MEMORANDUM FOR: The Acting Diroctor of Central Intelligence
MILITARY THOUGHT jTOP SECRET): "Americon
Military Technical Means ol Combat iny Major General of the Ongincor-Technlcal Service P. Vysotskiy.
appeared in the TOP SECRET Special Collection of Ai of the -Journal "Military Thought"T'Vovennnyaul. by tho Ministry of Deionse, USSR, and distributed down t<
1. Enclosed is averbatim translation of an article
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Richard Helms Deputy Director (Plans)
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THOUGHT (TOPAmerican Military Technical Meana of Combat lo Space" by Majorof the Engineer-Technical Service P. Vysotskly
Followingerbatim translation of an article tltlod "American Military Technical Means of Combat iny Major General of the Engineer-Technical Service P. Vysotskly.
This article appeared in2 First Issuepecial version of the Soviet military Journal Voyennaya Mysl (Military Thought). This Journal Is publishedand is classified TOP SECRET by the Soviets. 2 First Issue went to press on
Headquarters Comment: Military Thought is published by
the USSR Ministry of Defense ln three versions, classified
RESTRICTED, SECRET, and TOP SECRET. The RESTRICTED vorsion
has been issued monthlyhile the other two
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Major General of the Engineer-Technical Service
P. Vysotskly *
The first scientific-research work on the creation of military space devices for the conduct of special types of reconnaissance (photo reconnaissance and radiotechnlcal, as well as for the delivery of nuclear strikes from space against strategic ground targets using satellite missilesere begun in the USAhile the creation of reconnaissance apparatus (television, facsimile television, photo locator, and radar) for earth satellites was begun
Direction and coordination of this work was assigned to. Navy Department, with the participation of forces and means from tbe Department of the Air Force. Aboutarge firms were called on to cooperate in the work at that time. In order to create military spaceand systems, the Americans needed data on conditions ln space and their possible effect on satellites sent Into space. In. Government announcedfor launching artificial earth satellitesariety of scientific research apparatus duringeophysical Tear. Preparations for the launchings were carried outnified program by the Defense Department, the Academy of Sciences and. National Committee for the International Geophysical Year. This project was"Vanguard"'. Responsibility for development of the carrier missiles, preparation of launching sites and launching of the satellites was placed upon the Department of Defense.
Fulfillment of the "Vanguard" program commenced in However, the first attempt toatellite into orbit proved unsuccessful. Theatellite was not successfully launched into space until
This program was concluded in9 and proved the most unsuccessful of the American space programs. esult ofaunch attempts, only three satellites were put into orbit, and they permitted the collection of only the most general data on the physical parameters of the outer layers of the atmosphere and of the space nearest the earth.
Failures in carrying out tho "Vanguard" program forced the Americans hastily to work out the new "Explorer" research program on the basis of carrier-missiles, using "Jupiter" and "Thor" medium-range ballistic missiles as the first stages. (More recently, the specially created "Scout" research carrier-missile has been used .for this purpose.)
Theatellite, launchedhree months after the first Soviet satellite, became the first American satellite put into orbit around the earth. But this program also has not yet been completed.
Inhe.Americans proceeded to carry out the "Pioneer" space research program on the basis ofusingThor" and "Atlas" ballistic missiles as first stages, in order to study the physical parameters of space within the limits of the earth's orbit, as well as in the area of the moon and sun. But in this program also, not everything worked out successfully. Ofttempted launchings, only two were crowned with success. Thend "Pioneerpace devices were, in the first case, put inrbit around the moon and, in the second n orbit about the sun.
Development of the first military earth satellites, and particularly the reconnaissance satellites of the "Pied Piper" project, continued simultaneously with preparations for the realization of scientific-research programs. esult of the lag behind the USSR and the numerous failures in satellite launchings, all space programs were reviewed in the USA and the decision was taken to expedite the creation of military space systems.
On the basis of the "Pied Piper" project, threefor the creation of military reconnaissance satellites had taken shape the experimental project "Discoverer" and the long-term experimental projects, "Samos" and "Midas" development and test launchings of which are being carried out at the present time. It was at this same time that intensive planning and development of other long-term military technical means of waging armed combat in space was begun.
