CENTRAL INTELLIGENCE AGENCY
WASHINGTON 2S. o. c.
MEMORANDUM FOR: The Acting Director of Central Intelligence
THOUGHT (TOP SECRET): "The Role of Space Weapons'uturey Lieutenant-General N. Korenevskiy
erbatim translation of an article which appeared in the TOP SECRET Special Collection of Articles of the Journal "Militaryoyennayaublished by the Ministry of Defense, USSR, and distributed down to tho level of Army Commander.
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THOUGHT (TOP SECRBT) : "The Role of Space Weaponsuture War by Lleutenant-General N. Korenevskiy
reliable source (B) .
Followingerbatim translation of an article entitled "The Role of Space Weaponsuturey Lleutenant-General N. Korenevskiy.
This article appeared in2 First Issuospecial version of the Soviet militaryMysl (Military Thought) . This Journalirregularly and is classified TOP SECRETSoviets. 2 First "Issue went to press
Headquarters Comme'nt: Military Thought is publishedUSSR Ministry of Defense In three versions, classified RESTRICTED, SECRET and TOP SECRET. The RESTRICTED version has been Issued monthlyhile the other two versions are issued irregularly. The TOP SECRET version was initiated iny the end1 issues of the SECRET version had beenf them
The Role of Space Weapons
(According to foreign views)
Lieutenant-Goneral N. Korenevskiy
The space weapons which are coming into existence at the present time attract the intense attention of the government and military figures of the main capitalist countries,
The first leap into space, accomplished by our countryaturally presented the question of the pa'.thsrto the' mastery 'of' space, tho moans necessary for this, and the primary goals to be pursued In this.
On the one hand, as was stressed in the speech of the President of the USA onhus began the "battle for men's minds" in which the United States strives for "great enterprises" capable of demonstrating to the entire world the capabilities of, the. countrycience and technology. In his speech Kennedy gave American science and technology the task of "achieving the flightoan tothe moon and his safe return to earth by then'nTs "opinion,ingle space venture of this period will be more exciting,or important for tho overall exploration of space nor so difficult or expensive." In order to achieve tills goal he has already requested an additional appropriationillion dollars foriscal year, having warned that in future years even more resources will be required. The total cost of the program of conquering the moon is estimated by the Americans to beillion dollars.
On the other hand, the beginning of the conquest of space gave an impetus to its study for purely military
purposes, in vhich the space nearest to the earth is vloved"simply as the arena of future battles.
This articleirst attempt to state,ystematic manner, the views of the American command on the role of space weapons and the posBibllitiospmbat. The article does not'pretend toomplete elucidation of all questions connected with this subject. However, the information cited by us below attests to the need for serious study of the space veapons of the USA, the plans and intentions of the American command, and tbe possibilities of utilizing; space devices for military purposes. The need fortudy is explained by the factrsomo time now,.work in this field has gone beyond the limits of purely scientific investigation; ltory definite military nature and is being given very serious attention by the highest American echelons, Including even the President of the USA.
The ballistic missile proved to.be the first means of attack through space and,evon though, in itselfdoes not relate to space weapons, its appearance caused the need toeries of purely space weapons systems. Spoclal_reconnaissance earth.satellites have been recognized aa the'best means for detecting, launching sites andngs of missiles. The exact tle-ln of the geodetic'of the various countries and continents, which is necossary for determining the coordinates of such targets, proved to be feasible with the aid of special satellites that can be observed simultaneously by optical and radio-technical, means from points which are within the networks being tied in. One of the basic tasks of so-calledsatellites is to define more precisely, variations in the gravitation of theeto producsi the data
in preparing to fire intercontinental ballistic missiles. Artificial earthradio; reconnaissance, aadbeenas means capable of providing meteorologicalradio reconnaissance and communicationslobal scale.
Numerous projects,fpr_space systems for delivering strikes, against ground targets, and for antimissile and antispace defense, appeared soon after the space support systems. The special significance of space weapons islso explained by the extreme difficulty of destroying space vehicles.
In confirming the adherence of the new administration of the USA to.an;aggreseive policy. President Kennedy, ln his special message oftated that thegovernment must have at its disposal strategic attack JDd. defense weapons adequate to forestall any premeditated attack on the United States. In this connection, special attention is given to weapons launched from concealed, mobile, or invulnerable bases that will not be wiped from the face of the earthesulturprise attack. Space weapons bolong to this very category of weapona.'.
