozers, and mobile cranes available per unit volume of construction-installation planned Although the relative availability of scrapers would be less at the end of the plan period than at the beginning, the park is to be modernized substantially and therefore will be of greater average capacity."1 The park of construction equipment used in construction per hundred million rubles of construction-installation work would Increase under the plan5 compared8 as

* ollows on* See b, Park data are as of the end of each year. Plan data5 were derived by increasing the volume of state and noncentralized construction-Installation work performed3 bypercent increase planned for state construction-installation.



Scrapers Bulldozers Mobile Cranes


USSR: Changes in the Park of Construction Equipment by Selected Types of85 Plan a/


Types of Equipment

Plan y



were revised upward about the middle

As an integral part of the plan for greater mechanization andeans of easing the requirements for additional equipment, the Soviet authorities plan to expand the use of twoay in the operation of construction equipment. Their basic constructionis worked an averageours annually, whereas their studies indicate that under "modern" operating conditions working time can be raisedours per year. The Seven Year Plan therefore calls for the working time of scrapers, bulldozers,cranes, and loading equipment to be increased byo ho percent, raising the annual working timeours.

b. Modernization and Replacement

Planned retirements of several types of constructioncan be derived by comparing the park data& and planned5 with the Seven Year Plan for gross deliveries of equipment toorganizations. Thus by the end5 it is planned thatercent of the excavator park8 will have beenf the scraper park, andercent of the mobile crone park.

Modernization of the excavator park, with three-fourths of5 park made up of excavators delivered, is planned

- 51 -

largely in the formhift in the structure of the parkery large proportion of the smaller types of single-bucket excavators. Although thereubstantial need for modernization of several types of mobile cranes, particularly in the form of greater lifting capacities, the Seven Year Plan apparently is rather modest in this respect. three-fourths of the park of both tower cranes and truck cranes at the beginning of the Seven Year Plan consisted of obsolete types with inadequate lifting capacities, yet the plan would have one-third of5 park of mobile cranes made up of cranes that were operating6 or earlier.

The high retirement rate planned for the scraper parkthe extensive modernization program. Much of the scraper park6 was obsolete or of Bmall capacity and consisted entirely of towed units; self-propelled scrapers were not in series production. Soviet authorities estimate that the self-propelled scraper is twice a6 productiveractor-drawn scraper of identical capacity and that it reduces oarthmoving costs by an average of 30 Until the Seven Year Plan, however, the USSR has been slow to take' advantage of the efficiency of scrapers in earthwork (the generally colder climate and therefore shorter working season for scrapers in the USSR only partly accounts for the overwhelming reliance onearlyercent of the total gross deliveries of scrapers scheduledre to be of the self-propelled type. Thus, although it had been recommended that at leasto UO percent of5 park of scrapers be of the self-propelled type, fulfillment of the Seven Year Plan goals actually would result inercont of the park being of this kind.

c. Introduction of Hew Processes

To Soviet planners the most important feature of theof new construction techniques ia the drive to "Industrialize"which itself is epitomized by the drive toward greater use of prefabricated building components, turned out off-site under maCS-production techniquesactory or casting yard and rapidly erected on-site into buildings and structures. The level of prcfabrication in construction in general is to be raised from Uo percent8 toercentn housing construction fromercent toercent, and in industrial construction fromercent toercent.

The Seven Year Plan callsery substantial technical change in the construction of urban housing under the state categorya decided shift away from brick to apartment housing built oflarge panels of reinforced concrete. Thus large-panel housing construction is to account forercent of the living space to bein state urban housingb comparedercent in


rick, on the other hand, is to decline to onlyercent5 compared withercent

The construction field has its equivalent of the modelenterprise ln Industry. "Model construction projects" have been set up In the USSR as Bites for field testing, implementation, and diaaemlnation of modern or Innovative techniques and methods Inparticularly in Industrial construction. The volume of modelis to be raisedercent of tbe volume of9 toercent

