MEMO FROM RICHARD HELMS TO DIRECTOR CENTRAL INTELLIGENCE CONCERNING MILITARY TH

Created: 5/29/1962

OCR scan of the original document, errors are possible

IRONBARK

92

Director of Central Intelligence

MILITARY THOUGHT: "Combat Against Enemy Missiley "Rear Admiralhukovakly

nclosederbatim translation of an artiole'.which appeared in the TOP SECRET Special Collection, of Articlea ofl-tha Journal "Military Thought" ^Voyennaya My si")'published by the Ministry of Defense, USSR, anato the level of Army Commander.

2. For convenience of reforenee by USIB agencies, the codeword IRONBARK has been assigned to this aeries of TOP SECRET CSDB reports containing documentary Soviet material. The word IRONBARK is classified COfOTDEOTZAL and is to bo used only among persons authorized to read and handle this material.

n^the interests of protecting our oourcc, IBO'JBARK should -be ^handled on awithin your, offIcejy. ^'. Request--for"extra copies bf.'t^

any part of this document In any other formtheh"'

Original: The Director of Central Intelligence

cet Military Representative of the President

Special Asslstsnt to the President for National Security Affairs

The Director of Intelligence and Research, Department of State

The Director, Defense Intelligence Agency

The Director for Intelligence, Tbe Joint Staff

... '. .The Aasistant Chief of Staff for Intelligence, Department of the Army

The Director of Naval Intelligence Department of the Navy

The Assistant Chief of Staff, Intelligence U. S. Air Force

The Director, National Security Agency -

Director, Division ofEnergy

uided Mios llee and Astronautics Intelligence Committee

The Deputy Director of Central Intelligence":

Deputy Director for' "

Aasistant Director for National Estimates

Assistant Director for Current Intelligence

Assistant Director for Research and Reports

Director for Scientific Intelligence

Director, Rational Photographic luterpretail

USSR

COUNTRY SUBJECT

MILITARY THOUGHT: "Combat Against Enemy ^Ulsslloy Rear Admiralhukovakly

DATE OF INFO:1

OF

Documentary

A reliable source

Followingorbatim translation of an article titled "Combat Against Enemy Missileritten by Road Admiral O. Zhukovskiy.

This article appeared in1 Fourth Issuepecial version of the Soviet military journal* yysltary Thought). This journal Is publisbed irregularly and is classified TOP SECRET by the Soviets. 1 Fourth Issue went to press on

Combat Against Eneay Missile Submarines by Rear Admiralhukovskly

The application of atomic energy to the submarine haa decisively changed the character of its activity: the operating range of submarines has grown immeasurably, and their speed, especially their submerged speed, their endurance, and their diving depth, have been Increased considerably. The arming of submarines with ballistic missiles (balllsticheskaya raketa) with nuclear warheads makes it posslble'^to .use submarinoa extensivelyuclear attack, .assigning them missions tomportant operational^trategic^objisctives ln enemy territory from great'"'distances; Thus, atomic missile" (ntomnaya raketnaya) submarines have acquired lndependont

strategic significance, unlike other arms of forceB of the navy.

The military leadership of the United States considers that in the next ten years atonic missile submarines will become one of the decisive means of combat at sea and will replace aircraft carriers aB tho mainavy. Therefore, the) United States is devoting attention to the .construction of atomic aubmari with "Polaris" missiles. To allot the) amount of money tha United Stat' of aircraft carr

here" are how three,?'* issile submarinos-.'in>service and uhi "GEORGEand 'ILAFAYiffer* somewhat'! in their'performance charact

In the

cons

of atomic ml the which

(taktiko-tekhnicheskiye dannyyo). According to tho referenc book Jane's Fighting Ships, he United"States should have five submarines of the "GEORGE WASHINGTON" ype, five ofTHAN ALLEN" type, and four of the "LAFAYETTE? type. In addition, It is planned to build seven more submarines of tho "ETHAN ALLEN" type in the next fow yoars .

