MEMO FROM RICHARD HELMS TO DIRECTOR CENTRAL INTELLIGENCE CONCERNING MILITARY TH

Created: 6/26/1962

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Director of Central Intelligence

^TTAR, THOUGHT (TOP smw). "The Prospect, of Development of Anrored Coabaty Major-General of Engineer-Technical Services L. Sergeyev

^closederbatim translation of an article vhlch

appeared in the TOP SECRET Special Collection of Articles rfS.

ovn to the iS.

level of

2. For convenience of reference by usin ajtenciea

J"to this serfcs of TOP SECRETcoatlllnlnS documentary Soviet material. The vord

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Richard Helms Deputy Director (Plans)

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Original: The Director of Central Intelligence

cc* Military Representative of the President

. Special Assistant to the President for National Security Affairs

The Director of Intelligence and Research, Department of State

The Director, Defense Intelligence Agency

The Director for Intelligence, The Joint Staff

The Assistant Chief of Staff for Intelligence, Department of the Army

The Director of Naval Intelligence Department of the Navy

The Assistant Chief of Staff, Intelligence U. S. Air Force

The Director, National Security Agency

Director, Division of Intelligence Atomic Energy Commission

National Indications Center

Chairman, Guided Missiles and Astronautics Intelligence Committee'

The Deputy Director of Central Intelligence

Deputy Director for Research

Deputy Director for Intelligence

Assistant Director for National Estimates

Assistant Director for Current Intelligence

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Assistant Director for Scientific Intelligence

cowrat ssR

SUBJECT M KnJJARj THJXHT (TOPhe Proepecti cf

Development of Armored Combety Ktjor-Generel of Engl Deer-Technical Servicea L. Sergeye7

DATE OPI961

APPRAISAL OP

COJfTEYr

reliable source (B)

FoUovingerbatim tranalatloo of an article titled "The Proepecte of Development of Armored Combatyeral Of Englnear-Technical Services L. Sergeyev.

Thia article appeared InI fourth Issuepecial ver-aloa of tbe Soviet military Journal Voyennaya My el (Militaryhia Journal la published irregularly and le classified TOP SSCRTT by tbe Soviets. I Fourth Issue went to preaa onI.

Headquarters Comment: "miliary Thougbfie publlehed by the USSR Ministry of Defense ln threa verelooe, clasaified RESTRICTED, SSCPET, and TOP SECRET. The RESTRICTED version le iasued monthly and haa exlated The SECRET version le Issued irregularly. By the endl laauea had beenf themhe TOP SECRET veralon vaa initiated in0 and la also issued irregularly.

IIRONBABKl

Proapects of Development of Armored Combat Vehicles

by

Major-Ceneral of Engineer-Technical Services L. Sergeyev

Nov, perhaps, no one will oppose the tenet that the tank troops are beat suited for conducting combat operations under conditionsuclear/missile war, that they, better than other arms of troops, can exploit the reaulte of our own nuclear strikes against the ccesp and have the most protection from enemy nuclear eounteratrikea, and that they have greet striking power and high mobility,esult of which they are the basic strike force of the ground troops. Obvioualy it la not neceasary to prove the dependence of all these qualities on the level of development of tbe armored equipment with which the tank troopa are armed.

At the preaent time, because thereapid developmentequipment in general, and armor in particular, themay ariseeault of losing qualitative euperlorltyenemy from an equipment standpoint be cornea apparent. Inthia. It la necessary to emphasize that the greatestopinion concerning military-technical progreea are observed inand determination of the actual direction* ofarmored

In thia connection, the atatementa of several authore in the pages of the Journal "Militaryoncerning questlctu of future development of tanks, deserve serious attention.

A lot of attention was also devoted to these questions at the mllitary-acientific conference that was conducted et the Military Academy of Armored Troops at the end of

* Hote: We have in mind the articles of Marshal of Armored

tho Journal "Militaryl

This article will expound on tbe prospects of development of basic types of armored combat vehicles that meet the conditions of utilizing tank troopauclear/aiaslle war.