3. Planned Gains in Labor Productivity

The Seven Year Plan ealla for labor productivity in construction in increase byoercent. According to Soviet calculationa, the planned Increases break down Into the followingwhich add tooercent:


in Productivity

inof the total




Compared8 Planned Increase

Greater use of prefabricated components

Greater mechanisation of construction

Improvement ln theand technology ofwork


Planned savings in labor can be roughly estimated by comparing the planned increases in laboroercent) and in the volume of construction-Installationercent) with thelevel8illion construction workers). Ifand production goals arc achievedhere would therefore be an implied labor saving ofillion workers. Or, in other words, the volume of construction-Installation planned5 would be attained without theillion workers that would have been required If labor productivity had remained at the level Of the labor savingillion workers,illion workers) would accrue from the greater use of prefabricated components andercentillion workers) from greater mechanization in construction.


XIII. Railroad Transport

1. Introduction

Soviet railroad transport consists of the transportation of freight and passengersain-line, national, unified comnon-carrler railroad system. Soviet railroads account for alarge share of the total Inland transportheyillion ton-kilometersr aboutercent of the total traffic turnover by all carriers. Traffic handled by the railroads is scheduled to Increase by moreercent during the Seven Year Plan, ond capital investment during that0 billion5 billion rubles, will beercent greater than during theears.

The labor force of tho Ministry of Railroads totaledillion persons Of thisillion were operating employees directly associated with the transportation process, and thoillion were employed in management, industry, research, education, and cczouaa! services.

Conversion from steam to electric and diesel traction is the most significant of the programs for Investment and technical change ln tbe Industry, vith respect to both the volune of investment capital Involved and the impact on capital and labor productivity. Of0 billion5 billion rublea of investment funds allocated to the railroadsercent) are for theof new diesel and electric motive pover5are for fixed electrification facilities. During the plan period the share of ton-kllometera performed by diesel and electric traction lo to increase Iromercent to betweenndercent.

illionercent of plannedre for new freight and passenger cars and modernization of the existing inventory,illionercent of planned investment) ore for the expanuion and modernisation of yards andother acquisitions; and design, production, and construction work. The aumillion rublea (I* percent) ic for signals, communications, and other automatic or semiautomatic Installations such ss automatic classification yards and remote control of interlocking station algesia and switches. illionercent of planned investment) are for double tracking and construction of nev lines.

The acquisition of new motive power and other improvements will enable the Soviet railroads5 to Increase gross ton-kilometera per

. HUtI

freight-train-hour, generally regarded as the best single index of line-haul efficiency, by kZ percent. Labor productivity of operating employees ic to increase 3I1 percent, and operating costs per traffic-kilometer are to decreaseercent. The first three annualplans were not quite fulfilled, but plans for increases in labor productivity were overfulfilled.

Soviet plans for technological advances in railroad transport emphasize re-equipment aod modernization of the existing main-linewhich involves the acquisition of improved motive power and cars and the improvement of the fixed facilities over which they operate. Soviet railroads are worked at very near capacity, and, in order to handle the Increases in traffic that accrue regularly, line capacity has to be continually augmented. Traffic density is planned6 million to la million tkm per kilometer of line.

2. Programs 'or Technical Advances

Railroadsarge number of typos of equipment andboth in transport and in maintenance of transportation equipment and facilities, ranging from manual devices to equipmont that is fully automatically controlled. Because of the diverse nature of theand processes, it is necessary to differentiate between majorand functions in assessing technical levels. The potential uses of automation in transportation are considerable and can best bebylow of units of freight moving uninterruptedly from an originestination. Because the distances are great and the goods diverse, the creation of such an uninterrupted end automatic flowomplex process on railroads. Technological characteristics of the various stages of tbe process and elements contributing to the process tend to vary widely.