Until the recentpecial role in" strategy was allocated to the Air Force. Howoyer,9 the American command had already included aerospace in the operating zone of its Air Force and announced the creation of the so-called aerospace forces. Tho aerospace forces are considered to be the. strategic jaeans, and include aerodynamic airplanes and cruiseallistic missiles and military space devices. The basic principles of employing aerospace forces to achieve the goals of tho American government are stated in the so-called Basic Aerospace Doctrine of. Air Force.*
States Air Force Basic Doctrine (Aerospace. Air Force Manual Translation from the English, GRU Main Staff,
aerospace forces are Intended for operations la the total expanse beyond the surface of the earth without any Halts in altitude. This expanse is considered to be, from the Military standpoint, indivisible,and is called aerospace. According to the plans of. Air Poroe, madeyear period, the zone of combat operations in space will extend to altitudes ofilometers.
Aorospaco forces are capable of operating anywhere and at anytime. They have an unlimited range of operation, high mobility, great speed and firepower, and are capable-ofenemy defenses and conducting combat operations both ln the atmosphere of any part of the globe or beyond the limits of the atmosphere.
r cos can conduct combatoporatiqnaor in cooperation with other"types*of armed forces.
The most important principles In the employment of the aerospace forces are considered to be the principles of in-dfvTsThnit^ and centralized control of forces,clarity and d'eflnlTua'cr: of the taskthem, maximum display of initiative in all operations, concentration,of efforts. Insuring security, andlomu cooperation with otherrtypesrmed forcea and with civilian and government'"components. The significance of the principle of surprise, which Is acknowledged to be the determinant, Is especially stressed, and every effort is to be made to attain it.
it importanthe ultimate outcome would I
uture general war, aerospace forcea are given the decisive role. Therefore, attaining suj .aerospace is made one of the mo'sT maintained that "in general waresult of the decision ln the aerospace battle at the outset"*
States Air Force AerospaceThie page number apparently refers to the Soviet translation of the manual. The quotation la taken from2 of
and supremacy Id aerospace Is already manifestedapability "to destroy the military night of the enemy and concurrently protect the security of the United States of America and its allies."* The aerospace forces are capable of acting against the elements comprising theight, and, by having supremacy In the aerospace, they obtain advantages for all other types of armed forces in their performance of the tasks before them.
Bearing ln mind these basic tenets of the American aeroapaco doctrine, let us now examine tho question of supremacy in space and the role assigned to space weaponsuture war.
The elgnlflcance that la attached to attainingspace was best expressed by the present President lnhe was. senator: "Supremacy ln spacethe substance of the-next decade. The nation "tha't"will also control the world," Kennedy saidassertion is consistent with the thesis of thedoctrine, in accordance with which theuture war will be decided by combat
The concept of supremacy in Bpace differs from the earlier concepts of supremacy on_land. on sea, and In the
In- the. opinion of. tbe Americans the policy nts portrayed most vividly during combat opor_atleflS_pn_lftad. During combat operations on the sea, and"especially in tho air,a'limited application. Even greater limitations arise ln its application,.to space. If the atmosphere ends at the maximum flight altitude "of"aircraft, then space Is limitless and open for all countries. Even ln that part of the aerospace closest to the earth, the possibilities for supremacy are considerably
than on land, on the eea or In the air.
However, supremacy in any environment remains as an ideal in the strategic concept by vhlch one must be guided. Time and place become the basic factors under these In the opinion of General Power, the formerof the Strategic Air Command, "the existing concept of conducting combat, operations. In three dimensions of space will expand in time, if lt can be expressed in this way, into the concept of conducting combat operations in four dimensions of space, combat_pperatlons.in which the operational correlation between space and time will become the decisive factor."
In general, if it is impossible to control the entire aerospace in order to deprive the enemy of the capability to use lt for his purposes, it is then necessary to resolve the simpler problem ofertain part of itertain tins. One of these most important parts is the aerospace directly surrounding the earth and extending to an altitude approximately equal to one radius of the earth. In the opinion of. military command, the significance of apace combat Operations.uture War, wlll_.be, deter-,.ined by"their influence on tbe combat capabilities of the enemy's ground forces and the operations of their own forces. From this"pblnT-oz viev it seems realistic to'deprive the enemy of the capability to use the Indicated part of the aerospace nearest to the earth.
The special lntorest expressed in tho USA in questions of military uses of the aerospace is explained, to adegree, by the weakness, ofpoaltlon in the conventional spheres of armed forces operations. By casting their eyes intohe. military theorists proceed from the position that the USA has been unable to achieve supremacy on land, on the sea and in the air. space is considered to be the only expanse in vhich the USA can still count on Obtaining deTfnTte military advantages.
Proceeding from the position that the goal of strategy in peacetime is basically limited toselection of the best types of weapons, which.cannot be acquiredinished form and which have to he created graduallyelective basis, the military theorists and scientists of the USA are already studying questions of theof creating various new weapons to conduct war in space.