Tanks

Despite the fact tbat tanks, in comparison with other equipment, have turned out to have the greatest ability to withstand nuclear burets, new tanks have to be created, mainly taking Intoarther Increase in the effectiveness of their utilizationar with wide-scale use of nuclear weapons and missile means.

The basic data on modern Soviet and foreign tanks are given in Table 1.

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incorporated Id one model. At the Mae time, because of economic and purely military considerations it ia necessary to strive to reduce tbe number of essential tank typesini mum.

Even though it is Impossible toingle universal type of tank in modern conditions, in the tank porks of all theendency is observed toasic type, the combat qualities of vhicu would permit Its utilization for performingide range of combat tasks. The other types of tanks will be more specialized In their characteristics.

In the foreseeable future, taking into consideration theof armored equipment by our probable enemies, it is advisable to improve further our light, mediumnd heavy tanks, to develop artillery coabat vehicles and also create infantry coabat vehicles, which will probably replace tbe present armored personnel carriers In combat subunits of motorized rifle units and large units. Besides these combat vehicles. It is necessary to produce combat vehicles of special designation in more United quantities (contend vehicles, bridge layers, flame throwers, anduilt on the chassis of tanks.

A cutback of specialized productionecrease in th* inventory of Bps re part* must be achieved byfamily" of vehicles based on the components and mechanisms of mn produced types of tanks, with the maximum uniformity and atandardizatlon of componentB, mechanisms and other equipment both, within the "family" and among the vehicles on which they are based.

The medlua tank, being th* basic tank und the one found In the great-eat numbers, must fulfil the widest range of combat tasks. These tanks form the basis of the coabat power of the major tank large unit* and formations. Intended for performing Independent operational tasks. IB the composition of the motorized rifle units they are used for direct support of Infantry. Thi* great rang* of combat tasks being fulfilled makes the problem of determining th* basic specifications of tbe medium tanks quite difficult and critical. The difficulty of resolving Itndicated byt that,, in the British army it was considered Impossible to create one type of medium tank, asesult of which tbe major tank large unit* were armed with high-speed

"cruiser" tanks and alow "infantry" tanka which were issued for direct support of infantry.

From the nature of the combat operatlona of medium tanks it ij apparent that combat with enemy tanks will be unavoidable for them and will be one of the most important missions. Therefore theof theae tanka must first of all be antitank, capable ofthe basic tanks of the enemy. Besides, it is called upon to fulfil many other fire taeke (for example, the Incapacitation of pereonnel in armored peraonnel carriers and in shelters). Consequently, the armament of medium tanks must be versatile and multipurpose,

Vith the improvement of the means of antitank defense and theof the combat qualities of enemy tanks, firepower increased, the thickness of the armor increased, and the weight of medium tanks increased correspondingly. At the present time the weight of our tanka of this type has reachedons, in West Germany (experimentaln Japan andboutons. In the USA and tha UX, tbe combat taska of medium tanks are fulfilledoon tank'

Reaearch carried out by Industry and ln the Military Academy of Armoredovs that with tbe retention of tub* artillery systems for the armament of the tank, the optimum combat weightedium tank in the next few years will"be approximatelyon*. It is highlyto increase further the weight of the medium tank. But it is also completely unacceptable to reduce the weight at the expense of lta protective featurea.

Reduction of the weightedium tank, with simultaneousof its protective features, an lncreaee in ita mobility,growth of its firepower may clearly be achieved by switchingguided missiles. However, for the time being, the basic armamentmedium tank willun. At the present stage of guidedthey at ill cannot satisfy two contradictory requlrementaand antitank effectiveness. In connection with this (asln the aaeimilation of guidedt vouldeverful antitank gun with guided missiles (URS). Ibthe latter must be located inside the tank and be launched bye gun. They (URS) will be used for destroying eneay tankst willpecialized supplement to the basicof the

- In order to Increase th* firepower of the Una it la necessary toangefinder analoading, equipping itight eight euu uaviue* for night vision that work withoutUl lighting.

Th* armor of th* Unit must ensure reliable protection from mssntltank weapons and the best possible protection from tho basic tank and antitank guns of th* enemy.