a. Introduction of Automatic Equipment

The control function that regulates the movement of cargo units over the railroad network is most eubject to automatic control. During the Seven Year Plan, Soviet railroads will be equipped0 kilometers (km) of automatic block signaling0 km of centralized traffic control, bringing the total length of rail line equipped with advanced signaling00 km. It is possible to increase the capacity of rail lines as much asercent and at the same time decrease the staff and lower other operating costs by introducing this equipment. Since the adoption of the plan tbe decision has been reached toarge number of lines not scheduled for new signal installations with semiautomatic bloc(remote but local control of signals and switches at wayboutercent of the labor saving during the plan period will result


from the elimination of switchmen and switch and signal maintainers Stationtouitaneous remote contro^serie^?

iaA^r * regularQpeclflc PlaQ Is available, other major ele-


in the USSR but will not be widely introduced during the present plan Research is underway that will make possible theTrUfl11'and fully automating the movement

b. Mechanization


% lDes stations. 8aeod in new ele^m-

. . Qeu "wiotenance of way equipment of allo be available for use by the railroadsfaarlY all of this

uselnT^UCan b? defiDeda resuft of

use of such equipment, the level of mechanization is planned to ftroT

uction and eapifal^^tenanle,

fromoercent; for intermediate maintenance,5 toand for current maintenance,9 to io percent. in mechanization is to release moreanual J

e* Modernization and Replacement

Modernization and replacement of motive power and carsforercent of the investment program It is estimated that duringsar0 main-lSf steam locomo-

ill be retired and

replaced by0 diesel and electric units. The capacity in horsepower of the inventory of main-line diesel and electric locomotives is planned to increase nearly three times.

It is estimated that tbe inventory of freicht carsnits, orercent. The total est^teTcapacity of the inventory will increaseercents the averagTcapac-ity of annual additions is planned to increase^teadily analo^ac^oons The average capacity of cars acquired8 wasons. It is estimated thatbsolete cars of low capacity will be retired.

d- Introduction of New Processes

Significant increases in the transportation of petroleum and natural gas by pipeline represent an important shiftransportation process previously little used in the USSR. The expected transmission of


natural ga& by pipelineonverted in terms of standard fuel units, ia equalillion tona of coal and (assuming the average length of haul for Soviet coalillion tkm. Traffic on petroleum pipelines ls expected toillion tkm Thelabor saving resulting from tbe movement of this volume of energy by pipeline as opposed to railroads5 ismployees.

3. Planned Galna in Labor Productivity

Assuming that planned traffic levels on the railroads are reached, achievement of the labor productivity target wouldabor saving ofersonsnd tho total labor forceillion operating employees8 would have an absolute increase ofercent. Most of the labor saving could be attributed to the Increased use of relatively advanced equipment and Improved technology and the more intensive utilisation of existing facilities made possible by these improvements.


XIV. Coamunicat ions

1. Introduction

The Soviet Ministry of Communications, which is responsible for the civil post and telecommunications sector of the economy,abor force ofillion workers Of this total,ercent were employed in the postal system,ercent in the telephone system,ercent in the telegraphercent in the broadcasting6 percent in the common carrier system,ercent infields.

The first capital inventory by the Ministry of Communications9 Placed the capital value of its facilities9 billionn investment fundillion rubles has been allotted the Ministry, double that for theears. It is estimated that these funds will be allocated within the Ministry as follows; or common carriers,ercent for broadcasting,ercent for telephone facilities,ercent for postalercent for housing,ercent for telegraph services. Based on anticipated revenue, performance of the post end telecommunications sector isto increase byercent.

Under the provisions of Uie Seven Year Plan the USSR for the first time haa begun extenaive exploitation of modern technology for the post and telecommunications sector. This sector has long suffered from low priority and has not been able to give the amounts or the kinds and quality of service long judged to be needed by the Ministry ofto support rapid economic growth.

Tne overriding technological objective of the Seven Year Plan ls to commence the buildingew automated arterial communications base of common carrier facilities that are somewhat comparable instature to those found in Western countries today. Other technological provisions include the following: automated broadcast stations, automatic and semiautomatic telephone and telegraph exchanges, automated common currier lines, modem telegraph apparatus, and mechanized and automated mail-handling equipment.

