THOUGHT (TOP SECRET)i "The "FALLEX-oO" Maneuver* of the Armed Forcea of the NATO Aggressivey Colonel-General fl. Ivanov
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Followingerbatim translation of an article entitled "Theaneuvers of the Armed Forcea of the NATO Aggressiveritten by Colonel-General S. Ivanov.
This article appeared inl Fourth Issuepecial version of the Soviet military Journal Voyennaya My si (Military Thought). This Journal la published Irregularly and is classified TOP SECRET by the Soviets. 1 Fourth Issue went to press on
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Theaneuvers of the Armed Forces of the NATO Aggressive Bloc by Colonel-General S. Ivanov
Fromeptember0 maneuvers were held by the armed forces of the NATO aggressive bloc under the provisional name of They embraced the territory of Europe, North Africa, the Central, Northern and Eastern Atlantic, the Baltic, North, and Mediterranean Seas, and also the territory of the USA and Canada.
Taking part in the maneuvers were the command elements and staffs of all the combined armed forces of NATO in Europe, the Atlantic, and the Mediterranean Theater of Military Operations, the command elements and staffs of formations and large units of ground troops, air forces and naval forces, aviation units of combined and national air forces, warships, ships, and land-based aircraft, ground and airborne troops, missile units, and atomicn alltaffs, up to SfiOOarships and ships and moreen of the combined armed forcea of the bloc. In addition there were involved in the maneuvers the general staffs and staffs of the branches of the armed forces, the command elements and staff! of air defense troops androops, the central directorates or departments of the ministries of internal affairs, transport, economics, coruscations,. etc, of all the member nations of NATO, with the exception of Portugal and Iceland.
At the beginning of the maneuvers the armed forces of all the NATO member nations were brought to heightened combat readiness, as were all their organs of military leadershiponsiderable number of civilian departments goals naneuvers Pursuet* not only military, but also political,
Aa la well known, reactionary circles in the USA and some other Imperialist countries, frightened by the possibility of the establishmentasting peace, were striving
feverishly0 to increase international tension, together vith the arms race and preparationew war. The ruling circles of the USA committed openly aggressive acts against the Soviet Union in the form of the incursion into our air space of reconnaissance airplanes, and disrupted the Paris Summit Conference and the work of the Committee on Disarmament. The American imperialists, together with their partners in the bloc, organized intervention against the Congo and Laos, and tried by force to stifle the revolution in Cuba.
All these actions of the reactionary powers, which were dangerouB for the cause of peace,ecisive setback on the part of the Soviet Union and other peace-loving countries; the aggressive plans of the imperialists were disrupted. By the autumn0 the Eisenhower administration wasosition of International isolation. In this situation the Soviet Union made tho proposal to hold the XVth Session of the General Assembly of theith the participation of the heads of state, to settle the most important problems for the strengthening of peace.
The ruling circles of the USA and other imperialist nations adopted measures for. Khrushchev and the heads of government of the other Socialist nations out of the General Assembly and for hindering the discussion in the UN of the unresolved international problems. Among the measures designed to attain these ends were theaneuvers .
The maneuvers, since nearly all the member-nations of NATO took part In them, also had the goal of demonstrating the strength and "unity of the free world"efense "against the threats of Communism". This was considered all the more Important under existing conditions when growing contradictions were gradually eating away the aggressive bloc. Theaneuvers must therefore be assessed as one of the major provocations of the aggressive imperialist powers, in pursuit of definite political goals -to enflame the world situation and aggravate international relations. But the provocation failed: the XVth General Assembly of the UN took place with the participation of the heads of government ofajority of the nations of the world. The tireless activity. Khrushchev at the
was crowned with notable success. . Khrushchev
advanced important proposals on the questions of disarmament,
the liquidation of colonialism, changes in the structure
of the leading organs of the UN and on other topics, directed
toward the strengthening of peace. All these proposals
met with the support of many nations and the warm approbation
of the progressive forces of the world.