Itecessary for th* medium tank* to nave high mobility in order to ensure swift tempo* of tb* off ens ire,t utilisation of condition* created by the delivery of nuclear strikes against the nemy, and for rapid dispersal whan there isthreat that the enemy wiU use these weapon*. Th* necessary mobility, with the possibility of attaining average speed* of movement over th* terrain of aboutom/hour may be achieved la tanka with th* utilization of iamroved transmissions with automatic or lead-eutoaatl* drive, and with tbe creationuspension that ensuresvery saoovnoreover, the maximum speed of th* tank should beom/hour, for which it is necessary to Increase th* power of th* tank by approximatelyP/ton.

In carder to increase th* maximum effective rang* of the tankhe cruising rang* of th* tank must be substantiallyin comparison vith tbat which ba* been achieved in our modern medium tank.

The tank must havespecial antlatcadc protection (PAZ) from all the destructiv* effects ofnuclear burst. ttention should b* given to increasing tb* biological protection of the crew from penetrating radiation.

fundamental iaprovaments In protecting tanks from iU th* various modern destructiv* means must be found innewn particular the compact accommodationeduced crew. In thi* case, It wUl be auch simpler to carry out th* appropriate complex (armor and biological) protection of th* crew, without detriment to the othercharacteristics of the tank.

The tank must be suited for moving along the bottom of rivar* with the eld of simple equipment for underwater driving (OPVT) and forwith the use of Individual Beans of flotation.

Heavy Tank. In aodern coodltloca the heavy tank* that have. In comparlaon vith the medium tanks, mote powerful armament andbetter protection,eans of qualitative reinforcement of the nedluB tanka, and are tbe noet powerful weapon for combating tbe tanka of the enemy*

The qualitative relnforoement of medium tanka, aa la known, may be attained with the assistance of heavy tanks or assault guns created on the chassis of the medium tank and differing from it by having more powerful armament. Tha first method is preferable. The powerfulof tbe heavy tanks Increases the possibility of their combatespecially in offensive operations.

Vith the adoption aa armament, by our probable enemy, of lC^ma rifled guns that haveigh muzzle velocity of subcaliberaa the baalo artillery weapon of Its mass-produced types of v. tanks, with the presence of varloue meana for reinforcing them, it becomes necessary to create qualitative meana for reinforcing our medium tacks In the form of heavy tanks or other combat vehicles that differ from the medium tank, at leeet by tbe fact that they have more powerful armament.

Since tbe basic task of tha heavy tanks will be the destruction of eneay tanka, they will,reater degree than the medium tanks, be better suited for the Installation of guidedies (URS) as their male armament. Tha use of URS opens tbe moat effective path for Increasing tbe firepowerharp improvement In protective features.

The future development of the heavy tank dependa on lncreaalng Itsncreaaing its armor protection, andore effective system of antlatomlc protection then other types of tanks have. Anof the combat qualities of heavy tanks must ba achieved bynew decisions oo specifies, based on the use of new armament.

Light *ftink. Th* broadening of the sphere of tank use in conditionsocleer/aisaile war aakes it necessary to have well-armed light tanks, among which it la possible to single out the following types: reconnaissance, antitank and tanks of airborne troope.

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combat vehicle* perform intelligence, combat security, pursuit, and ccsnnunications tasks. Their distinguishing features are high mobility and croea-country ability. In order to achieve these Qualities, striving to get lev weight, firepower .iu< rotection are sometimes sacrificed. However It should ue mind that with the fulfilment of the task of security with such vehicles, it is often necessary to halt enemy tanks at favorable lines, and to be subjected to the effects of various fire means during pursuit.

Antitank combat vehicles are an important supplement to tbe heavy tanks,ighly mobile antitank reserve. They can,ery short period of time, be movedufficient quantity to the point of an enemy tank breakthrough, for example, into the xoneuclear burst. The quickly created antitank screen will slow down the enemy advance before tanks with more powerful armament arrive. With the limited weight, these vehicles will have relatively weak armor protection and will be Inferior to the medium (basic} ones in respect to flrepover. If it is necessary to have multipurposefor th* reconnaissanc* vehicle, then, for similart la possible to use guided missiles, even some of the simpler ones.