Inhere were the following atomic submarines in the US Navy: the missile (raketnaya) submarines ^EORGE WASHINGTON" and "PATRICK HENRY'J the torpedo

missile (UI

SEAWOLF*SWORfiFISH", SEADRAGON; "SKIPJACK", and "SCORPiON; the guided

nd the radar picket (RLD) submarine "TRITON". Of the submarines under construction, two should join the fleet at the endnd the remainder on the following dates:

missile submarines "T.ROBERTnd "ABRAHAM LINCOLN" at the beginninghe "THOMAS EDISON" innd the "J. MARSHALL" in

7-the torpedo submarines, fiveevennd four

Data on the'Constrndtiop of Atomic Submarines in theas of October

Tn '. for

Type of Atomic Submarines Service Construction Construction Total

Submarines Torpedo Submarines

LGuided Missile Submarines (PL URS)

25

^Picket

aro now five atomic missile submarineshe US Navy.

.according to data from thehe shipbuilding program ofUnitedthe number of atomic missile submarines in theupnd "the number of antisubmarineto

The main centers tor construction of atomic submarines in the United States are:

General Dynamics Corporation in Groton, Connecticut.

Portsmouth Shipyard in Portsmouth, New Hampshire.

Mare Island Shipyard in Vallejo, California.

The bulletin "Navalo.

4.. The New Shipbuilding Corporation in Pascagoula, Mississippi.

News Shipbuilding ln Newport News, Virginia.

The New York Shipbuilding Corporation in Camden, New York /sic7.

The missile submarines are being built primarily ln Groton and Camden. The antisubmarine submarines are being built primarily ln Camden, Pascagoula, and Vallejo.

At present, tbemissile atomic, submarines of the USarmed witholaris ballistic missiles0 kmuclear warhead with a

equivalent ofegatons. Later theyxpected to-tako on board for thoirype Polaris missiles with ranges00 km.arheadrotyl equivalent of three megatons.

According to data from the foreign press,of Polaris missilesubmarine haveit is possible to use this weaponpeedepth ofeters, andea .statemore than six balls, conducting tha firing withofinutes between firings. Later on, itto Increase the rate of firing, decreasingbetweeninutes^firing' Polarison awith specified coordinates isto proliminary calculations,deviation from target at maximum range

The complex navigation equipment of the'submarines allows thorn to sail submergedong time and ^determine their own position oxactly without coming to the surface, and this ensures the launching of the missiles against specified coastal targets.

The systems for biological protoctlon of personnel from radiation, and regeneration and conditioning of the ait, which aro Installed on atomic submarines, and also the quality of the outfitting of the lntornal quarters,provide the comparatively good habitability of the submarines and

searching out and destruction of missile, submarines at the exits from bases, during sea passage, on the approaches to the launch positions, and in the area of launch positions (startovaya pozltsiya)j

and hampering the missile submarines in the use of their weapons;

of the forces and means of combat support of the missile submarines.

"* experience of the past war testifieseffectiveness of.strikes against theconstruction and basingypfhus, for.several measures 'carriedout by thedefend the points of construction and basing ofat the shipyards of special in which were carried out the constructionof submarines, construction of shelters forand repair of operating submarines,the antiaircraft defense of the points ofbasing,ubmarine losses sustained by thefleet at bases were very substantial. Directly at bases,strikes of aviation,ubmarines were

percent of the total In addition,es

ubmarines were losthe'process of" at assembly yards, at outfittii andubmarines,ubmarih< thef2

German shipbuilding centers.^nd^bther

cooperating with them, GeVman'submarineystematically failed to fulfil submarine construction "plans. During the years of the war,'; thia5 percent of the plan' and amountedee .'Causes of German Submarine^Losses Buring Their:"Stay at Bases and in tHu^groce-jB of ConstruetTon" and Combat Training.

byifsblts, published by the Naval Academy of Ship-

building andryloy (VMAKV im. Krylova))