In order to achieve supremacy inholespace weapons systems is necessary, permitting theof offensive and defensive operations. As thethe military use of space was established by themissile, which brought about the need to create asupporting systems of satellites, or supremacy"' bprnhicg system Is first required, to conHJBt"umber of nuclear bombs circling the earth
The idea of creatingystem had already been advanced in the USA However, at that time the necessary technical means to realize it did not exist. At the present time these means do exist. They are tho "Atlas" missiles with which. Air Force is armed and to which "Titan" missiles soon will be added, and; laterA(in ]j
A second important question, which naturally arises In an attempt to createystem, is the question of accuracy. Until the recent past, the expected low,*accuracy ofystem, together with the high cost of .'putting satellites into orbit, was considered to be thei;efttlon. .of effective carrier-satellites (sputnik-nositel) of nuclear/mlssf Ie weapons, but at the present time the problem of accuracy Is already being resolved successfully. The most important phase in this line is the "Discoverer" program.
One of the goals in the "DlBcovererJl_Drogram le workin,ystem for the return fr omrp with various payloads. As0 containers "had been recovered. These results are considered to be quite '
and in the future the destruction of evensmall targets from space is considered possible.
At the present time certain requirementspace bombing system have been formulated. The carrier satellites of this system must circle the earth in various orbits and must be supplemented by numerous decoy satellites (sputnik-lovushka). The creation of such decoys or dummy targets for misleading the enemy does not present any great In order to hamper the radar or optical observation from the earth of each satellite of the system, it isto use antiradar covering and to paint them black.
Increasing the accuracy, of nuclear, strikes.jrqm_ space is planned by means of equipping the satellites, orissiles launched from them, with homing guidance systems in addition to the programmed system,which must constantly be corrected from the earth. An Infrared homing system is proposed asystem.
The satellites of the space bombing system must, in advance, be put'ThTd orbits that pass over the territory of_the Soviet Onion. In the opinion ofTrnTTXtary theorists, such actions cannot bo considered lo be an
aggressive act so long as "there is no "inVernaHdnal'agree-ment defining tho boundaries of the sovereignty of states beyond the limits of the atmosphere, and so long as there is no legal status for space bodies.
The creation ofsystem,.consisting of hundreds and thousands of satellites ,reaHy_tp attackected targets at any moment, and whoso destruction presents grealTdifficulties,ind of apotheosis of the strategy of Intimidation.
On the other hand, authors of the plans for creating space bombing systems examine them from the standpoint of the possibility of transferring combat operatlona into space without conducting them on the earth, on the sea, or in the air. Thus, we are speakingew version of the theory of limited wars. It is contemplated that the results of military
operations in_space willreat military-political and ecoriomic slgniflcance_for the couatries participating in them andaoTe to force the Soviet Union to make
The political significance of success inar will be determined by the fact that the country that achieves it will demonstrate its superiority, in materiel-technical means, in its technblbgical "base, and in Its theory, which will simplify the "conquest of the minds" of men, the recruiting of allies and the resolving.of arguments with the enemy to one's advantage in various international organizations..
The fact that the system, exists will supposedly force the enemy to take defensive measures which will entail huge expenditures. It will be necessary to detect,and destroy or render harmless, all'such satellites one by one, including the decoy satellites.
Combat with carrier-satellitesery complex problem. It is considered that the direct destruction of Jta.LelJtites. is unacceptable because it can lead to ctive contamination of the expanse between .the atmosphere and the lower Van Allen belt.*irMoreover, the remains"he atellite and antisatellite satellite willreat number of dummy targets. Therefore, the enomy will be forced to install braking rockets on-the satellites in order to have these satellites lose altitude and burn in the upper layers of the atmosphere. In order to hinderork, booby-traps or other automatically operating defen- ivo devices can be Installed on the satellites in advance, '
Further, it is contemplated that the the jioviet^Union, will not limit itself to defense, and will fft-bit its own; carrier-satellites, tin-turn; the"USA will conduct*system of measures "to* combats'a result, -the- Soviet Union will- be* drawn lnto^combatorje_rations that -will, be conductedreat strain dn" its forces, "and may prove to be beyond the strength of its economy.
The development of apace bombing systems is already being conducted by the USA at the present-time under the NABS (Nuclear Armed Bombardment System) program. eries of special projects. One of them envisages the development of carrlcr^eatellites of "space-to-eurface_ class missiles (projectrblttng'^at an altitude otkm. Tbe other projects (SLOB and SHAOB) envisage the creation of strategicin "low" (altitudes up0 km)orbits.