Tlie development Of an arterial network of common carrierduring the Seven Year Plan will enable the Ministry ofto initiate the provision of automated servicessuch as tele-data, telecontrol, und telemeteringtailored to meet the needs of the Soviet economy. At the same time, the new arterial network will provide nationwide links for all sectors of the economy wishing to conduct these

* Replacement cost expressed5 prices in new rubles.


automated cervices for themselves. Furthermore, the realization ofgoals will improve the coverage, speed, and quality ofpost and telecommunications services. With the exception oftelegraph and broadcasting services, however, no major improvement is foreseen in the availability of service, especially to the public, because the provision of telephone and telegraph equipment will lagthe construction of the arterial network of common carrier facilltes on which tho equipment ultimately will be used.

2. Programs for Technical Advances

The technological goalsrovide for the application of proved communications techniques, many of which9 had not progressed beyond tbe stage of research and development in the USSR, although they were well known and widely used In Western countries.

The Ministry of Communications is giving primary emphasis in its plans to the establishment of an extensive arterial network of common carrier facilitiesigh degree of automation. Seventyof the repeater points on cable lines and relay stations onradio relay lines are to be unattended and remotely controlled. Multiplexing equipment will provide capacitieselephoneper coaxial-pair on coaxial cablek, orelephone channels per cable-pair on multlconductor coble lines; andelephone channels per radio-frequency trunk on microwave radio-relay lines. In addition, microwave and coaxial cable lines will be capable of carrying television transmissions. Toward the end of this plan period, miniature coaxial cable lines are scheduled to be introduced that will use solid-state components In unattended repeater points and willapacityelephone channels.

Other significant common carrier developments will include the new single-sideband and tropospheric scatter radio techniques. On main and secondary point-to-point radio circuits, single-sideband radio facilities will use high-frequency transmitters having powers of, andilowatts. Tropospheric scatter equipment wiilapacity ofelephone channelselevision channel per radio-frequency trunk.

Plans for the expansion of telephone and telegraph facilities are far less extensive than those for common carrier facilities, but the use of automated and modernized equipment will be emphasized. In urban, rural, and internrban telephone networks, modern crossbarare to be installed and existing automatic exchangee modernized. Ninety percent of the total urban telephone exchange capacityf the total rural telephone exchange capacity will be automated In the field of telegraphy, modern teletype apparatus will


replace obsolescent Horse and Baudot manual equipment. Some automatic telegraph relay equipment will be available, but the primary innovation will be the use of perforated tape for semiautomatic relay so as to avoid manual reperforation. Automatic exchange equipment will be utilized in expanding the subscriber telegraph network, which willercent automatic or semiautomaticnd modern apparatus will beon subscriber and public facsimile networks.

Automation is the key to the ambitious expansion of broadcasting service. Amplitude-modulation (AM) and frequency-modulation (FW)stations will employ automated transmitters that can be remotely controlled and supervised. Television transmitters and wire-diffusion amplifiers will have similar automatic features. In addition, modern technology will permit the initiation of color television and stereophonic radiobroadcasting services.

In the postal system, efforts will be concentrated on theof mail-handling operations. Fifty major postal enterprises willercent mechanized and automated,ther major postalwill beercent mechanized. imited amount of automation is planned for moil sorting, canceling, and vending operations.

3- Planned Cains in Labor Productivity

Because most technological developments during the Seven Year Plan will not contribute directly to increases ln the volume of post andservice, planned gains in labor productivity ofoercent are relatively modest. The realization of these gains wouldthe labor force requirements5 byillion workers, although there will be some increase ln total employment.

Some of the benefits of past growth Sn labor productivity have been passed on to the labor force in the form of shorter hours and

increased wages. The workweek was reducedo *tl hours0 and will be reduced to hO hours Average wages were increased

yoercent. Some workers in the lower brackets, mainly postal and telephone employees, received increases as high asercent.