Thus, although the main German submarine losses were sustained during their conduct of combat operations at sea, even during the past war the tendencyelative decrease

of submarine losses at seaelative increaselosses at construction bases becamea future nuclear/missile war this tendency probablymore evident. With the appearance of atomichigh maneuvering capabilities and greatwith them at aea has become much morecomplicated than in the past. The nature ofof theae submarines differs sharply fromof operations of submarines ln past wars, whenforced to approach vessels and ships to thea torpedo aalvo because the basic mission ofto destroy vessels and thesea targots.i In approaching tho targets beingwere forcedreaknderwent pursuit, 'and some of them

As has alroady been indicated above, atomic missile submarinea have as their basic mission the destruction of important coastal targets. Therefore, one can anticipate that while bound for launch positions to fire ballistic missiles they will avoid meeting any vessels so that they will not be detected prematurely. If lt is taken into consideration that the launch positions and the routes of movement, to them can be situated in vast spaces of ocean in areas whore the operations of our antisubmarine -forces are .hampered, then the advisability of delivering strikes agalnsi^'pbints oftrue tion ^

submarinesb"toestroy"the^.latter> sxlz sea , becomes

However, it is necessary to keep In mind, thatoals of combat against missile submarines,cannot bo achieved completely by "means,;'of strikes'.against; basos and construction points, bocausergethe .enemy submarines (according to American views it'up^tb^two thirds of the effective strength) always will be*at .sea: -Therefore, despite all the complexity of its organization and the large economic expenditures, direct combat against enemy submarines at sea continues to remain one of the main methods of combat against missile submarines, along with their annihilation at bases and the destruction of shipbuilding centers.

The missions of destroying missile submarines at bases and destroying naval bases, shipbuilding, and missile-building

N

plants, and also other important industrial enterprises cooperating with those plants, can bo assigned to the missile troops. It is obvious that tho oporations of the missile troops in fulfilling these missions differ in no way in principle from operations to annihilate or destroy other Important targets; therefore, they are not being examined in the present article.

With the present state of coastal missile weapons, the destruction of submarines at sea can be carried out only by the-navy. Taking into consideration the complexity of combat against submarines at soa, let us examine in more detail the basic principles of tho organization and conduct of combat oporations to destroy submarines by naval forces.

In view of the fact that lt is difficult orto distinguish missile submarines fromother types at sea, combat against them will developagainst all submarines. It must be waged inof oceans and seas, including oven Arctic areas. demands a considerable quantity of forces andof then*.. Toissile submarineor bar the use of its missile wjhapons against importanttargets, it is necessary to detect thebefore the approach to launch positions and,toforces for its pursuit and destructioni(t. .iscultltoVcarryof this .sort by-haphazard ppi^t'iqnaj^ofantlsubraarlno forces withoutsea (ocean) theater of military operations'V' ' >

ffe believe that combat against submarines at soa

be successful whon tho use of antisubmarine forces la supportedreviously preparod and continuously operating systenPof ant'lsubmarlnb "defonse In t'Tio theater.

A continuously operating system of antisubmarlno dofense must be a sot of measures for the special equipping ofheater and organizing the combat oporations of naval forces directed toward combat against onomy submarines, and must include:

moans and maneuvering forces used forobservation and for warning about' detected enemy

and net barriers, restricting the penetration of submarines into defended areas;

forces used for seeking and destroying submarines on antisubmarine lines and in open areas of the sea, and also the means to control them.

Taking Into consideration the threat of delivery of surprise concentrated strikes by missile submarines of the probable enemy which are continuously /atBea,Vit ifladvisable to create andystem ofefense, of necessity, even In peacetime, like the?system -of antiair defense of tho country' -

In our opinion, the makeup of thesu^ defense must conform to the following basic principles:'

ntisubmarine defenseheater Should"bV-or eata depts Of not loaa tfiati the tiriHg-yagge ol iSSiiiatlcfrom on0jny submarines agalriRf

tftra'tegiC objectives-

Terrltory of the

operating within the limits of to .the exits from the-points

HoweVerractual capabilities' complex System of aniTsutimarx-expanse of the seas and oceans'