The practical creationpace bombing system is considered feasible in the near future.
An important role in attaining supremacy ln spaceto guided, manned spaceships.. This wasby the former Chief of Staff of. AirThomasMthite, who0 stated: aerospace it Is necessary to have not onlythat can fly from one point of the globe toit is also necessary to have men operatespace,"
nr.ed. spaceshipshe work on the ek^erlmVntar^-XK^
satellite of the "Mercury" project". In the near future flights ofo aircraft are planned with the goal of attaining altitudesm, and ln the beginning2 the first flight of the American astronaut. Glenn, is expected, who is to orbit the earth three times.
Subsequent phases in this direction should be orbital gliding bpmberB and reconnaissance aircraft being developed in the 1id the initial"stage, by several leading American companiesHughes" and others). The creation of manned spacecommand posts is planned for the future.
The moon is considered to be an important element of. "deterrent force" in aerospace. Its role from this point of view had already been stressed in8
BrlgadJ-errQeneral Hooer Boos hey . Air Force). He "The moon possesses one advantage that has long been recognized by military science, namely, the advantage of altitude.
The possession of military bases on the moon vill supposedly preclude tho possibility of destroying. military might In case of surprise attack. Tho durationissile flight from the earth to the moon is about two calendar days. Therefore theou trail-zatlonoon base and ofearth Is impossible.trike against targets on theotential for delivering afrom lunar bases is On the othertrike against _lunar_basesthene of the enemy and provides time for preparing and "effecting couhteVmeasures...
The military significance of the moon is determined by the potentialities^ that unfoldjrlth the employment, of lunar bases.. Suoo^ases" can Insure: observation of enemy territory vith tho aid of telescopes;of enemy ballistic missile launchlngs;counter-measures against systems for controlling space veapons .
and space communicationlaunchingground targets fromide of the
Already, Interest In the moon is not limitedtudy of questionsiscussion of discovered Specific projects are being worked outropose the construction, af various str.uc.lu res under the surface of the moon from the freight compartments of" missiles, and"also the employment of various versions of pneumatic structures. . Army Corps of Engineers, and also various Americanrereat deal of work in this direction.
Parallel with working out the question of the military use of space for offensive purposes, considerable attention in the USA is being given to defensive space systemsfor antimissile and antlaatellite, or, more exactly,-
U.S. Department of Defense Is alreadyombat space system,fc which in- several thousand destroyer satellites (sputnik- to destroy intercontinental ballisticalso foraint" system,which includesinterceptor satellites for intercepting
The creation of such antimissile and antispace defense means is already considered to be possible6 However, the generally acceptedin the USA is that in the near future space weapons systems will strengthen off ens lye, and not defensive, capa- I Therefore, various versions of defensive spacesYsterns are considered to be less significant than plans for offensive systems.
A great deal of attention is also given to means of /resonnjUsjiance.: Such reconnaissance is completelyfeasible technically, not only for strategic but alsoactical, purposes; it will greatly increase the capabll-ies- r^^y
trine of. Air Force, aerospace forces must constantly be used to It is recognized that in order to get intelligence informationation must be prepared to accept great risks when the risks of not having tho'infor-mation are considered greater."*
the USA. the various stages in the military mastery of. aerospace are considered to be the following: he first'stage reation of__milltnry supportsterns ; second stage creation, of carrier-satellites and means of antispace defense, fmoon "and return to the earth, the creation of powerful carrier-missiles and manned space ships;
States Air Force Aerospacef
third stagehe creation of autonomous space systems, manned space stations and command posts, and military bases on the moon.-"
In the first stage,space weapons still have an auxiliary significance and are Intended for supporting the combat operations of all the types of armed forces of the USA. Control of them Is effected from the earth. By the end ofe created "for" reconnaissance of ground targets, for detecting tho launchings of ballistic missiles, for the precise connection of geodetic networks and geodetic tie-in offor exact navigation of missile-carrying submarines and strategic bombers carrying "air-to-surface" class missiles, for global radio communications, for forecasting the weather, and also for radio-electronic intelligence and radio In thisotalatellite systems must be created, which, in the opinion of the American command, can be employed for the support ofasicof an offensive and defensive nature, conducted by all the types. armed forces.