At the present time, work in the creation of space weapons and space research means is being conducted on the basis of the program adopted0 and designed for the0entralized governmental system of direction haB been created for the fulfillment of the program. Responsibility for theof military satellites has been placed upon theof Defense, and for the practical work, on the Air Force Weapons Systems Development Command. The National Aeronautics and Space Agency is responsible for work at the national level and for the fulfillmentumber of military programs.
year plan proposes the placing ofpace devices into space, of whichill be of purelydesignation.
At present, carrier-missiles and military space craft are being developed to accomplish the following basic tasks:
the placing of light, medium and heavy research payloads and military space craft of various designation into space ln various orbits;
the support of various combat operations of all types of armed forces for the purpose of raising their effect
tiveness (military earth satellites);
the conduct of armed combat in space and the destruction of targets.on earth from space (carrier-satellites and space bombers with nuclear/missile weapons);
the implementation of antimissile and antispace defense
of the North American continent (satellites and maneuverable
Let us examine briefly the projected military technical moans Intended for the conduct of armed coabat in apace.
Carrier Missiles. During theyear period of exploration and mastery of space, it is planded that" extensive use will be made of carrier-missiles which havebeen developed and are currently In use, employing, as first stages, modernized "Thor" and "Atlas" ballistic missiles, with specialized second and third stages.
Such missilesThor-Delta" and Thoy are Intended forg payioads into space. The weight of thoao carrier-missiles is aboutoons,irst-stage power-plant thrust of aboutons. The utilizationuch missiles Is planned
"Atlfta-Ablo" andntended for placing payioads of upons into space in higher orbits. The wolght of the carrier-missile Isons,irst-stage power-plant thrust ofons. It Is intended thatuch missiles will be used ovor theears.
During the3he Americans plan to conclude development and commence practical use of three new typos of carrier-missiles, theSaturn" and "Nova".
The "Atlas-Centaur" carrier-missile will have as its firstignificantly modernized "and Improved variation of the "Atlas" missile, and as its second stage, tho "Centaur" missile, operating on liquid fuel (oxygon andhe launching weight of this carrier-missilo willons,irst stage thrust ofons. Tho thrust of the second-stageill beons. This missile will be able toay load of four tons inm high orbit, andayload of about one ton to tho moon. The missile Is now in the concluding stage of development and testing of its second-stage power plants. Practical utilization of the
missile is plannednd lt is Intended that aboutilitary and scientific-research space dovlces will be put into spaceS, using this missile.
The "Saturn" carrier-missile Is being developed ln three versions, which are Intended to place pay loads of fromoons Into spaceaunching weightons. The distinctive feature of this missile is that it Is to be composed of five standard, unified'stages,Vhich can be put togetherissiles ln several variations to expand the ranges of payloads put Into space.:
The" carrier-missile has been under dovolop-mentnder the initiative of tho Department of Defense and can havo two-or three-stage versions.
According to project data, the firstonsistsiquid-fuel rocket engines withons of thrust each. Its total thrustons, 5 meters andeters.
The secondV, luster (atvyazka) of0 liquid-fuel rocket enginesons of thrust each, operating on liquid fueKoxygen and hydrogen). Thrust of the second stage is aboutons,2 meters, andeters. The third stageluster of twongines,otal thrust6 tons,2 meters ln lengtheters in dlamotor.
The first launching of the" missile was carried out inunctioning first stage and dummy second and third stages. It is planned that" missiles will be launched4 as experiments. The Americans are oxpedltlng its development ln every way. It is possible that the missile will be ready for practical uso
According to calculations of tho American specialists, the three-stage version of the" should assure the orbiting of space hardware of the followington earth satellitesOOrkm highon space craft In orbit around theon space craft In orbit around the sunon "Dyna-Soar" aerospace craft (raketoplan) ln orbit about the earth.
The" carrier-miss lies (two-or three-staged) and the" (tour- or five-stage) are considered more powerful than the" and will put loads of up toons into space. The completion of their development is planned6 The "Saturn" missiles are considered to be the basic American heavy missile, and the tentativefor them for fulfillment of military and research programs laoissiles.
Tho "Nova" carrier-missileive-stage system. It. is toaunching weight0irst-stage power-plant thrust00 tons, is toayload ofonsow orbit around the earth andonshour orbit,ton space craft with three astronauts to the moon, and ensure the returnon capsule back to eartfc It is proposedluster of four orype engines, operating on high-caloric fuel and liquid oxygen, will be used as the first stage in this missile. It is proposedlusterngines will be used as the second stage as well. Subsequent stages (possibly three more) will use engineson liquid oxygen and hydrogen. Test launchings of the missile are plannednd practical utilization beginningt is planned thatuch missiles will be produced foryec program.
There also exist- more long-term projects for the creation of carrier-missiles during the They includeAntares" andhich, according to American plans, should ensure an even more extensive mastery of space. ew estimated data are known about these carrier-missiles.
"Arcturus" Is designed toaunching weightons,irst-stage maximum thrustons.
"Antares" willaunching velghtons and should be able tooadons in orbit around tho oarth andoadons to tbe moon.
"Aldebaran"ingle-stage crulso missile0 tons, equipped with an improvod-typo nuclear power plant, and is designed tooadons in orbit around the earth andoadons to the moon.
The designs for these carrler-mlssllos are, for the time being, based on very approximate calculations; test flights are projected3
The preeent lack of powerful carrier-missiles, capable of putting large payloads Into space, makes the Americans quite feverish and Impedes their general progress in tbe mastery of space and the development of carrier- missiles. It is notherefore, that governmental scientific centersumber of the larger aircraft and missile conatruction firms are proposing the most varied designs,ignificant degree, encumbers the development of space moans of coabat.
In this connection, preliminary research. Air Porce direction has been donducted and is continuing on the feasibility ofingle, long-term complex of carrler-mlssllos for the universal accomplishment of tho tasks in mastering space. This entire complex of work has boon given tho general designation: Project "Phoenix'*. By now, tho optimum dimensions and configuration of tho carrior-mlssiles have already been determined; methods of assembly, transport and launching have been reflnod;and problems In the creation of re-usable missile stages have also been studied under this project.
The baste military satellites, projected for practical utilization2include theAdvent" and "Rebound" satellites; thembus" and "Aeros" meteorological satellites; and the "Anna" and "Secor" geodetic satellites.
The "Samos" satellites are intended for reconnaissance of ground targots (Missile and airbases, major industrial enterprises, areas of troop concentration, fleets ats well as of radio emissions from ground radiotechnlcal facilities. These satellites are put into polar orbit at an altitude ofm by means of the "Atlas-Agena B" carrier-missiles. Photo-television apparatus, photo apparatus, as well as radio intelligence apparatus, can be installed within these satellites.
Photo-television apparatus serves for reconnaissance of ground targets. It consistshotographic camera,apparatus to develop the photographic film on board the satellite,elevision installation to transmit the image received on the photographic film to ground television receiver stations, where the images are reproduced on the television screen andecond time tohotographic intelligence document. It is considered possible toobjects on earth with linear dimensions ofeters on the first photographs using this apparatus, which are transmitted from an orbit ofm in altitude. It Is possible to sketch only the most general picture of the enemy's territory on the basis of intelligence information; received from such apparatus.
The Americans plan to utilize photo-television apparatus capable of revealing objects with linear dimensionseters for detailed reconnaissance of previously noted areas in the enemy's territory from the same altitudes
The Americans give first preference to photographicsince, if lt is of high quality, it can provide the photographing of large areas of the earth's surfacerief period of time. However, in this instance lt is
necessary to return containers with photographic films from orbit to the earth in order to obtain the Intelligence Therefore, the photographic apparatus is located in the body of the second stage of the carrier-missile, while the container for receiving the exposed photographic film Is located in its nose cone and is equippedystem for separation from the missilearachute recovery Development of the system for return and recovery of the containers is being carried out by the Americans in the "Discoverer" experimental reconnaissance satellites. Ofuch satellites placed into orbit up to the present time,ontainers with experimental reconnaissanceand photographic film have been returned.
Photographic apparatusesolution capability "optical-film" on the order ofines to theis being developed to equip the "Samos" satellites. The use of photographic apparatus with focal lengths0m will permit the exposure on photographs of objects having linear dimensionsoeters whenfrom an orbit ofm. To illustrate what this means, it can be noted that aerial photographs used during the Second World War which were taken from altitudes ofilometera could reveal objects with linear dimensionseters on the photographs. Therefore, theof high-quality" aerial films, and cameras with large focal lengths, opens up great prospects for photographicfrom satellites. Thus, lt is known that0 "Lockheed"umber of other firms were assigned theof the" photo-reconnaissance satellite, weighing0 kilograms. It was planned to include up tohotographic cameras with various focal lengths and several types of photographic film of varying sensitivity In the satellite's complement of equipment. The containers with the apparatus and the exposed film are to be returned from orbit individually or in groups, using the recovery systems equipment. Theuclear powerw and destined to function for one year, is beingto power the equipment on board the "Samos".
In order to decipher the great volume of Informationfrom the satellites, high-speed electronic computers are being developed which should rapidly reveal objectives and targets, compare them with similar Images, Identify the nature and purpose of the objectives, and produce printed and graphic information about them which la suitable for utilization by the armed forces. Hercules" military transport aircraft are being re-equipped at' the present time to pick up photographic containers being returned from "Samoa" satellites .
Reconnaissance radar sets, which woiild be capable ofsatisfactory identification of major military and industrial objectives from altitudes ofm,are also beingto be Installed on board the "Samoa" satellites.
During the0he Americans attempted four times to launch "Samos" satellites, but were successful ln placing only two in orbit (with an effective period ofof about one month). Design work on the "Samos" is being carried on extremely actively by the Americans. They hope to obtain data, by means of theso satellites, primarily on thoof intercontinental missile-launching mounts and air bases of strategic aviation. However, because of tho complexity of the problem, the Americana were unable to fulfill thoir projected plans foraunchings0 0 "Samos" satellite launchings are envisaged by the plan, andatellites aro to be put into orbit annually for periodic reconnaissance of targets in areas of the enemy's territory which are of interest, and particularly in the arctic areas of the Soviet Union.
The "Midas" satellites are intended for reconnaissance of nuclear/missile strikes. territory while they are being carried out, withoinutes early warning before tho missiles reach their designated targets. Ballistic missiles ahould be detected by the "Midas"inutes after launching, by the intensive thermal radiation of their power plants during the active sector of the mlssllos' flight trajectory. The "Midas" satellite system Is, therefore, more
advanced than the system of radar stations for ultra long-range detection of missiles, which permits the detection of missiles only after they rlso above the line of the horizon and enter the zone of the beam of the radar stations. Tho possibility of detecting ballistic missiles at an effective range00 km, when their strike may be directed at. by way of theHemisphere, whore there are no ultra long-range missileradar posts, is considered to be another advantage of the "Midas" satellite system.
On board each "Midas" satellite there is an infra-redmechanism, for detection of the factissile has been launched (either individuallyass salvo ofhe receiving element of this mechanism (in one of itsmodels) is sensitive to radiations in the wave band0 microns, and possessos selectivity which permits it to distinguish infrared radiations of intercontinental missile engines fromof other ground heat sources (blast furnaces, coke-conversion combines, forest fires, etc.).
On the basis of data from the scanning mechanism, thecomputing equipment must determine the missile'sdirection of flight and the area against which the strike is delivered. Theso data and the alarm signal from the satellite goata-transmitting radio apparatus, then to special ground posts for observation of the satellites and the receipt of It is also considered possible subsequently to transmit the information from the satellites to ground receiving pointsetwork of special active communications satellites, which are being developed in the "Courier" and "Advent" projocts.
A network ofMidas" satellites, moving in orbits with an apogeemerigeem, will have to bo created in order to provide uninterrupted observation of tho enemy's territory.
The "Midas" satellites have been under intensiveby the Americans "Midas" satellite launchlngs commenced Inaunchlngs were carried outatellites were placed in orbit. It is known, for example, that the "Midasatollite detected the experimental launching
of an American "Titan" ballistic miasile two minutes after launching and transmitted the detection signal to earth. According to the estimate of the Americans, in spite of tho intensive work, fulfillment of the "Midas" project Isaboutonths.behind the planned schedule. The launching ofatellites annually with an effectiveof moreear is envisaged for the2ccording to tbe "Midas" satellite-launchingdrafted foroars.
The "Transit" radlo-navlgatlonal satellites areby the Americans for the precise' navigation of vessels and aircraft, and primarily for the oxlsting missile-carrying submarines armed with "Polaris" missiles, and strategiccarrying "air-to-surface" class "Hound Dog" and "Sky Bolt" missiles. It Is known that at the present time thereultitude of autonomous and non-autonomous (operating Jointly with ground apparatus) navigational systems. However, they provide precise navigation only ln equipped areas and require constant correction of their readings.
In turn, non-autonomous navigational systems, even those providing high precision in fixing coordinates, are considered by tho Americans to be vulnerable, for even If only one station is put out of commission by the enemy, tho system is renderod practically useless. The utilization of such systems to fix tho launching point for "Polaris", "Hound Dog" and "Sky Bolt" mlssilos Is considered unreliable as well. According to American calculations, the "Transit" satellites should fix coordinates for vessels or aircraft with an accuracy ofeters.
Moreover, the Americansystem of radlo-navl-gational satellites to be Invulnerable because the means to combat such satellites have not yet beon created.
The operating principle of the system, which consistsatellites, is the following. The satellite,omplex set of radio-electronic apparatus on boardigh-stability radioecording mechanism, aof the parameters of the satellite's orbit, and source of power) is placedalculated circular orbit at an
altitudeilometers. The satellite's ground control station measures the precise parameters of its orbit once everyours and transmits them to the satellite, where they are recorded on magnetic tape. Simultaneously, timesignals are sent to the satellite. While moving in orbit, the satellite transmits to earth, at intervalsignal from its stable transmitter, data on the parameters of its orbit and signals of standard time. On the basis of all these data, the vessel or aircraft receiving-measuring and computing apparatus calculates the preciseof the location of the vossel or aircraft. Thecoordinates of the location Just before missile launchlngs of missile-carrying submarines (in submerged position andthe "Transit" satellite signalsrailing antonna, fixedarrier bomber, are fed into tho computer apparatus of their flight control system and serve as thedata in firing against tho selected targets.
"Transit" satellites have been under development by tho Americans These were the very first satellites. Intended for the creationadio-navigational net operating in actual practice. Of the soven satellites launched0ive were put in orbit. The last of them, "Transits equippeduclear roactor, which will provide electric power for the radio-technical apparatus on boarderiod of one year. It is considered that it fully meets the necessary requirements in its tactical-technical characteristics.
It is planned thatuch satellites will be put into space2 An oporatlng network of them should include six satellites, of which four are to be put into circular orbits
1th an angle of inclination of the planes of their orbits to the equator of abouthilo two aro to be put into circular
equatorial orbits at an altitudem. It is plannedTransit" satellites will be put into spaco inears.
The "Rebound" and "Advent" communications satellites are Intendedlobal radio communications net, which willcontrol of the coabat oporations of all types of armed
forces and primarily for the strategic attack weapons of the USA.
It Is known that the Americans are striving to developradio communications means In order to bring, primarily, strategic aviation. Intercontinental ballistic missiles and submarine missile carriers, up to combat readiness, and totheir combat operations. For this purpose, ln addition to the creationlobal communications net, the Americans are conducting work on the search for radio communications moans for control under exceptional conditions, using hlgh-altltude missiles of the "Tattle Tale" project, and aro also studying tho feasibility of creating passive communications satellites and paasivo reflecting belts, located ln orbits around the earth, and active communications earth satellites.
Tho "Tattle Tale" project envisages the creationattery of hlgh-altltudo missiles, which are to be lofted to an altitudem,carrying transmitting and relaying apparatus, when the normal functioning of other means of control has been disrupted. It is to transmit to command posts of all types of armed forces Instructions to bring them up to combat readiness, and combat orders for the commencement of combat operations.
The utilization of communications earth satollltea is ong-torm prospect . Two varieties of communications
satellites are being developed for these purposes: the passive, which reflect signals sent to them from transmitting to receiving points, and active, containing receiving and transmitting radio communications apparatus on board, which provide for the relaying of communications sent to the satellite from tho transmitting to tho receiving points. Depending on the height of the orbit, such satellites can provide ultra-short-wave communications at distances of thousands of kilometers, which will make it possible to dispense with tho use of numerous earth relay stations, which are complex to build and are expensive.
The first experimental passive satellite was theaunched Into space0 and currently ln orbit. It provides periodic radio communications between the east and west coasts
of the USA, as well as between the USA and the countries of Europe. In appearance, this satellite is an inflated globe,eters in diameter, manufactured from thin film, and coveredhin layer of aluminum paint ln order toits capacity to reflect radio waves.
A shortcoming of this type of satellite is, nevertheless, its tow radio-wave reflecting capability, which necessitates the construction of great antenna systems at transmitting and receiving points, capable of automatically tracking theduring flight, ln order to create reliable radiolines.
Work on the "Rebound" project Is being carried out ln this connection. The "Rebound" satellites will also take the form of inflated structures, but of lessor diameter, and in order to increase the reflection of radio waves,their outer surface will be filled out ln the form of numerous conjugate corner reflectors (sopryazhennyy ugolkovyy otrazhatel). Theof aboutuch satellites is planned for the2ut according to estimates of the Americans, even they will not accomplish the tasks of creating global radio communications nets.
For two years the Americans tried unsuccessfully to creato an artificial reflection belt around the earth (in polar orbit) out of metallic reflecting dlpoles. At first, the project for the creation of an artificial reflection belt bore the designationut afterwards the designation "West Ford". Thisenvisages placing inatelliteontainerreflecting dlpoles, which,when distributed along the orbit, willeflection belt for radio waves and will be able to provide uninterrupted radio communications, particularly in arctic areas.
An attempt to createelt was undertaken with the launching in1 of the "Midasatellite, withinontainer with dlpoles was installed. Becauseeries of malfunctions, the dlpoles were not successfully dis-
It Is planned to place "Advent" satellites In orbits up0 km In altitude by means of "Atlas*-Centaur" and "Saturn" missiles. Two experimental "Advent" satellite launchlngs were plannedut this schedule was not maintained. Two experimental satelliteear are planned for the2hile the creationlobal netof three satellitesbour equatorial orbit will take placeSaturn" missile, which is supposed to be ready for practical use by that time.
The "Nimbus" and "Aeros" meteorological satellites am Intended for" the creation of meteorological nets for weather reconnaissance in various areas ofobe for tbe purpose of precise weathor predictions in support of all types ofarmed forces.
The first moteorological satellites were "Tiros" satellites, equipped with two television cameras capablo of transmitting cloud-cover images to ground reception stations for one year. On earth, meteorological maps were compiled on the basis of these data, making it possible to determine the distribution of windat various altitudes, and of storm centers and theof their movement along the earth's surface. reatof metoorologlcal data were received from the three "Tiros" satellites placed in orbit0or tho analysis and processing of which attempts wore made to utilize electronic computers. "Nimbus" and "Aeros" satellites with television, infrared and radar apparatus on board, are being created in order toonstantly functioning net of meteorological It is planned to put "Nimbus" satellites in orbits ofm- in altitude and the "Aeros" satellites with improved tolevlslon camerashour orbits. In all, lt Is planned to launch aboutatellites of this type duringyear period.
Data received from the satellites will be processed by the use of electronic machines and will be transmitted to headquarters.
The "Anna" and "Secor" geodetic satellites are intended for more precise determination of the earth's shape, for geodetic tying In of points situated on various continents and of geodetic nets, particularly the nets of the USSR and USA, by the spatial triangulation method, as well as for the tying in of strategic targets to these nets with an accuracyeters, foragainst them by nuclear/missile weapons of attack.
At the present time, two types of geodetic satellites are being developed in the USA: optical (Projectnd radio range-finding satellites (Project "Secor").
The development of satellites in the "Anna" project began It was proposed that by the endatellites would be created weighingog, andm in diameter, equipped with sources for intensive light radiation, and which could be photographed against the background of stars, and on the basis of those photographseodetic tie In of nets and targets, using astronomic calculations. The pulse light source isfor the formation at two-minute intervals of light flashesurationillisecond and with an Intensityumens per second. It was also proposed to install ln theulse-operating radio beacon with tho same frequency and duration for automatic tracking of tho satellite in the celestial sphere.
In connection with the fact that the development of this satellite was not completed in time, the program for the creation of geodetic satellites was reviewed at the endnd in view of Its direct military significance, the responsibility for its fulfillment was placed on the Department of Defense.
The operating principle of tho "Secor" radio range-finding system is based on the use of the method of sequential comparison of distances from four radio range-finding stations on earth to the radio satellite located in an orbit, the parameters of which are known. The component elements of the system will be: three ground air-transportable stations, equipped with special radio-ranging installations and located at points with known geodeticround station which will be locatedoint which can be tied innown geodetic net;atellite with .'the transmitting-receivlng radio apparatus.
The "Secor" system Is toange of operation (measurement of distance between points) of up0 km and operaterequency bandegacycles. Ground transmitters are calculated for an emission powerattsrequencyegacycles. The ground receiving stations will operate on frequenciesegacycles.
Experiments with the "Secor" equipment are being carried on simultaneously with launchings of "Transit"satellites, on which the appropriate testing apparatus has been installed.