Airborne landing tanks are necessary for the airborneanding is an important target and will definitely be attacked by enemy tanks. Tt must be capable of maneuver and must have an adequate strike force to capture important objectives* low weight andlimiting of armor and flrepover ar* obvious for the airborne troops' (VOT; tank. At the same tin* lt la asslgnod quite complex task*. eed armament tbatoth versatile and quite effective frca the antitank atandpolnt. The armor oust provide protection from he fire of large-caliber aechineguns and small-caliber automatictary difficult to combine all these characteristic*. But if an effective airborne landing tankreated, it vill be able to fulfil the function* ofeconnaissanceight antitank vehicle. Obviouslyultipurpose light tank must6e caliber gun, capable of destroying the basic enemy tanks (mainly their side armor) at medium distances. As an additional antitank weapon lt my have several guided missiles of the simplest design, located, for example, on the turret and guided by wiree. The tank must haveloading and be equippedangefinder.

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Tha maxlauaofank Boat be higher than that of medium and, ee pec tally, heavy tanka. We should recall one of the lessons if the last van light tanks, tost vera inferior to the nedlua ones in respect to mobility, vers found to be useless for fulfilling coabatteaks. Seeing that theiroguns) did notany danger for the Dediua tanka, not to mention the heavy,of our light tanks vas haltednd inear earlier.

The system of antlatomlc protection of the tank being proposed must consist mainly of carrying out hermetic sealing.iltering-ventilating installation, pressurising the crev compartment, aod enaurlng alaple decontamination.

In thia tank, enaurlng flotation vlll be of speclsl concern, aa thia la contrary to th* striving for ccaapactnaaa and aaaU sis*. It is possible that this question Vlll be resolved Vith th* Sid Of stationary blocks Of fosa plastic (pe nop last) or by other aM*ns vith which lt is posslbl* toemporary (during the tla* of floating) Increase ln weter displace meat.

It is necessary to not* that the noet successful light tank vlll not b* able to replace th* baale tank ln aa offensive operation. Of eours* th* light tank vlll be cheaper than the aedlun one, but it willpecialised coabat vehicle thatnferior to th* baale (aedlun) tank ln the complexprotection" that define* theankir* rioul.

Infantry Coabat Vhlcl**

At th* present tla* th* explanation of the baale tactical-technical qualitiespeciallel* for to* infantry deservee very serious attention, the need for which, in condition*ith the use of weapona of mass destruction, is apparent.

Th* difficulties la determining th* basic features ofehicle are explained by th* fact that it auat b* th* eoabatthat la mass produced la th* largest quantities, with tbe requirements and limitations that arts* there from, Imposed, first of ell, by economics. At the sea* time, this veal da must ensure the conduct of vigorous coabat operation* during th* use of nuclear/alaallebe requirements of which can-cot b* satisfied by regular armored personnel carriers that areeons of transport.

Th*ofmlning th*f th* Infantry coabat vehicle aakea Itfor u* to dwell on this question in greater detail.

Dp to th* present time the Infantryecessary ars of thehough Its role end significance in tb* ground iray ha*changed. The basic etrlhe fore* role passed froa th* infantry, first to the artillery (Worldhen to the artillery andnd finally to nuclear/alssll* weapons and tanks. In examining th* offensive operation, it say be said aiaply that tb* infantryiven the final function* after the enemy Iso strikes by th* strike arms of thend also the final assimilation of the captured territory.

th* essence of coabat utilisation of infantryh* individual actions of individual soldiers within th* framework of th* organised collective. The infantryapable of destroying the enemy to th* lasto bring the battle tond, while the *trlk* arms of th*ule, perform the cardinal, basic tasks of the battle, but do not bring it to an end.

Besides performing the function* of bringing thing* to an end, the infantry, in some cases, create* opportunities for using the strike arms of th*nd carries out coabat operations under conditions wter*f .trie* arm* of th* troop*ot *xp*dlent (for example, whan operating In mountain*).

under conditionsar, the Infantry will not be able to fulfil it* Inherent function* with it* old weapons. On the battlefield it must be mobile (motoris*d) andertain extant pro-tected froanuclear burst and it* efftots (araored). This can only be achieved with coabat vehicle* that ar* specially constructed for th* infantry. Itf special importance to have such vehicles fcr th* infantry in th* task troop*.

Thus, infantry coabat re hi das (PBM) sr* coabat vehicles with the use of which th* infantry retain* its Inherent peculiarities forbattle aad acquires the protection and mobility oo tbe bettle-fl*ld that lt lacks. In our opinion Itoapletaly incorrect tothe PBM onlyean* for coordinating tba infantry with th* tanka, orthe mean* of transport to tb* field and partially on tb* battlefield. Infantry coabatr* the basic Infantry means

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Maybe tbs bait solution of this question would ba tha creation of individual armored mobilequipped withingle soldier. However, at the present time thia solution la Impossible due to technical and economic considerations.

Proceeding from this, lt is possible to fco-mulate approximate requlrementa for th* modern infantry coabat vehicle.

It is visualised in th* form of an armored (lt must be closed and hermetically aeeled) mobile, aaphlblou* vehicle having high eroaa-country ability and holding several soldier*. Th* crew (landing force) aust, tocertain extent, ba protected from tbe affectsaeleer weapon and It* after-effect* (thermal radiation, radioactive substances andhile In th* vehicle, they auat have the opportunity to uc* theirweapons. It la advisable to foresee the possibility of convenient and covered dismounting.

Obviously it is expedient to limit th* sir* of th* crew/ (landing force) ofehiclehe minimal TOK unit. maller crew (landing force) will lead to an undesirable increas* in th* total number of such vehicles, sndlarger one will turn th* Infantry combat vehicleersonnel carrier, where,umber of eases, ineoaplete combat uae of th* entire landing force concentrated in the vehicle will be observed, and with its destruction the personnel will suffer heavy loese*. Besides tha landing force, the PM mustechanic -driver and an operator for th* fixed armament. The latter auat raaala ln th* vehicle in order to glv* fir* support to the dismounted landing force. Therefore, total else of the crew (landing force) willoersona.

Tha armament of the Pawl must ensure th* destruction of similar vehicle* of th* enemy,nd personnel. Th* Individualoflandingven if it Is poaelbl* to uae it actively in coabat, cannot fulfil all these tasks. It is only capable ofenemy personnel, and even then at an Insignificant distance. Therefore it la reccsntended to have fixed, light armament oo tha vehlcl*.

Th* fixed armament must be compact and have the ability tonot require an increase in th* size of the

vehicle, and not aecreas* the eeae of accommodating the landing fcrc*.

If auch armamentpecial coabat compartment with arace (pogon)iameter0m, thla wiUand increase the weight of th* PBM, and will turn Itombination artillery combat vehicle and armored personnel carrier. Thla will result In an unjustified complex vehicle which It probably will not be possible to createa as scale.

Apparently the moat appropriate armament for the PBM willmail-caliber automaticm caliber) which will sometimes even destroy tanks. It should be kept In mind that fragmentation shall*oliber gunubstantiallyff*etarg* caliber machine gun. The gune reinforcedegular machine gun.

With light guns, itossibl* to in*tall several Infantry-type antitank guided missile* (PTURS) at th* aide* of the turret.

Tor effective utilisation of th* anarm* of th* landing force, the riflemen can beat be located along th* vehicle, facing th* sides, which should have ports and embrasure* provided In them.

An Infantry vehicle that la mass produced, compact, and if possible, light, cannot have armor capable of withstanding ahell*. It is advisable to protect tbe PBM from the fire of large-caliber machine guns, otherwise they will atop it Justeasilyth* standard machine gun stepped th* infantry in. Th* glad* plate* of the PBM mustesign thicknesso Vcam. The side* cannot be the saws, or th* vehicle easmwt be amphibious. m aids* will ensure protection from tbe fir* of standard machine gun* and, within tbe limit*arget angle of ifrom th* fir* of large-caliber one* also.

The special protection of the PBM must include the hermetic sealing of the body andfiltering-ventilating system for the collective protection of the erew from radioactive substances, and chemical and bacteriological weapon*. It Is not obligatory for ths PBM to have higher speeds (average and maximum) than th*ut in principle they ar* helpful. Obviously, th* power rating ofP/tonaximum speed ofom/hour will be adequate for It.

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The cruising range should not be lea* then for tanks. Theability of the PBM abould be no vorae than that of the tanka. Fundamentally thia can be ensured with tracked or improved wheeled running gear.

Without going into detail regarding the advantages and disadvantages of tracked and wheeled running gear, we will only point outhorough analysis shows that it Is expedient to use tracked running gear on the PBM. With tracked running gear it la possible toimpler transmission, running gear, and body, and lt la considerably eaaler to make than buoyant by using ordinary caterpillaror thia purpoae. With other conditions equal the vehicle has amaller dimensions and weight. Co the whole theae parometeraaaa-prcduced vehicle are declelve and tbe necessary assuranceaterpillar track service period of tjpOOa isroblemight vehicle. This problem can be resolved fairly easily by using rubber and metal couplings.

The comparatively low weight of tbe infantry combat vehicle permita raking it amphibious. Since the attainment of high apeeda in water la not an obligatory requirement of the PBM, ita buoyancy in vater can be achieved by using ordinary caterpillar tracks.

Seeing that the infantry combat vehicle auat be the vehicle found in the amy In the largest numbera, it la necessary to strive for it to be of minimalmply constructed, and cheep, eo that it vould be possible to make wide-scale use of standard eoamonenta of tbaindustry.

all this sakes greet demand* on tbe apace allocationf the quality of tbe allocation in tbe tank la evaluated by how much of the interior volume of the vehicle la left for the combat ccesartment.or the PBM the largest portion of the Interior voluaa ahould be devoted to personnel.

Th* apace allocation of the PBM must be original. It la doubtful that the chassis of other vehicles (for example, of the reconnaissance tanks) can be used for it. Co the contrary, it la nor* likely that on the chassis of this anas produced vehicle other vehicle* ln th* aame velght category, amy be created.

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In principle lt le possible to nave two logical arrangementsvehicles. Thebe motor and transmission complexmechanic-driver are located in front,flength; the other space remains free for acccessodatlngforce and armament; tbe rear is made in the form of e

The advantages of this arrangement are the ease ofconvenience of disembarking tbe landing force, and the wideof using the chassis ofehicle without(thanks to the preaence of vacant space) formedical, transport, and other vehicles. However,arrangement It is difficult, when the vehicle Is floating,the weight of the heavy nee* section to the rear. vehicle becomes rather

The secondhe motor and transmlssioo arrow tunnel along th* center line of the vehicl*,motor In the rear section and th* transmission In th* forwardlanding fore* la located along the sides of tb* vshlcl* withto tbe tunnel. In order to decrease the width of th* vehiclepossible to turn th* *oldler* of th* landing force slightlyarmameot and it* operator ar* installed In the forward part ofalong with the mechanic-driver. Th* rearad* ininged ramp, th* same as for th* first variant. Thisobtaining the minimum length and floating balance, but itto tbe former in ver-atlllty (because of th* tunnel alongline of th*

Working thi* out with sketches has shown that tb* PBM in the tracked version, that fulfil* all tbe requirement* examined above, amy be createdeight of fl tooo*.

It should be said tbat In the armies of, Vest Germany andonsiderable amount of attention is given to develcolna; infantry armored personnel carriers.

So far th* OS Armyoncentrating exclusively on trackedtssumed that all th* infantry will conduct combat operation* In armored personnel carriers.

Several armored personnel carriers have been introduced aa araament in the French army, but they areladted quantity. The appearance of the wheeled, armored personnel carrier "Pa oar" must be viewed only as an attempt to test the possibility of creating an armored personnel carrier on the cbasala of the reconnaissance armored car "Fener".

So far tha British army does not have any tracked armored personnel carriers. The basic vehicle of this type is the wheeled armored personnel carrier It ahould be aald that in it,ertain extent, it was possible to-oderately complex chassis with satisfactory cross-country ability.

resents data on modern vehicles that are used for the infantry. The majority of them are atlUeans of transport, and do not provide the infantry with the opportunity to carry on combatunder the new conditions. However, some of the foreign vehicles mounting appropriate ermament may approach the prospective PBM that we have examined.

Let us dwell on individual models of araored personnel carriers.

The Soviet wheeled, armored personnel carrieroes not stand up to criticism. Tn the pursuit of an economic ccssaerelalehicle was created that does not satisfy the given requirements aa regards cross-country ability, unit power rating, and several other parameters. The combat qualities of thia vehicle equate with tha level of armored personnel carriers used in the years of World War

Tho tracked, armored personnel carrierKore improved design, but neither does it satisfy many requirements. Without dwelling on its merits, let us note the faults. In actuality, thiseana of transport foranding force ofersons. The latter are accomodated in crowded conditions in the central part of the vehicle and, located there, they cannot participate ln combat. Dismounting of the landing force Is difficult. The vehicle does not have fixed armament. The glacis plate Is not thick enough. The arrangement of the vehicle Is poor

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for useith th* large tlie of the vehicle tb* landing forceccommodatedpo*Ug* sUmp". Thi*of using tbe chasBl* of an amphibious Una. Th* special propellers for traveling through water are an unnecessary luxuryehicle of thi* type. Co th* whole th* design of th* armored personnel carrieromplex, heavy, and also quite expensive, finally. It* mobility (speed, cruising range) leaves auch to be desired.

Some of tha moat successful foreign models appearuch batter light, even though they also have faults. Here v* have In minda,Hotchxlss"est Germany,Hlspeno-Sult*" (Vest Germany, Switzerland,nd "Pirate" (Switzerland). These armored personnel carrier* have the smallest size and weight. The landing forcequad) la conveniently accommodated in th* enclosed body aad can, tocertainparticipate In combat. Convenient dismountingrovidedamp at tb* rear. They make wide-scale use of motor vehicle engines end transmission*. SomeHi spa no -Suiza" ave an automatic small-caliber gunuzzle velocityh* otherslber machine gunouting turret. Some of the model* (AMI,LL3)equippedAZ system.

The AMI armored personnel carrier cannot be counted with th* beat,umber of good feature* (for example, tbeesultomewhat excessive landing force and great weight. Th* wheeled, armored personnel carrier "panar"ery unique design, but du* to its greathichrobably not acceptableass-producedtnly interesting from th* technical standpoint.

The PBM tbat our army needs must considerably surpass tb* best foreign vehicle* that have been examined. Here, It must be considered that it willonly be under development, and thatehicle* ar* alreadyInto the armament, and will probably ba improved. Therefore, there shouldarge oca sura of quellUtlv* superiority in it* makeup, such as: vary small dimension* and weight with convenient accomodation of theforce, armament (freebat Is oven capable, if necessary, of destroyingequet* armor protection from large-caliber machine guns,together with all this, It should be amphibious.

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Despite the presence of nuclear veapona, artillery support say be necessary for successful operetlona by tacks and infantry, especially vhen they are separated froa tha other forces. Therefore, It Is desirable for the tank troops to have mobile tracked vehicles vith light araar, equipped vith hovltior or rocket sraament (free rockets) and designated for artillery support of the tanks. Such vehicles should not be confused with tbe turretleas tanks vith shall-resistant amor, the so-celled assault guna (SAU) of wartime. Artillery coabst vehicles (ABM) usually carry out group fire froa concealed positionsefinite distance froa tbe enemy.

The ABM, la conformity with the missions lt fulfils, oust have shells that have good high-explosive fragmentation action, considerable range of fire, capable of destroying area targets, good lateral and range fire maneuverability, and#arge unit of fire. The coat expedient arm ment Is the howitzer (larger caliber than on tanks) or free rockets (Multiple launching mount). It la recommended that only part of the vehicles be araed vith the latter,upplement, capable ofigh concentration of fire. Bowltzar armament muat be locatedlosed revolving turret. Bulletproof armor giving protection froa standard caliber automatic fire, la completelyuch vehloles avoid direct contact with the enemy.

The arrangement and chassis of the ABM should be tba same asight tank, onlyifferent turret. Tor stability thera shouldpade (soshnik) and suspension idler wheels. The questions of antlatoadc protection should be resolved In the ssae Banner as for other vehicles having lightight tanka and infantry coabat vehicles.

The ABM has been developed to tbe greatest degree in tbe US Army where the artillery battalions of tank divisions are araedmaam self-propelled howitzers. Aa an exampleehicle of this type.elf-propelled howitzer of the American Army. Its weight Isone. It Is completely armored (bulletproof). mm howitzer Is mountedevolving turret. The range of firs0 aeters, and the unit of fire laounds. Ths vehicle overcomes water barriers afloat, under Its own power.

Besides tba field-type ABTM.uaad is tba tank divisions for direct ertlllery support of tanks. It la new necessary to have high-powered ABKs. Sucb vehicles ere intended for inflicting nuclear orartillery strikes et distances ofn. Their design cao duplicate that of tbe field-type ABH In many ways (in an enlarged form) and can be Bade on the chassis of tbe baale tank. Kitaliber guneium-caliber free rocketa (adaallea) any serve aa armament. ehiole of this type is shown in Illustration Thia Is5 atomic assault gun of tbe US Army. Its weight Isons, and range of fire0 meters. The mechanic-driver is located In sn araored cab. The crew end en additional unit of fire are located ln an auxiliary armored personnel carrier. The vehiclearge cruising0 km).

High-powered ABM'a may be attached to tank dlvlslona or evenin their composition.

Illustration 5- 5 Atonic Assault Quo (USA)

Vehicle cm an "Air Cue hi on"

Let ua evaluate tba prospects of military application of vehicles flying,lightly above the aurface of the ground by usingirunning gear. In order to haveehicle travel above the eurfeee of the ground and above voter, the pressures exerted at its base are limited by veluea of epprcotlmatelyhis meanaehicle that weighs approximatelyons must have,airly small expenditure ofase area of morequare metera. The uppermoet limit of the above-indicated pressure la applicable for soma planned vehicles of greater weight, and the lowest has been implemented ln various types of flying motor vehicles end in tbe British vehicle "Borerera ft".

The large length end width,omparatively email lift height (notetera) and the small sire of slope negotiatedoln prototypes) limit tbe possibilities of wide-scale application of such vehicles for military purposes, permitting then to nove only over roads, unusually level terrain, and over calm vater aurface a.

The advantages of utilizing supporting running gear conaiat of the fact that in comparison with the engines of aircraftt permits reducing the power fromp/ton to SoP/ton. Moreover, according to data in the foreign press, the useful load may reach Uo percent of the weight of the vehicle.

1 Uait cweelveamall clearance (of up tobasic faultsehicle with supporting running gear willof design, connected with ensuring control duringsize, and limited cross-country ability when movingheIr clearanceincreased, then the power necessaryit will grow rapidly and will attain values tbat modern The power limitations are approximately the same for "flyinehave ducted rotors. With an increase of the clearance, thedecreases sharply, tha expenditure of fuel increases, andrange ie

Taking into consideration everything that has been stated, it is possible to visualize two types of such ccobet vehlclest

small vehicles, intended for movement above land and water, which will be ground troop equipment; their intended combat use will be reconnaissance and ccoanunicatlons; increasing the clearance will lead to unfavorable parameters of the unit power rating which, however, may prove necessary; therefore we do not rule out the possibility ofehicle of the "flying Jeep" type with ducted rotors;

_ ICle' thflttransport, obviously

they will be used to advantage for moving over water, but also will be able to move over fairly lavel terrein.

During the last few years, the combat characteristics and, above all, the firepower of the tanks of our probable enemies have Increased significantly (see The correlation of the combat qualities of our medium tanks and the basic tanks of the DS Army has become less favorable than it was several years ago. Therefore, it is necessary to apply serious efforts to creating new models of tanks that would be superior to tha foreign ones. It is also clear that successful ground troop operations are possible only if they are equipped, not only with high-quality tanks, but alsoumber of other combat vehicles that answer modern requirements.

Original document.

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