XV. Handling of Materials

1. Introduction

One in every five Soviet industrial wage workers is occupied in transporting and handling materials within the pLant. These workersBove annually aoreillion tons of material with their hands or with inefficient machinery. atter of policy, Soviet planners Intend to reduce employiacnt in this activity during the Seven Year Plan and to increase the mechanization of handling materials. atter of practice, the formulation and implementation of the plan is left up to the various industries. The plans for labor saving surveyed In thepages included ouch plans as bad been devised for the reduction of employment ln the handling of materials. This sectionummary of data from the various sections on Industry ln this report.

Soviet industry8illion wage workersand handling materials within the plant. Of thiepercent were employed in the following four industries: and75nd4 Billion). Althoughercent of theof goods is moved with the use of some machinery, probablyone-half of the workers employed in this type of work do aamount In the machine construction plantsRSFSRor example,ercent ofoadersmanual physical labor.

the limited data available, it appears that the planners

expect the volume of transporting and handling materials within the plants to increase al leastercent during the Seven Yearhese plans (which usually underestimate transport requirements) call for increasing the productivity of labor byoercent and for reducing the cost of handling goodo byoercent.

2. iTog.-amo for Technical Advances

Achievement of the Soviet plans requires no breakthrough in technology but rather an adequate supply of equipment for tbepresently known. Tlie original plansalled for production5 billion rubles of hoist-transportnd a

RSKflH datalanned increase In tlie movement of materialsSR enterprisesillion tone8 toillion tone

** This figure may represent output in the RSrep only.


doubling of outputomparedn alternative plan has been proposed that calls5 target to beercent higher than the original target, on the basis of complaints tbat achievement of tho original targets would not Batisfy demand. In addition to revisingschedules, Soviet planners call for meesureii to improve the utilisation of tho present equipment park, which, on the average, is now ln use only one-half of the working tine.

Implementation of the plans wouldodest rise lnbut the rise would not be out of line with past experience. Soviot studies now indicate that output per worker in the handling of materials presently rangesons of material per shift in plants with low pecban1rationange ofoons In plants with higher mechanisation. In plants with Integrated mechanltation the handling totalp Jumpons per worker per shift, or0 tons per worker per year. Present plansump from an average ofons handled per worker per shift to5 of approximatelyons per worker per shift.

. 3- Planned Gains In Labor Productivity

Assuming thatercent more material is moved in. Soviot plants5 thanchievement of an increase ofoercent in labor productivity wouldabor savingillion wage workers5eduction of the total employment ln this type of work.


XVI. Equipment for Administrative Control

At the present time, accordingosplan estimate,ersons in the USSR are engaged in engineering, technical, and administrative control work.

To supply these workers vith the estimated requirements foradding machines, calculators, drawing equipment, duplicating and printing equipment, dictaphones. Industrial television, and data transmission systems would require an expenditure ofillion rubles. The Seven Year Plan calls forillion rubles of the desired equipment to be furnished by the end5 in addition to the present inventory valued at5 billion rubles. providedosplan official on the planned mechanization ofwork is summarized in Table

0 it was announced that, as part of the program to develop and utilize computer technology, large enterprises and computer centers were toigh-speed electronic computers during the Seven Year Plan, the first being desi^iated for the Likhachev automobile plant. Medium-size enterprises are to receive moreedium-capacityand moreow-capacity computers. radual transition is to be begun toward production ond allocation of electronic data-processing systems.

Soviet officials estimate that increasing the park of accounting and calculating machines in the USSRnitss planned, would reduce labor requirements in accounting und calculating work byillion wage workers. Additional large savings could befrom mechanization of documentation, drawing and design work, and copying work.

* ollows on

-l I'.-l"

USSR: Gosplan Data on Requirements and Supply of Equipment for Administrative Heeds and Data Processing0 and6


Hew Rubles




of Equipment

(for administration

accounting) aj

controlling, end

and dictating

and design

and reproducing

furniture (cabinets and

for data-processors and

The Soviet plan is not clear

to the

venes r.

this categoryfor

electronic corn-

may be included.




Recurring In Soviet plans are certain terms for which It is necessary to establish some basic definitions. These terms, however, are not fully standardized, being defined in various ways or being used loosely or vaguely by Soviet writers.