_J ft . . ml

There is no doubt that the best system would';

ffel

depth of not less than the range of fireissiles as the necessary minimum'.On varibt theater, it is necessary to determine the

ire;:t>

cwaa&ry to aexermine the antisubmarine defense bn'the basis^b'f"the conditions, the location of objectives bei degree of threat from enemy missile submar capabilities and performance characteristics ttaKtiKo-tekhnicheskoye svoystvo) of the antisubmarine forces and means

... Antisubmarine defenseheater should be echeloned:

this is achieved by The organisation on separate axes of a

sorloB of successive operations of antisubmarine forceslrSes (in several

There can be only one answer to that questionthe commanderleet, for only he has sufficient means available and Is capable of resolving the entire group of problems connected with waging combat against submarines within the limitsheaterhole.

In accordance with possibilities for using various types of weapons by enemy submarines and the performance characteristics of antisubmarine forces and means, the search for and destruction of submarines at sea is organized into near and far zones of antisubmarine defense.

V.

It is accepted practice, to consider that the near zone of the antisubmarine defense will be established in the coastal part of.a"he basic mission of antisubmarine forces operating in the near zone is to defend its lines ofessels and ships at bases and points of disperaalvi, and coastal Installations against action by enemy submarines.

The search for and destruction of submarinesnear zone is carried out by antisubmarineaircraft, and helicopters. Fixedare also widely used for combating submarinesnear'v-r

- The, far zonethe

-V

.^he'-ant^

territory defe

.away of thenemy submarines agalhs the coast and in

VtJThe basic mission ofn the far zone of the

strikes by enemy missile submarines'against ^

The search for and destruction of missile submarines in the far zone of the antisubmarine defense is carried out by antisubmarine submarines, aircraft, helicopters, and surface vessels.

Antisubmarine submarinesumber of positiveonsiderable operating radius, great endurance, and the capability to operate under ice cover.

The antisubmarine submarines have means to detect enemy submarines and antisubmarine weapons to destroy them.

Such characteristics of atomic antisubmarine submarines as range of operation, endurance, and the capabilityailing under ice are practically unlimited and will depend mainly on the physical condition and morale of the crow and also on the presence of equipment for regeneration of the air. The range of operation and endurance of diesel-electric submarines are determined by fuel supplies, and their endurance and range of sailing under ice are determined by the capacity of their storage batteries. k- .

Tae possibility of antisubmarineh^ sailing depth and low-noise speedsavorableelationship contributes to more effective use ofydroacoustic equipment for observation through the water medium and detection of submarines.

Surface antisubmarine vessels alsoumbercharacteristics enabling them to wagesubmarines both in near and far zones ofdefense. Among such characteristics

ajgeBalling ranges and

of submarinesunder difficult

:

availability of powerful antisubmarine weaponshich, because of their weights and sizes, -cannot' be used :-

opportunity to establish well-equipped command making it possible to control theforces directly at

However, the combat use of antisubmarine surface vessels is hamperedumber of shortcomings. These shortcomings are: first of all, low combat capabilities to rofwl air attacks, and this makes lt necessary to protectpecial way thoir stay at sea; less range of hydroacoustic detection in comparison with the hydroacoustic sots of submarines, and this reduces the effectiveness of

their search for submarines; and little concealment of the operations of antisubmarine surface vessels from enemy reconnaissance, and this facilitates the selection of axes of movement for submarines' breaking through.

Antisubmarine aviation, having available modernhelicopters of long and short range magnetometrlchydroacoustic means of observation through theand with special types of antisubmarinecapable of waging effective combat against -v'

The favorable characteristics of antisubmarine aviation

are:

capability of searching, in short periods of'"time, large spacesea to the entire extent of possible use of missiles from submarines by the enemy;

readiness for operations and the capability arriving ln areas where submarines might behortest time;

potential for quickly concentratingof airplanes and hollcopters on the required

. The shortcomings of antisubmarine*ombat use. Include

--dependence on meteorologicalairfield

relatively low endurance of *airplanes (hoiico'ptors) ;

potential for carrying but'combat operations in Arctic areas.

Planning the operations of tho forcesleet.to dostroy enemy submarines at sea is done by the staff of tho fleet,to account the combat capabilities of tho onomy submarines and its own forces, their operational and tactical characteristics, and also the possibilities of supporting combat operations, and the military-geographic conditions of the theater.

H4).

It is advisable to carry out combat operations tosubmarines at sea, particularly in the initialwar, by enlisting the maximum possible quantity offorces and facilities of the fleet and alsoand aviation of the maritime fleet, theand the Chief Directorate of the"Northernwhich are capable of carrying out observation of In the period preceding the initiationoperations, all of the forces mentioned shouldIn the zone covered by the system ofin the theater, beyond the limits,his^ne"7bnapproaches to"the points of basing of thothe probable enemy, and on the routesareas of combat

The great difficulty, of operations of ^antisubmarineforcesheater duringeriod of threat 'is that,aving the right to use their weapons, they are, in point of fact, deprived of the opportunity to prevent actively the deployment of missile submarines of the probable enemy to launch positions or, in general, to any areas of : seaond the limits of our territorial waters.

det

transmitted from some '

path of the oi detectedntil the signalfi

until the moment of use of "weapons by en against our antisubmarine forces. Upon': signal for.'; the start "of military operatic against all detected submarines are carried out by those forces in whose area of operations they are located.

With the start of military operations it is advisable to carry out immediately the establishment of antisubmarine barriers in previously planned areas in which they could not

bo oatablishod earlier because of peacetime

In our opinion, the sequence of operations of the antisubmarine forces to destroy submarines at sea is determined by the operational organization of theforces resulting from the decision of the commander of the fleet and depends on what area the initial detection of an enemy submarine is made in and what forces ort is made by. By areas, the sequence of operations might bo approximately'the following'!

... .. ,

Beyond the,limits of the zones covered by an-antisubmarine defense system, destruction of enemy submarines at sea'must be carried out by our submarines deployed on approaches"to the bases of enemy submarines, in remote areas of the sea, at exits from straits, and also on probable routes of movomont of enemy submarines to launch positions.

osmust

(ledovoye razyodyejjand in the open water landfast ice'(zapripaynaya polynya).

Prior to the approach of onomy submarines to thelines and lines of observation, action against them can be carried out by our submarines deployed to fulfil other missions (operations against aircraft carrier strike forces and on the lines ofn areas through which pass the routes of movement of enemy submarines. In the operations of ourr .and destructione' flaf

With the approach of enemy submi lines} antisubmarine submarines"are moved probable courses ih'accordance .with informatlon'from reconnaissance and stationary means of observation. Tbe antisubmarine submarines attack tbe enemy submarinos in soquence and direct antisubmarine aviation and surface vessels against those submarines which have broken through into the depth of our defense. Aviation and antisubmarine surface vessels in tactical coordination carry out the search for and destruction of enemy submarines which have broken through within the limits of the areas assigned to them.

thof the axos of operations ofedeployment of forces ensuring a

Tho term antisubmarine line (protivolodochnyy rubezh) means an echeloned barrier of various fixed means and maneuvering antisubmarine forcea, In relatively narrow axes of sea on 'probable routes of movement of enemy submarines.'; ' "

strengthening of efforts on the main axes should be carried out in the system of antisubmarine defense of the theater. In addition, in the areas of probable launch positions it is necessary to carry outearch for enemy submarines which have broken through, with the goal of destroying them and hampering the use of their missiles.

The most crucial and difficult measure in combating submarines at sea is searching for them. There are various methods of operations of: forcesleet in searching for enemy submarines. Specific selection of .'methods should' bo determined with consideration of the 'operational-combat capabilities of one's own forces and the'military-geographic features of the area of combatrovision with antisubmarine barriers and stationary and drifting means of antisubmarine observation, and also themportance of the area in tho over-all system of combating submarines in the theater.

In carrying out the search for and delivery of strikos against enemy submarines at sea, antisubmarine submarines can use the following methods;

position (pozltslonnyy) method (when carryingoperations on routes of passage ofstraits and Vri^aW

K(when carrying out operations jointly .withand when operating on the basis of data on 'initialenemy submarines from stationary means of

the cruising (kroyserstvo) method (when carrying out independent operations in areas of possibleone of pack ice, and on approaches to pointsnemy missile submarines aro based).

Antisubmarine submarines on position search the areas assigned to them, running at low-noise speeds at depths providing the greatest operating range for their hydroacoustic means of observation.

After detection of enemy submarines, antisubmarine

submarines determine the elements of the enemy movementto take favorable fire positions with speedsensuring advantage in the operating range ofequipment. After the attack, dependingresults of the attack, the antisubmarineoccupy positions for a repeated attack or Later, at the first opportunity, theseon the attack, Its results, and the furtherthe

of forces or from stationary

he basic method of operations of antisubmarine aviation for the destruction of enemy submarines is active search by groups of antisubmarine airplanes, either;Independently or on the basis of information of initial detection of

submarines by. other'ar means of observation.

Independently in assigned areas or on lines, hunter-killer groups of antisubmarine aviation carry out the following:

laying of barriers of moored radio hydroacoustic buoys (radlogldroakustlchoskly yakornyyet out in ines perpendicular to the probablo axis of "movement of

pen

onomy submarines;-' '. .

--the flaying in openo as .'of

radio hydroacoustic

droyfuyushchiy buy) in theeveral parallel linos,ircle orhe calculation of obtaining contactubmarineny point in the area of its assumed loc'atiBSMft^E'nraftff

laying of drifting radio hydroacoustic.buoys"in inos covering an area subject to search, with simultaneous search in the area with the aid ofowered into the water by helicopters or of aerial magnetoraetric equipment (aeromagnetometricheskaya apparatura),

In accomplishing tho mission of search and'destruction of submarines on the basis of data of initial detection byther forces, lt is most advisable to lay lntorsectlng barriers of several parallol lines of drifting radio hydroacoustic buoys in the sector of possible courses of submarines detected earlier.

To reduce eneay counteraction againstlt la essential to choose, when possible,its operation and flight routes to these areasoutside the zone of operation of enemy fighterdetecting enemy submarines, aviationattack them, using antisubmarine aerial bombsspecial charge or antisubmarine aerial torpedos tosubmarines. Airplanes which have not discharged loads or antisubmarine surface vessels locatedwAiting. areas are directed against the

Tho basic method of. operations of antisubmarine Surface vessele lathe search for and destruction" of submarinos as components of vessel hunter-killer groups. Taking Into account the high maneuvering capabilities of missile submarines and their advantages overTsurface vessels in range of detection by hydroacoustic meana^of observation, surface vessels should be used for searching for submarines Jointly with airplanes of ihe antisubmarine aviation and helicopters which are components of hunter-killer groups and also Independently on the bis is of data of Initial detoctlon of submarines by. other arms of forceshe stationary means, of antisubmarine observation. After detecting enemy submarines, the vessel hunter-killer groups carryumber of successive attacksetectedsing rOcke,t

ary depth

The basic principle' of..the'.use of antisubmarine to destroy enemy submarines at seawhichit .possible to carry out ?'Combatmoreoint operations can be .out by groiplnfis'of antisubmarine fpossible combinations of.tho fleet:

* i>

submarines and airplanes (helicopters);

4

airplanes (helicopters) and aurface vessels;

submarines and surface vessels;

mm

mm

Coordination between antisubmarine submarines and aviation and also between antisubmarineand surface vessels consists of agreement uponand location of search for enemy submarinesby these forces independently within the limitslines (areasTT Coordination is achievedby the combat fleet command post (BFKP) ofof the fleet, of antisubmarine aviation oragainst enemy submarines detected and notantisubmarine submarines and through the^demarcation zones between areas of operations of

of search efforts and attacks against enemyarried out by vessels and airplanes (helicopters) independently or Jointly. Coordination is achieved through direct' mutual direction of vessels and airplanes and determination of tha sequence of attack during joint operations or through direction of hunter-killer groups against enemy submarines by the combat fleet command post of the commander of.the fleet during independent operations.Direction of vessels against detected submarines by airplanes can be carried-

themselves, the carriers of missile weapons. It"is also necessary to strive forr the creation of conditions which hamper the control of the submarines and their use of their weapons. This can be achieved by the following:

the coastal control points of the submarines, the transmitting and receiving radio centers with the goal of making it difficult for the enemy to control his submarines at sea;

or putting out of operation coastal systems of radio navigation and destroying satellite (sputnikovyy)

systems of navigation to make it difficult for enemy submarines to determine their position at sea and thus

systems, and communications Installations.

Preparing for an aggressive war against the USSR

atomic submarines, began. Thus,merican atomic submarines have carriedotal of seven voyages, passing under the ice of the CentralArctic Basin by various routes. Considering the threat of the use of missile submarines from this axis,'it is advisable to provide for the establishment of andefense in the Arctic areas.

: Considerable influence on the organization of anti-submarine defense in the Arctic is exerted by its physical

-

In addition to the measures enumerated earlier,of operations of the forces of the fleet "forof enemy submarines in Arctic waters shouldthe

of antisubmarine submarines to search for and destroy enemy submarines under the ice;

of antisubmarine aviation to search for and destroy

enemy submarines in open water areas in the ice and in the

open water areas beyond landf ast: ice In areas of probable la> positions;

of antisubmarine barriers in straits and narrows on possible routes of .penetration of submarines

Into Arctic areas to launch positions;

use for antisubmarine observation of ice hydroacoustlc stationsone of pack ice, and cable-connected hydrophone lines (kabolno-gldrofonnayaoastal hydrophone stations (boregovaya shumopelengatornayand stationary radio hydroacoustlc buoys near the icetogether with the antisubmarine forces permanently located in these areas;

"ice, hydrometeorological, and geophysical reconnaissance, making it possible to predict ice movement, hydrological characteristics, and the transmission of radio waves of various length, and in accordance with this to correct the system of antisubmarine observation;'redistribute antisubmarine forces by areas, and ensure uninterrupted communications with them by the proper selection of frequencies;

--the establishment of far forward ice airfieldsof material-technical support, making itcarry out a broad maneuver by antisubmarineice areas in accordance with the mobility of thethe presence of open water areas in the ice andareas beyond the landfast :

establishment on tha -Arctic Islandsi of^remoteontrol posts (vynosnyy post^pjayleniya) ;forarine forces and ropoater centers of

submarine forces andenters "'ofrepetichnyy uzelnsuring the plisslbUfi'ty^orT. controlling forcea directly in areas of combat operations;

As is generally known, sincenoAmerican missile submarines^constanAy patrol inof the Lofoten Islands now the coast of.e expected that' they can takethe Norwegian fiords. Therefore, itdevote attention to the organization of combatsubmarines with launch positions In fiordthe enemy seacoast. The location of these.areaslimits of our antisubmarine observation/In'a zoneenemy antiaircraft and antisubmarinealso the difficult navigational andfor sailing, hamper the use of ourdirectly among tho .

To hinder or eliminate the operations of missile submarines in fiord areas, there can be carried out systematically the concentrated laying of antisubmarine mines, the destruction of the system of channels among the fiords, and the search for and destruction of enemy missile submarines at entrances to fiord areas and in open reaches. The success of combating missile submarinesiord area dependsreat extent on the organization of agent intelligence (agenturnaya razvedka) and radio intelligencehich in this case partially perform the functions of antisubmarine observation.

Summing up this brief examination of the basic'problems of organizing and waging combat against eriemymissiie submarines it is possible to draw tho following

Combat against enemy missile submarines is an intricate complex of combat operations and measures carried out not only by the navy but also by the armed forces of the countryhole.

Successful combat against missile submarines at sea requires tho creation of special highly effective antisubmarine forces and means and the use of themuantity which ensures high probabilities of destruction

enemy missile submarines at sea, it can be sufficientlyif there are the following: ystem ofdefense previously deployed duringcombat readiness of antisubmarine forces, anduse of them during combat operations.

Original document.

Comment about this article or add new information about this topic:

CAPTCHA