Tho Americans proposo to create portable units of ground apparatus which can be transported, as wellnit ofapparatus for the fourth of the stations, which isfor secret installation in the area of the target and which must be tied in to the other throe stations. Such an apparatus can be thrownlane ln the areas of thewhich are to be tied ln.
The expected accuracy of distance measurement byystem iseters.
A number of major American firms and the Weapons Systems Development Command are conducting planning workroad front for the creation of offensive space bombing systems designed to destroy ground targets from space. It is considered possible to create such systems only
It Is proposed that automatic carrier-satellites and piloted space-carrier-bombers will be Included in this system.
Carrier-satellites for nuclear/missile weapons aro boing studied and "designed under the general program, NABS. Atthree projects under this program are known. .
The first project, PCB, envlsagos the creation of carrier-satellites for "space-to-surface" type missiles for theof ground targets.
It is proposed that three-ton carrier-satellites will be placed in anm high, with an orbital period ofinutes. At this flight altitude, the carrier-satellite will be within the limits of direct visibility from groundstations forinutes, from where commands can be Issued for launching "space-to-surface" missiles. Depending on tho size of the angle of direction of the launch in relation to the tangent to the orbit, lt is considered possible to destroyat distances of0 km from the launch point. The weight ofissileuclear warhead can exceed one ton.
The second project, SLOB, envisages the creation of bomber-satellites for bombing ground targets with nuclear charges. It is proposed that such bomber-satellites will be placed in wbatj by American definition,are considered low orbits, at an altitude of up0 km,. up to stationary,hour orbits.
Tho third project, SUAOB, envlsagos the creation of bomber satellites for tho destruction of ground targets with nuclear warheads from altitudes0 km.
Piloted space carrier-bombers for nuclear/missile weapons are being studio'd "and designed under the general program,V This program Includes two basic projects: "Dyna-Soar"and" Iteasibility study on tho creation of non-combat space systems', of piloted combat systems, as well as of systems for support of tho conduct of combat operations in space.
The "Dyna-Soar" project envisages the creation of experimental piloted glldo or orbiting bombershich have aflight range0 km whon broughteight of about
m by the modernizedarrier-missile. Thisglide bomberrew of two menlight weightons, will subsequently, according to American opinion, be the basis for the development of the piloted orbiting bombers,ndhich will bespace vesselsoons.
In turn, on the basis of any of these, the Americans expect topace bombing weapons system for the destruction of ground targets with nuclear/misslie weapons. Experimental gliders are already being created under theroject at the present time. Later on,4t Is proposed that test and practical models will bo built for flights in spacorew on board. It is planned to carry outlightseriod ofears, using "Titannd "Saturn" missiles. Flights ofave not yet been planned under this project, but "Saturn" carrier-missiles will be used to carry them out.
It is also known that. Air Force proposes, on the basis of the "Dyne-Soar" project, toaneuverable spacovehiclerew of three men for tbe reconnaissance of ground targeta, for the design ofompetition has been announced. According to. Air Force tactical-technicalthe reconnaissance vehicle must be placed in polarat an altitude ofm .With the capability ofto lower orbitsm for detailed reconnaissance of ground targets. It is envlsagod that optical, photographic, television and radar apparatus will be used as reconnaissance equipment. It is considered advisable to process the Intelligence data on board the vessols and transmit it to oarth. The task of creating such reconnaissance means is to be performed
The" projecttudy of the feasibility of creating bombing systems to operate at altitudes of0 km. It is divided in turn Into two sub-projects with the.
Thetudy of the feasibility of creating piloted and automatic armed or reconnaissance space systems. Three versions, which have been designatednd K, are being studied. They will use ballistic or glide re-entry Into the atmosphore and are destined for operation at altitudes
of less0 km. The designing of bombing weapons systems suitable in practice for operations at the Indicated range of altitudes is being proposed on the basis of ' more realistic and long-term research.
Thetudy of theof creating piloted and automatic armed orspace systems for the conduct of combat operations in the altitude range0 km. Two versions,nd D, are being studied,using ballistic or glide re-entry into the atmosphere. The practical designinal version of the" piloted bombing system for the conduct of combat operations in the altitude range0 km is proposed on the basis of one of the more realistic versions.
It should be noted that all the projects for space bombing systems are in the very initial stage of study and research, with the exception ofut certain of them are already being financed by the Government.
The development by the Americans of military technical means of combat in space shows that the imperialists are using technical progress mainly for military purposes and areto turn space into an arena for destructive war.Original document.