The most important concepts relate to the subjects of mechanization and automation. The fact that tho tems mechanization and automation are not mutually exclusive leads to much confusion. ery real sense, automationigher form of oechanization because it connotes the mechanization of the human functions of control and regulation. It would be possible to have mechanization without automation but notwithout mechanization. In ull likelihood, this relationship is the probable reason for the frequent use in Soviet publications of the term complex mechanization and automation. Achievement of this state implies that production operations are all mechanized and that machines or mechanisms perform functions of regulation and control. Many Soviet authors use the word automation in tbe senseigh form of "machine system" rather than in the sense of an "autcoatic machine" (whether an automatic latheaundromat). istinction is made between the degree of automation in an "individual" machine and the degree of automationsystem" of machinery.

The following definitions pertain to the levels of mechanizationingle work operation:

Hand work (or manual labor): the use of the hands alone, as ir. lifting.

Hand tool; the use of Sone implement, suchammer.

Hand raechanism: the usee machine that must oe Held by the hands, such as an airhammer.

Honuutomatic machine; the useixed or irobile machine io which the operations of the machine are directly guided by the worker, as in the useachine lathe.

Semiautomatic machine; the useachine thatork cycle automatically and then must be stopped, the article must be removedew one oust be insertedorker, who then starts the machine again.

- et -

crI : the DM OfMflhllW tttal PWibOM

r given work cycle without the need of human intervention, although huaan supervision of the machine Is required.

Reflex and programed automatic units: tbe uacachine in "which the task of supervision and the correction of deviations

from the work assignment are performed by the machine itself

with the eld of electronic or other systems.

(it should be noted that the term automatic machinery Is often used Indis-crimlnately in all of tho above senses except in hand work and ln the use of hand tools.") " '

The following definitions pertain to groups of operations;

Plow linest groups'of machines linked mechanically for trans-port (a" In conveyer systems) where the machinery is notand requires intervention by the worker.

ileal automatic blocks of machinery: groups of automatic .cometlnop semiautomatic) machines linked directly by special transport and synchronizing control systems, so that direct huaan Intervention is not required ln tho sequence ofoperations. As indicated, the operation ie cyclical in nature rather than susceptible to manipulationentral control board. An automatic transfer line consisting of linked automatic machine tools is an example of this category.

Reflex automatic blocks of machinery: automatic systems of machinery controlled centrallyentral control panel on the basis of electronic instrumentation and servo-mechanloms. In Western technology these systems are known as "open loop" systems.

Self-adjusting automatic blocks of machinery: reflex automatic blockn of machinery in which actual tasks are controlled and changed by meansomputer, which "closes tho loop" and creates the "closed loop" system of Western technology.

ir.-iii: conblr.es: heoretical concept thai that different types of systems may be linked automatically. Thus an automatic combine might link the sequence of extracting, processing, storing, andommodity.


Central control of blocogical culmination that takes the formontrol pyramid,omputer making key decisions which are transmitted to other computers that in turn actually control process systems.

Generally, when Soviet authors use the term mechanization, they arc usually discussing the substitution of machinery for manualrocess that still hus far to go if Soviet statistics on the prevalence of manual labor are accurate. "Integrated (complex) mechanization"mechanization of all interrelated processes without the necessity for the expenditure Of hand labor in the production process.

The terra automation is orten used anbiguojsly in the USSR, signifying cither the use Of automatic machine units or more commonly the use of some form of automated machine system. "Partial automation" implies the use of automatic machinery for particular operationstate of incomplete automationroduction process. "Complex automation'1 implies the useystem of automatic machinesrocess that produces some article. Often an intermediate part. In higher forms, complex automation may evolve into an "automaticn "automaticr an "automatic plant." "Fullmplies the presence of some form of "reflexither "open loop" or "closed :oop." The "means of automation"eneric term which covers the following types of equipment and systemssensors, amplifiers, electronic dutu processing and computers, control panels, and servomechanlsmsur. which does not include process equipment as Such.

Original document.

Comment about this article or add new information about this topic: