Created: 8/9/1962

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CIA/RB CBAugust 2

Copy No.

Current Support Brief



CENTRAL INTELLIGENCE AGENCY Office of Research and Reports



Published articles, spooches, and broadcasts connected with tho Fifth All-Union DOSAAF (Voluntary Society forwith the Army, Air Fo?ce, and Navy) ,ew note of urgency concornlng civil defonso tasks in tho USSR. There aren the publicitythc Congress that the Soviet military and Party leaders have reexamined civil defenseart of over-all strategy and have reached the conclusion that civil defense must now be considered ono of the basic elements in military preparedness.

As contrasted with the Fourth All-Union DOSAAF Congress, civil defense received increased emphasis at the Fifth Congress. Nearly every principal speaker devoted part of his address to civil defense, according to published reports. (Considerable emphasis at tho Fourth Congress was given to technical training and sports aspects of DOSAAF activities.) Although Marshal Konev spoke of civil defense at the Fourth Congress, Marshal Chuykov was much more emphatic at the Fifth,eed for immediate action to fulfill DOSAAF's "primary" mission of training the civilian population. Throughout the publicity accorded the Fifth Congress can be found frequent and insistent references to Communist Party control and support for the accomplishment of this "primary mission." An article ln the pre-Congress publicity mentioned for the first time tho fact that DOSAAF was engagedecond civil defense task"the training of command and supervisory personnel of non-militarised civil defense formations." This training too was roforred to as an "immediate" matter. 1/ At the Fourth Congress, DOSAAF statutes were changed or amended; the Fifth Congress adopted an entirely new statute which rcquiros the DOSAAF Central Committee to develop and approve programs for civil defenso training. Other unique developments at tho Fifth Congress include an address on- civil defense by the head of the Soviot Red Cross and the electioneputy Minister of Defense (Rokossovskly) to the DOSAAF Presidium.

Several themes recur in speeches and published articles associated with the Fifth Congress or with the regional meetings and publicity that preceded lt, -Including the following as-sertlons: OSAAF civil defense training in some areas of the USSR is inadequate;resent DOSAAF tasks stem irom decisions of-d Party Congress; ivil defenso training must be improved with the assistance of the Party, the the Red Cross and Red Crescent Societies, and) the civil defense course presently being givon

the Sovieteady for PVO, Secondustby the endncreasedall public media (television, radio, movingthe like) should be used to stimulate publiccivil defense and to supplement other civil defense

DOSAAF has had primary responsibility for public civil defense training in the USSR since the formation of the society ivil defense training for the Soviet citizen has been accelerated and altered to include instruction in defense against nuclear weapons. Although the announced goal of Soviet civil defense is the training of every civilian, the program has been plagued with shortcomings in both the quality of instruction and the number of trainees.

Inwo DOSAAF meetings were held in Moscow,onference for DOSAAF propagandists and the other the Fifth Plenum of the Central Committee of DOSAAF. Three leading figures in Soviet civil defenseI. Varrenikov, Chief of the Civil Defense Administration of the DOSAAF Central Committee; Army General D. D. Lelyushenko, Chairman of the DOSAAF Central Committee; and Colonel General. Tolstikov, member of the DOSAAF Presidium and former Deputy Minister of Internal Affairs for MPTO (Local Antiair/ Defensethat is, civil defense) attended both meetings. Lagging Soviet civil defense training was discussed, particularly at the Plenum. Lelyushenko, speaking at the Plenum, stated that "theaggressors areurprise attack employing thermonuclear, chemical, and bacteriological weapons against the USSR and other socialist countries. DOSAAF is charged with the important mission of training the population in the methods of defense against the means of masse went on'to comment concerning tho unsatisfactory state of Soviet civil defense training and to suggest steps for. .

A resolution adopted by the Plenum stated, "The priority mission of DOSAAF is to train the entire population in measures of antiatomic, antlchemical, and antibacteriologicalhe resolution charged all DOSAAF committees with taking measures to insure civilian training and with "increasedin such training. Both the Plenum resolution

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andpeech referred to missions assigned to DOSAAFesult of the deliberations ofd Congress of the Communist Paxty of the USSR/ The Plenum alsoecree convening the Fifth All-Union DOSAAF Congress and establishing the agenda for thc Congress. 3/

Between the1 DOSAAF Plenum and thethe All-Union DOSAAF Congress onrticlesDOSAAF pressumber of occasions stressed theof the civil defense training mission. Thus,writing in Voyennyye znaniya in March, stated,

In preparing for the Fifth DOSAAF Congress, each primary organization must do everything required to fulfill successfully the priority mission of DOSAAFnamely, the training of the population in defense methods against weapons of mass destruction under the "Ready for Air Defense, Second Grade" program. This task must be fulfilled everywhere by the end of the

A second important mission ofs the training of command and supervisory personnel of nonmllitarized civil defense formation.Civilian defense schools must occupy themselves with the immediate* matter of insuring high quality training of command and supervisory personnel of non-militarized formations-,.

The successful fulfillment of the missions j of DOSAAF organizations in the field of civil defense depends above all on the force and purposeful direction of the work of DOSAAF committees and their coordination with the Red Cross and Red Crescent committees and trade union and Komsomol organizations. DOSAAF committees must constantly report to Par'ty organs on the progress of work and musttheir

Tolstikov earlier had given some of the reasoningthe new training. In former periods (that is World War


ities could rely on their own ability to perform civil defense mission**. Now, however, "under moderndditional manpower and equipment axe needed. The volume" of rescue and repair work requires tbeof "tens and hundreds of thousands" of people and the use of additional equipment, transportation, and other "means," Tolstlkov continued 'Tor this reason, local anti-air defense hay ceased to be local; it hastate system and in now called civil defense, for it requires the active participation of each Soviet Tolstlkov clarified to some extent the reference above to "non-militarized civil defensetaling that these formations aro "primarily intended to work to eliminate the effects of an enemy attack" and that such units now are being created on kolkhozes, sovkhozes* and other rural economic onterprises. 5/

The DOSAAF press alsoeries of articles covering regional meetings of DOSAAF held at the republic and the oblast level preparatory to the All-Union DOSAAF Congress. Although some local successes ln civil defense training were pointed out, accounts of the meetings (and other civil defense articles published at thc time) referred several times to specific failures in the civil defense training profcram. Methods were advocated to Improve training performance, Including the use of inspectors, additional support by various organizations, better distribution of training aids, improved instructor training, andpropaganda to include lectures, public contests, filmed short subjects, and radio and television broadcasts.6/

It may be assumed that one part of the propaganda for increased civil defense participation reproHrnted by the publication of tho destructive effects of nuclear wteapons and statements insisting that tho UH and its allies are preparing for nuclear attack on the USSR. In the past, Soviet authorities wereoul publishing theeffects of nuclear weapons in media available to the general public. oviot literature generally described nuclear weapons in terms of the nominal atomicons of TNT equivalent). Earlyrather full effects were described0 megaton hydrogen bomb. In2 following the1 test series, an article in Mezhdunarodnaya zhizn ' described the effects0 megaton bomb as follows! adius of total destruction ofilometers (km)eavy damage up toillion toillion persons

anon tt-t


The Soviet public has been familiarized additionally with the destructive effects of nuclear weapons through filmed television broadcasts. In April of thiseliable observer whoivil defense film on the television setishinev hotel lobby reported that Soviet viewers gasped when shots of "atomic ruins" were shown; 8/ No reassurance could be found by the Soviet public in published statments that the imperialists arc preparing for war,ar between the capitalist and socialist states wouldocket-nuclear war, and that probable targets would be centers of population, industry, and administration. 9/

Immediately before the Fifth All-Union DOSAAF Congress, the newspaper Krasnaya zyezda, onay, carried an article by Lieutenant General S. Shatilov (First Deputy Chairman of DOSAAF) in which he announced that the "majority" of workers had successfully completod training in the civil defense course "Ready for Air Defense, First Grade." He further stated that instruction of the population incordance with the norm "Ready for Air Defense, Second Grade" was being These are the third and fourth civil defense courses, respectively; that have been given to the Soviet population

Army General Lelyushenko, DOSAAF Chairman,rief radio address onay in which he said, "Millions of our society members are determined to fulfill with honor tho tasks proceeding from the decisions ofd Party Ho stressed paramilitary sports (such as flying, parachute jumping, shooting, boating, motoring, and radio operating) as important means of enlisting young people in the activities of

An impressive group of military and civilian figures attended the Fifth All-Union DOSAAF Congress which opened onay at the Kremlin In addition to leaders of DOSAAFsuch as ArmyD. Lelyushenko and Marshal of the Soviet Union S. M. Budenny the following leaders were in attendance at various times:

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Marshal K; Ya Mallnovskly. Minister of Defense Marshal K. K. Rokossovskly, Doputy MinisterDefense. Chuykov. Deputy Minister of Defense andin Chief of the Ground Troops Chief Marshal of Aviation K. A. Vershinin, Commander ln Chief

of the Air Force Marshal of Aviation V. A. Sudets, Deputy Commander ln Chief

of the Air Force Fleet Admiral S. G. Gorshkov. Commander in Chief of tho Navy .

Army General A. A. Yeplshcv, Chief of the Main Political

Administration of the Soviot Army and Navy A. N. Sholepin, Secretary of"{tie Central Committee of the


N. V. Mlronov, Chief of tho Section on Administrative Organs

of the Central Committee of the CPSU N. N. Romanov, Secretary of the All-Union Council of Trade

Unions .

S. P. Pavlov, First Secretary of the Central Committee, Komsomol

A. I. Kamshalov, Secretary of the CenAral Committee, Komsomol N. M. Khlebnikov, Deputy Chairman of the All-Union Society

for the Dissemination of Political and Scientific Knowledge G. M. Miterev, Chairman of the Executive Committee of the Union

of Red Cross and Red Crescent Societies Tu. D. Marshin, Chairman of the Central Council of the Union of Sports Societies and Organizations of the USSR*

number of the above listed loaders have ciyil defense The Chief of Civil Defense for the USSR is roported to be Marshal Chuykov. His logical assistant or executive for civil defense matters would be Colonel General. Tolstikov. The Society for thc Dissemination of Political and Scientific Knowledge organizes lectures on atomic defense and similar subjects in support of DOSAAF's civil defense training program. The Komsomol, the trade unions, and the Communist Party are frequently called on to support the DOSAAF and its training program. Thc Red Cross and Red Crescent Societies actively participate in the DOSAAF training program, handling first aid and other medical aspects of training. The Congress also was attended by guestof "defense-sports societies" (that is paramilitary societies) of other countries of thc Soviet

Although his name does not appear in the list ofand speakers, lt is assumed that Colonel General (Aviation). Tolstikov was present. Tolstikov, the former Deputy Minister of Internal Affairs for MPVO was elected to both the DOSAAF Central Committee and the DOSAAF Presidium. The only other high-level personage absent who might logically have been expected to attend was Marshal Biryuzov, chief of PTO Strany(Antiair Defense of theut his absence may be explainedossible assignment to other duties.

Aleksandr Shelepin, Secretary of the Central Committee of the CPSU, addressed the DOSAAF Congress on the first day, delivering the greetings of the Central Committee of the CPSU. Noting that the Central Committee of the CPSU "values highly ofhich unites in its ranks tens of millions of Soviethelepin added, "TheCentral Committee expresses the conviction that the members of the society with the combined support of the Party, of local government, and of the trade union organization, in collaboration with the Leninist Komsomol,* ew contribution to the further strengthening of the defense capability of our great

Although the presenceigh-ranking Party or government personalityOSAAF meeting is not unheardugoslav diplomat attributed Shelepin's presence principally to Shelepin's membership in the "Higher Military Council of the USSR." The Yugoslav went on to indicate that this council was composed of military leaders and Party (It has been suspected that there exists in theontinuing committee or council made up of Party. military, and government leaders that studies and formulates over-all military policy.) If Shelepin indeed representedroup, it would further underline the present importanceOSAAF and its activities.

At the opening session of the DOSAAF Congress on the morniljg ofay, Army General Lelyushenko, DOSAAF Chairman delivered what was probably the keynote'report on the work and tasks of the society." Accordingadio broadcast, Lelyushenko specifically called attention to DOSAAF's training of technical experts (drivers, mechanics, radio operaters, and the like) for the economy and for the Soviet armed forces. He also stressed the achievements of


DOSAAF in training "high class" sportsmen. In regard to civil defense, Lelyushenko is quoted as saying, "One of the most important tasks of DOSAAF is to train the population forfrom the means of mass destruction. Its importance becomes particularly great in connection with the present international situation. Millions of working people have gone through antiatomic defense training at the prompting of

ublished account of the same speech, Lelyushenko referred to "major shortcomings" in civil defenseinal excerpt from his remarks on civil defense reads as follows:

This situation in civilian defensewill absolutely not be tolerated further. It is necessary to understand that civilian defensereat public matter. Our most important mission is to increase theof all DOSAAF units inthe population in defense measures against means of mass destruction. We are compelled to mobilize an extensive public 'aktiv' for this matter. It ls necessary to train public instructors well; to equip training areas as they should be equipped; to improve agitation, propaganda, andenlightenment work; and to utilize the press, radio, and television for these ends. Appropriate supervision should be exercised over the training of the population in civil defense. It is very important to establish daily contact with civil defense staffs and Red Cross and Red Crescent committees and to-conduct training together with

One radio broadcastpeech given by Professor G. A. Mlterev at the DOSAAF Congress. Miterev is Chairman of the Executive Committee of the Union of Red Cross and Red Crescent Societies. According to the broadcast, he said,oviet patriots have given their biood free of charge at blood donor points. The blood could save thc lives of- thousands of Soviet Unfortunately, nothing was sped Bled as to the period of collection. If the collection was spreadonths, it is conceivable

that the blood was for peacetime use. In any event, it is unusualed Cross spokesman should speak on blood collectionOSAAF conference. The most obviouswould beivil defense context. DOSAAF and the Soviet Red Cross arc jointly involved in the Soviot public civil defense training program, and it is possible therefore that further blood collection for civil defense purposes was advocated at the Congress. ublished account of Miterev's speech failed to include mention of blood donations, but the speech did stress the joint responsibility of DOSAAF and Red Cross and Red Crescent Committees in training thefor civil defense, calling for timely completion of the course "Ready for Air Defense, Second

The concern of the military for civil defensewas demonstratedpeech delivered to theby Marshal V. I. Chuykov "on behalf of the Soviet Armed Porces and R. Ya. Malinovskly, Minister of Defensen this speech, Chuykov mentioned US "preparation forand the necessity for further strengthening the military strength of the Soviet government. He alsoto the defense missions assigned by the Communist Party and the importance of DOSAAF activity in this.

Two of Chuykov's statements apparently_ define the position of civil defense in current Soviet"military thought. At one point he stated, "Civilian defense, which in modern war is ono of the factors determining the state's potential strength and ability to survive,ery important place in strengthening the defense capability of the Sovieturthereivilian defense now must beas one of the basic elements ln tho over-allof the country for defense."

Reemphasizing the urgency and primacy of DOSAAF's civil defense training mission, Chuykov said, "DOSAAF has been called upon to carry out immediately* the training of the population in defense measures against mass depfulfillment of this mission is primary* in DOSAAF activity and should be reflected in the doSaAPraft of which is being presented to thc Congress.The fulfillment.of these missions requires* the most complete utilization of the assistance of Party and Soviet


The Congress concluded its work, according to Sovetskiy patriot, onay with the passingesolution based on the report given by Lelyushenko, the approval of changes to DOSAAF statutes, and the election of new personnel to the DOSAAF Central Committee and the Central Auditing Commission.

Following the conclusion of the Congress, the DOSAAF Central Committee met and reelected Army General Lelyushenko as chairman andresidium of the Central Committee, consisting ofembers. Twelve of the newly electedmembers hold military ranktwo marshals (Budenny and Rokossovskiy) one army general, throe colonel generals, two lieutenant generals, one major general, and three

Takenhole, those proceedings suggest that Soviet military planners have taken an increased interest in Soviet civil defense since some time1 and that they are now exerting considerable pressure to see that the public civil defense training programa DOSAAF responsibilityresults in substantial accomplishment by the end At the same time it seems reasonable that in addition to the public training courses other aspects of civil defense will also receive close attention, including Such components as organization, supply, communications, staff planning, and alert exercises.



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