The military goals of the maneuvers were to check the preparedness of the command elements of the headquarters, the national organs and the combined armed forces of NATO (principally of aviation, the navy and missile units) for carrying on joint operations, especially nuclear, in the initial periodar, and also to check how far the operational-strategic plans which had been developed correspond to reality', and thereby to Increase the overall combat readiness of their armed forces. In the maneuvers there were worked out in essence all types of modern operations: offensive and defensive operationsir forces, missile units, ground troops, and the navy.
Theaneuvers consisted of approximatelyxercises, conducted under an overall concept and against the background of the situation determined by the political goals outlined above. The concept of the maneuvers consisted of exhibiting itself as the "victim offcounterblow" against the enemy with nuclear weapons, of gaining nuclear superiority and supremacy In the air, and thereby creating conditions for the seizure of the strategic initiative and for the ground forces to pass to the counteroffensive, and thus to destroy the opposing forces of the "aggressor". Under this concept the goal was pursued of concealing the real plans of the NATO leaders, which are based essentially on an offensivere-emptive strike and direct attack on the nations of the Socialist Camp.
Theaneuvers were two-eided. On one side washe armed forces of NATO, and on the other was "Orange" the armed forces of the Warsaw Pact nations. The maneuvers were divided into two stages: in the first stage were worked out the first operations of all branches of the armed forces under the conditions of the initial period of war, as planned in peacetime; in tbe second stage were worked out the subsequent operations of this period, on the basis of the conditions which develop
during the coursear after lt has begun.
The Initial situation preceding military operationsengthy period of worsening relations between the member nations of NATO and the member nations of the Warsaw Pact. From February on, both sides were carrying out secret preparations for war. At the end ofhe NATO countries secretly began partial mobilization, and transferred French divisions from Africa to Europe.eptember the aovement of naval forces from bases in the US to the northeast part of the Atlantic began. Five days before the beginning of militaryeptember) the "military alert" signal was given, the NATO striking fleet was formed, the forces ofdefense were deployed in the Atlantic, and tactical aviation was transferred to bases in'"Norway and Greece (one squadron in each). Ten hours and thirty minutes before the start of militaryimple alert was declared. From this moment all the armed forces of the bloc began to be brought to complete combat readiness. Ininutes almost all aircraft were in the air and the missile units and atomic artillery were brought to readiness for the use of nuclear weapons. 9 hours oneptember the general alert washe beginning of allltary operations.
A similar buildup of the situation before tbe beginningar haseature of other exercises held earlier, among them "MAXIMUM TENSION" and "SIDE STEP". However, in past exercises for bringing the armed forces to complete combat readiness lt took up to two days, while in theaneuvers ours andinutes were spent. This could be achieved because the striking forces (missile units and aviation) were already at combat readiness in peacetime, while the ground forces were at half strength andorresponding quantity of ammunition and items of equipment in the hands of the troops.
In the first stage of the maneuvers, nuclear strikes were launched against "Orange" with strategic and operational-tacticaln the terminology ofuclear offensive took place, which lasted about seven days. This constituted the main component of the first stage. The ground troops conducted operations with the purpose of supporting the nuclear attack (defensive operations) and
got ready to go over to the counteroffenslve. The navy also participated ln the nuclear attack, and conducted operations to destroy tha "Orange" naval forces and to protect the sea and ocean lines of communication.
The principal exercise of the first stage vas Exercise "FLASH BACK-1" in the course of which were worked'but problems of nuclear attack and the conduct of operations by groupinga of ground troops and air forcea ln the European theaters of military operatlona (cf. For this there were deployed:
the Central European Theater of Military Operations-the Northern Army Group, consisting of four armyivisions),; the Central Army Group, conalstlng of the Seventh Army nd "the First Army omprising six army corps in allivisions); the Second and Fourth Combined Tactical Aviation Commands and the Third Air Armyomprising in2 aircraft of tactical aviationircraft of strategic aviation;ntermediate range "Thor" missile launchers;Mace"*and "Matador" cruiae miasile (krylataya raketa) launchers; andattalions of tactical missiles and atomic artillery;
the Southern European Theater of Military Operations -an Italian army group, consisting of two armies (four army corpa and separate large units,ivisions in all)issile command (five "Corporal" and "Honest John"he First Greek Army, consisting of three army corpaivisions) and two "Honest John" battalions; the First Turkish Army, consisting of three army corpa (nine divisions) and two "Honest John" battalions; the Fifth and Sixth Tactical Aviation Commands and the British Mediterranean airircraft in all) and the US Sixth Strike Fleet.
Tha concopt and course of the maneuvers confirm the previously held view that the NATO command considers the Central European Theater of Military Operatlona aa the theater of paramount importance. It la here that the main forces of the bloc are deployed, the overwhelming part of the means of masa deatructlon are used and the solution of the basic tasksuture war is contemplated. For this reason the NATO command haa devoted great attention to the preparation
of this theater and haa created in it the nocesaary supplies of aaterlel for the conductar. In the plans of NATO the Southern European Theater and, even morehe Northern European Theater,econdary place.
Theaneuvers show once aore that the aggressive bloc of imperialistic nations base all their calculations for the attainment of the goalsuture var on the mass use of nuclear weapons. In these maneuvers, as in others, the baaia for tbe operations of the various branches of armed forcea waa the so-called nuclear attack. It was carried out with the goal of gaining nuclear superiority and seizing the atrategic initiative from the first days of the war. In the course of this attack the following tasks were worked out: destruction of the enemy's nuclear weapons and means for employing them (aircraft andisruptionoaaible "Orange" attack; deatruction of groupings of ground troops; disorganization of troop control; interdiction of the approach march of reserves by creating obstruction zones; and destruction of communication routes.
The first nuclear strikes (in NATO terminology the counterstrike) were launchedinutes after the beginningar supposedly unleashed by "Orange". However,inutes before the start of the war, almost ill the tactical and strategic aircraft were airborne, and the alaalle unlta and nuclear artillery had been brought to complete readiness. Therefore, part of the wOrange"nuclear strikes were launched against vacant places. In thia way the NATO leaders wished to show that their intelligence has the moat precise information.
For the launching of the nuclear strikes the following were involved: trategic bombers ircraft of tactical and carrier aviation (approximatelyercent'; of the tactical bombers and fighter-bombers are delivery aircraft for nuclear0 "Thor" Intermediate range missile launchers, which were being used in exercises for the first time;Mace" and "Matador" cruise missile (saaolet-snaryad) launchers; andattalions of tactical missiles and atomic artillery.
All tasks of the nuclear attack, according to the calculations of the NATO command, were fulfilled inours. It should be noted that in past exercises the fulfilment of such tasks tookours. The depth of the strikesm and more. According to incomplete data
there were launched ln all0 nuclear strikes, Including moren the Northern European Theater,0 in the Central European Theatern the Southern European Theater. In comparison with earlier exercises an increase can be noted ln the number of nuclear strikes, especially in the first twenty-four hours.
More thanircraft actually took part in flights. The light bombers launched strikes oneime at intervals ofoinutes. The enemy antiair defense was breached at high altitudes. For training purposes they made the run over the objectives not less than twice from variousighters launched nuclear strikes from altitudes of00 meters, either singly or in pairs, andepth0 km and more. The flight to the targets was accomplished at medium and low altitudes. Great attention was devoted to the launching of nuclear strikes with the aid of surface radar systems to direct fighters to the target from great altitudes and at distances upm.
The strategic aviation of the US, Intended for the conduct of the "Counter Actions" operations and the strategic aviation of Great Britain did not actually participate in the flights. The subunits of American strategic bombers weretate of Increased combat readiness at air' bases in Great Britain, Spain and Morocco. From the American bases located in Great Britain nine bombers in all actually sortied. The flight course passed over the Bay of Biscay, Spain, the Balearic Islands, Sardinia and France. The flight was carried out by groups of three aircraft each at altitudes0 meters andmlnute Intervals between groups and one-minute Intervals between aircraftroup. The aircraft approached the targets by different routes, and released their bombs from altitudes00 meters. Each crew was assigned one basic and two or three alternate targets.
Special attention was paid in the maneuvers to the problems of the organization and support of the nuclear attack. According to calculations of the NATO command the basic goals of the nuclear attack for the destruction of the enemy's groupings and his military-economic potential were attained. The operations of strategic aviation and
of the "Thor" missile units were declared to be especially effective.
It is obvious that the nuclear strikes planned by the NATO command can cause enormous damage to our country and armed forces unless measures are adopted to disrupt these strikes. The possibilities for disrupting such strikes are quite real. The main body of delivery vehicles for nuclear weapons consists basically of strategic, tactical and carrier aircraft, as well as cruise missiles, It has once again been confirmed that up to this time the USA and its allies are considerably behind the USSR in the development of missiles, especially those of strategic import.
Inasmuch as the basic means of nuclear attack is aviation, it is not difficult to reach the conclusion that It is necessary to combat it In the air with PVO forces and also to destroy it on the airfields.
In the first stage of the maneuvers the ground troops worked on problems of defense with the aim of screening the areas where the nuclear means are based and of holding the line for the subsequent offensive.
The main forces In the Central European Theater were deployed on the line Hamburg, Bremen, Felsberg, Bamberg, Regensburg, east of Munich,istance of SOm from the borders of the GDR and Czechoslovakia. The screening forces and reconnaissance were operatinghe majority of the divisions were linearly deployed on tbe main line. In reserve were four divisions in all (out. On theivision was allottedm in the sector of the Northern Army Group andm in the sector of the Central Army Group. The:main task assigned to the troops of the first echelon was to bold the forward line for at leasthe time the NATO command calculates is needed for accomplishing the main tasks of the nuclear attack.
During the course of the defensive engagement, groupings of ground troops were created for the subsequent transition to the attack along the main axes. For the Northern Army Group these groupings in the zones of the offensive comprised
West Gernan and British army corps, and for the Central Army Group, the Third West German Army Corps and the Seventh US Army Corps. The reserves moving up from the rear area were intended for uae In the offensive. It is clear that the NATO command hopes that ln the course of the nuclear attack the enemy will sustain such destruction that the ground troops will be able to go over to the attack along these axes.
The defense of Turkey and Greece was organized along the international boundaries.
In this exerciae, "Orange" had taken the offensive along all axes from the first days of the war. The rules of the course of combat operations were so drawn that, ln the first three days la- tha Central European Theater, "Orange' achieved quite insignificant success. Only on individual axea were they able toedgeom into the forward line of the NATO troops. By the endOrange" had pressed back the NATO troopsepthm, and their average rata of advance waaom per day. Here the "Orange" attack was checked.
In the Balkans the "Orange" forces advancedm ln the first three days, and were forced to go over to the defensive. Here the average rate of advance reachedom per day.
In the opinion of the directors of the exercise,Orange" suffered considerable losses: in aviationon personneloATO troop casualties ln comparison with those of "Orange" were manifestly lower. Not one of their divisions was put out of action, and up to the eighth day of the war their troopsigher combat effectiveness than thoaa of "Orange". The troops of both sides conducted combat operations with their large units, taking into account losses from nuclear strikes. It should be noted that ln the course of defensive operations provision waa made for maneuvering by forces and weapona and for the launching by them of counterattacks.
Thus the exercise "FLASHhows that the NATO command counts on the maaa uae of nuclear weapons in the first daysar to disrupt the enemy attack, to preaerve
their own forces, and to ensure that they will be able to go overetermined offensive following the nuclear strikes.
Combat operations in ground theaters were played outimilar way even in earlier exercises, particularly exercise"SlDE STEP" It is obvious thatersion of combat operations has been foreseen in NATO plans.
There are weaknesses in this plan, which must be taken into account. All calculations of the NATO command are based on the use of nuclear weapons. If the nuclear strikes can be disrupted or weakenedignificant degree at the beginningar (andossibilityhen favorable conditions will be created for carrying out an attack with decisive" goals. In the screening zone the NATO troops will not be able to offer any serious opposition to the attacking large units. NATO groupings on the main line can be crushed by nuclear strikes even before the attacking troops reach them. In the troop formations on this line there will be gaps measured in hundreds of kilometers. The "patchwork" composition of the divisions (made up of the troops of various nations) also does not contribute to the steadfastness of the troops. If all this Is considered, then the conclusion Is inevitable that the optimism of the NATO command, as revealed by theaneuvers, is, putting it mildly, ill-founded.
Deserving of serious attention is the naval Exercise "SWORDhich was carried out In the first stage of the maneuvers by the forces of the US and British strike fleet in the Norwegian Sea. Here there were deployed the US Second Fleetritish fleet, which were composed of four strike carriers, one heavy carrier for antisubmarine defensewo cruisers armed with missiles, two light cruisers,ubmarines (including two atom-poweredarrier aircraft. The fleet began to move into this areaeptember. Two days before the beginning of military operations, the operational buildup of the fleet was complete, and in seven hours itaneuvering area in the central portion of the Norwegian Sea, from which it was supposed to launch nuclear strikes.
The fleet was to launch nuclear strikesargets. Carrier aircraft completed one sortie per day.
and launched strikesepth of upiles. The strikes were launched mainly by single aircraft' and in daylight hours. The plan of nuclear strikes was fulfilled, according to calculations of the leadership of the exercise, inours. Thisery important circumstance. In past exercises it usually tookours. The decrease in the time for launching the planned nuclear strikes was attained by increasing the quantity of means used for this purpose and in maximum exertion of them. It is evident that the NATO command considers that carrier aviation can operate more successfully even in comparison with tactical aviation. No special differences in the methods of operations of deck-based attack aircraft in comparison with strategic and tactical aviation were noted in this exercise.
The formation of the naval forces in the maneuvering area deserves notice. The fleet consisted of two operational strike groups: the American (two strike carriersircraft) and the British (two strike carriershich were drawn upistance ofoiles from each other. In the center of each group were located the strike carriers, with intervals ofoiles. Around the strike carriersistance of up toiles were located the forces of the antisubmarine and antiair defense. Air cover was provided by deck-based fighters, which patrolled in the air In two tiers, with groups of two aircraft each, and with the groups at Intervals ofoiles from one another. istanceiles the aircraft, submarines, and destroyers of the radar patrol were operating.
Thus, two operational groups of the fleet were located in an area measuringiles, or, if we include the elements of the radariles. This area was saturatedarge number of warships of various types. The forces of the Sixth Fleet, operating in the Mediterranean Sea, had approximately the.same formation. In the maneuvering area. In fact this fleet was drawn up somewhat more compactly.
In the formation of the forces of the NATO strike fleet in the maneuver area thereumber of weaknesses, which must be noted in order to organize measures for combating them. If the radar patrol elements are destroyed or neutralized, then the local security forces will not be able to defend the
strike carriers successfully from strikes by long-range bombers armed with0 or, especially,r from submarines armed with the new missileB. The operational groups are in the maneuvering area forours, which facilitates combat against them. It is important only torompt determination of the maneuver area in order to establish the position of the attack carriers In the combat formation and to ensure the guiding to them of our own strike forces. One must also take into account the vulnerability of attack aviation to modern means of antiair defense. ord, there are substantial possibilities for disrupting nuclear strikes launched by the forces of the carrier fleet of the NATO bloc. After fulfilling the task, the fleet withdrew to the Iceland area to take on supplies. The vulnerability of the strike fleet is Increased even more during thia passage, and especially in the area where supplies are taken on.
These are the most important exercises of the first stage of theaneuvers.
The situation created for the start of the second stage of the maneuvers is markedroadening of the scope of military operations. Austria has been occupied (supposedly by "Orange"). Yugoslavia has suffered an attack by "Orange" and has entered the war on the side of NATO. Spain is ready to enter the war. The situation has become aggravated in North Africa, the Middle East and Indochina, and on the border of the Chinese People's Republic and Nepal. Thus, according to NATOew world war must break out. The directors of the maneuvers strove ln every way to shift the entire responsibility for the broadening of military operations onto the Socialist nations. But behind this clumsy camouflage it is not difficult to see the true aggressive plane of the imperialists for fanning the flame of world war. Even at the very beginning of the war they did not hesitate to violate Austria's neutrality. The maneuvers show that in case of war the NATO command intends to use Yugoslavia on their side. The aggressive imperialist circles consider that even at the beginningar they will succeed in spreading military operations to Africa, the Near and Middle East and to Southeast Asia,so as to revitalize or strengthen their domination in these areas.
In the course of the games at the beginning of the second stage, which corresponded to the eleventh day of war, both sides had suffered considerable losses, and there had been formed large zones of destruction and high levels of radioactive contamination. The NATO armed forces, however, maintained nuclear superiority and achieved supremacy in the air, mainly with carrier aviation. As for the "Orange" forces, their attack was broken up and their stocks of nuclear weapons were exhausted (or else they were holding them back). The NATO troops therefore went over to the counterattack. This constituted the main feature of the second stage of theaneuvers.
Exercises "FLASHnd "HOLDFAST" were held in order to work out problems of the counterattack (cf,he NATO troops went over to the counterattack in the Central European Theater and in the Balkans. In Italy the defensive operations continued.
Reliance on nuclear weapons as the basic means ofar was also reflected during the second stage of the maneuvers. At the beginning of the counterattack, an additional allocation of nuclear weapons was provided for, especially for the troops operating in the Central European Theater. Support of the ground troops was switched over to the carrier strike large unit employing its nuclear weapons. Provision waa made for nuclear preparations for the counterattack, for the destruction of the enemy's remaining nuclear and air potential, and for the creation of obstacles on his lines of communications, with the goal of interdicting the moving up of reserves and delivery of material. These were the tasks set for the direct support of the attacking troops by nuclear strikes.
There is some Information on the reinforcement of the groupings of ground troops in the Central European Theater. At the beginning of the counterattack here there was an additional deployment ofivisions: three French divisions were transferred from Africa, one division was transferred from Great Britain, four divisions were mobilized in France, and one division each In Belgium and Holland.
The main goal of the counterattack was to complete the defeat of the enemy's troop groupings in the theaters, to
restore the position on the front and to create conditions for the seizure of the GDR, Czechoslovakia, Poland and Hungary and for the transfer of military operations to the territory of the USSR. The plan made provision for the launching of strikes by groupings of ground troopsonsiderable depth. In the area of the Northern Army Group the basic mission was carried out by West German and British army corps, and in the area of the Central Army Group by American and West German army corps. The main forces were concentrated on the Berlin and Dresden axes. On the Balkan Peninsula the main strike was carried out by the Turkish Army.
The troops went over to the counterattack on the Balkan Peninsula on the eleventh day of the war, and In the Central European Theater on the thirteenth day of the war.
In the course of the exercise the counterattack in the Central European Theater was completely0 hours on the fifteenth day the position along the whole front had already been restored, and the NATO troops were advancingate ofm per day (we should romember that the "Orange" forces had advancedate ofom per day). An lnvasldn of the territory of the GDR was further contemplated, but this was not played out in the exercises.
The counterattack in the Balkans likewise developed "successfully". The First Turkish Army advancedate ofm and the First Greek Army atom, per day. In the area of Alexandropolis an amphibious landing was played out (two divisions).
Among the groupings of ground troops in the Central European Theater the first place in number of divisions Involved belonged to the Federal German Republic. This demonstrates the ever-growing role of West Germany ln NATO. Also in partial testimony to this is the fact that in the maneuvers there waaest German armed forces high command, which, ln comparison with the other participants in the exercises, tried toore independent position from the NATO command.
The leadership of the Bundeswehr strove during the maneuvers to have the FRG troops operate on the main axes,
and in this they were successful. In comparison with past exercises the West German command in theaneuversonsiderably greater influence on the adoption of solutions for the operation, in the selection of targets for nuclear strikes, and on the direction of troops in the course of military operations. As an example, one West German army corps was assigned the task of securing the flanks of the NATO armed forces from the direction of the Bavarian-Czech and Austrian borders. The Bundeswehr command did not agree with this task. It employed the main forces of the corps for an attack on the main axis, and for covering the flanks of the whole grouping it allottedart of the forces. We must note that the American command did not oppose such pretensions of the West German revanchls.ts, but encouraged them in every way.
The Bundeswehr general staff in its conclusions on the maneuvers emphasized above all that the FRG troops ought to be used on the axis of the main strike of the NATO combined armed forces, and for this reason in comparison with the other allies, they should be best supplied with personnel and material-technical means.
The Bundeswehr general staff does hot rely on the ability of the USA to support NATO troops with the necessary materiel means in the coursear, and therefore raises the question of advance creation of stockpiles in peacetime. With this goal the FRG has created in Western Europe its own bases, and also wishes to transform them in advance into its rear area in case of war. In the conclusions on the maneuvers it was also mentioned that the headquarters involved in the exercises were cumbersome and insufficiently mobile, that the means of automation, the television apparatus and other technical means of control were not suitable for field conditions. Obviously, the West Gorman military will adopt measures to eliminate this important, in their opinion, shortcoming.
The Bundeswehr leaders also note that the military preparedness of the FRG is inadequate, that its military potential is still low and that there has still not been created in the FRG either the moral or the economic or legal prerequisites which would permit the Bundeswehr to "defend" Itself, along with the troops of the other member nations of NATO which are located on the territory of West Germany. It is clear that what is meant is the activation
of the military preparations of the West German revanchists, the strengthening of the Bundeswehr and its transformation into the basic striking force of NATO, which would furnish them at any favorable moment with the possibility of realizing their predatory plans which are directed against the Socialist countries. These plans and actions of the West German revanchists demand the most acute attention from our side.
The naval Exercise "SWORDas conducted with the goal of working out the support by carrier strike large units of the operations of ground troops in the Central European Theater. The NATO command obviously considers that tactical aviation at the present time may sustain heavy losses,esult of which it is notosition to give effective support to the operations of ground troops. Carrier aviation, on the other hand, can maintain its combat effectiveness, and therefore it is advisable to switch to it for the support of ground troops during military operations.
In the Bay of Biscay was deployed the large operational strike unit which had accomplished the maneuver from the Norwegian Sea. This large unit consisted of two strikeeavy carrier for antisubmarine defense, two cruisers armed with missiles, four submarines and moreircraft. During the course of the counterattack the carrier large unit playeduclear strikes in the Central European Theater.
In addition to thoseonsiderable number of other exercises were conducted in the course of theaneuvers.
On the Jutland Peninsula there tookwo-sided troop exercise, 'V6TUBB0RN DEFENSE" . On the defending side were two divisions (FRG and Denmark) and on the attackingritish division and parachute brigade. Simultaneoualy with these, exercise "BONE DRY" was conducted in the Baltic Sea to work out the combat operations of the navy of the FRG and Denmark for cooperation with ground troops in an actual amphibious landing ln the area of the straits of the Baltic Sea.
the same time two exercises were conducted oo the territory of Norway and in the northeast section of the NorwegianOOL TIME" and "SWORDith the participation of Norwegian troops and a British carrier strike large unit. In these exercises were worked out antllanding defense and support of ground troopsarrier strike large unit.
Exercise "BLUEhich was conducted in the area of Iceland and the Faeroe and Shetland Islands, is deserving of serious attention. Its main goal was to work out antisubmarine defense. Involved in the exercise wereubmarines andoastal-based antisubmarine aircraft. These forcea operated along an antisubmarine lineepthiles with the: mission of preventing "Orange" submarines from breaking out into the Atlantic Ocean. In the center of the line, deployed in positions, were eight antisubmarine submarines. For the aviation patrol zones were designated, in which three to five aircraft operated continuously. Each aircraft was in the air an average ofoours.
A considerable number of exercises were held to work out the protection of naval lines of communication: exercise "FIRST and SECOND WATCH" in the area of the English Channel, the Central Atlantic and tbe Bay of Biscay; "TIGER GRIS if andn the southern part of the North Sea;ndn the Mediterranean; "BALLAST" and "COFFERDAM" in the area of the Azores and the Straits of Gibraltar. In the first stage of these exerclsea were worked out the dispersal of ships and warships, and their evacuation together with the withdrawalonsiderable number of ships to bases on the US coast. In the second stage problems were worked out of guaranteeing naval lines of communication and of escorting convoys and single ships. Up toonvoys were actually conducted, each convoy consisting of two to four ships plus security forces. Considerable naval and air forces were involved ln securing lines of communication. All these exercises demonstrate that the NATO command attaches great significance to the protection of its sea lines of communication, especially in the Central and Eastern Atlantic and in the area of the English Channel and the Straltsof Gibraltar.
Simultaneously with theaneuvers,and against their operational-strategic background, the US Air Force carried out two exercises for strategic aviation and for the combined air defense command of the North American continent under the provisional code namesnd "GREAT EFFORTS".
In the first exercise, which was conducted in the continental USA fromoeptember, operations were worked out for strategic aviation in tbe first air operation of the Initial periodar. In cooperation with the nuclear attack of the NATO armed forces. According to the concept of the exercise, strikes were launched against rear area objectives of our country.
The second exercise with the participation of this type of aviation took place In the northern and Arctic areas of the USA and Canada fromot the beginning of the counterattack in the Central European and Southern European Theaters. esult of the operation the strategic aviation inflicted great damage on the "Orange" forces, but exact data on thia have not been brought out. The directors of the maneuvers are in agreement that the military command of tbe US did not have precise information on the reaulta of the atrikes of atrategic aviation. Despite thla it waa acknowledged that lt was necessary to carryurther operation involving the launching of nuclear strikes against rear area "Orange" objectives by the forces of atrategic aviation.
A brief analysis of theaneuvers permits us to draw the following basic conclusions.
Theaneuversast training measure of the aggressive NATO bloc, in which were worked out problems of the conduct of war by the bloc against the USSR and other Socialiat countrlea. Eaaentially all the armed forcea of the NATO bloc, all the organs of military control,onsiderable number of civilian agencies were brought to Increased combat readiness for the organization of the maneuvers.
the maneuvers did notull exposition as to how they will solve the problem of cooperation between missile units and aviation.
A typical feature of the maneuvers was an Increase In the tempo of the offensive, which can be explained by the mass use of nuclear weapons.
For this reason the conduct of the so-called nuclear offensive is deserving of very acute attention, as carried out by the forces of strategic, tactical, and carrier aviation and by missile units.
Despite the use by the directors of the maneuvers of such terms asocuments on the maneuvers show distinctly that the military doctrine of the NATO bloc has an aggressive, offensive character and that the bloc command are supporte of the pre-emptive strike.