The types of combat operations and the support systems of satellites that are planned to be used in them are repre-
The capabilities ofystem of satellites can beith' strategic air operations as an example. Reconnaissance satellites are to disclose the targets for such operations. Ultra-long-range missile detectionin essence, determine the necessary degree of combat readiness of aviation for participation in theuture war, and in the future, together with other means, they will provide the warning to getimely manner in order to '. preventestruction by missiles on the airfields where they are based. On the other band, they will determine, at least approximately, the areaissile launching, and,with other reconnaissance means, will aid in locating the sites of missile bases so that they can subsequently be destroyod by aircraft and missile strikes. Geodetic
Eaiployirjcnt of Supporting Sitellltc Syatema in tbe Combat Operations of the Armed Forccn of the USA
Type of offensive and . combat
f pa to
of unorpo of strategic desiciwY.loi;
of field armloe
aWaVU^lri. perationc (with "Polaris'" Klcoilca) t
of carrier strike '
and mine-sweeping operations
air operations -
branch 'of the-armed forces conducting the givenilitary space devices employed in conducting the given operation;
- the^employment of the space devices ln the givenand for the given branch of Ithe armed forces
The photographic equipment of the "Samoa*'
nalssance satellites,ontainer of film that be returned to earth, should, according to theof the Americans, insure the detection of ground jhaving linear dimensionsoeters, Iis fully adequate for detecting suchf
and targets as missile bases, airfields, naval large units, concentrations of ground troops, industrial enter- ', prises and others. From this standpoint, reconnaissance atellites are considered toeliable replacement for the special reconnaissance aircraft ofype.
The operational "Samos" system must contain several (according to certain Information, upatellites rotatingomparatively low orbits at an altitude ofm.
The "Midas" satellites must provide for the detection of missile launchingsinutes and warningoinutes before intercontinental ballistic missiles reach their targets (compared with theoinutes that are provided by the existing BMEWS ground radar system).
heidas" system will,consist of.from othersatellites constantly.rotating around the earth in polar orbits at altitudes of up0 km and higher. Besides detecting laundhings, combat versions of the satellites will apparently be able to track, at leastertain section of the flight trajectory of missiles for target designation for ground antimissile defense (PRO) weapons. The immediate trans!-mission of data acquired in this manner must be carried outetwork of communications earth satellites. The "Midas" program is being fulfilled according toplans.
The program of creating systems of "Transit"satellites and "Tiros" meteorological satellites is being successfully realized; the program oflobal network of "Advent" communications; satellJ tes is being accomplishedsrtaJn delay from the proposed
plans, and preparation for launching tho first "ANNA" and "SECOR" geodetic satellites2 is being carried out.
It should be noted that the above-listed support satellite systems are to provide information which cannot be obtained by other methods, or if it can be obtained, with Insufficient accuracy. Por example, geodetic satellites should insure the tie-in of geodetic grids and determine the location of the most important targetsermissible error of up to, while the existing methods permitof the geodetic grids of continents and islands with errors measured' in hundreds of meters and even in kilometers.
According to available evaluationystem ofavigational satellites will permit aof the geodetic coordinates of submarines andwith an accuracy ofany times more accurate than all other known navigational systems. For comparison, it can be pointed out that the experimental American "Omega" radio-navigational system provides for determination of the line of position'angem with an accuracy ofm. The more precise radio-navigation systems being developedimited operating range, which reduces the possibility of their operational employment. Concerning inertlal navigationalo far, under tho conditions of prolonged submarine cruises they cannot provide accuracy comparable to that which will be given by the satellite systems.
In future military operations, meteorological satellites will be able to Insure rapid receipt of Information about the meteorological situation of huge expanses. They should become an effective means for receiving meteorological data for all types of armed forces under conditions where the receipt of such data from other channels is Impossible or, in any case, made very difficult.
In this way, American plans to create military support satellite systems are, fundamentally^ being realized successfully.
In the secondhe arsenal of space weapons will expand considerably and will be reinforced by new weapons. In addition to the operational support satellite systems, it is planned, in this stage, to create space weapons for antimissile and antispace defense, which can be employedort.ofi'snield: preventing access to space and the carrying out by the enemy of his military space programs. During this same period lt is possible that satellites to carry nuclear/missile weapons and space bombing systems will be created.
In this phase great significance is attachedcarrier-missiles which, according towill be able to put the DS in firstfar as weight of useful payload that can be putis concerned. For this purpose, threethe "Saturn" type missile and the "Nova"being
These missiles are to perform the task set by Presidentcarry out the flightanned spaceship to the moon and return it to earthhey can also be employed to put heavyan Into orbit around the earth and to create military command posts in space. In this way the dependence of space weapons on ground systems will be decreased sharply, and the prerequisites for their autonomous employment will be created.
Therefore, in the opinion of the Americans, the second phase should create the necessary technicalS*achievement. of .supremacy in space.
In the thirdhe widescale employment of space weapons is considered possible, both forcombat operations on earth during possible local
and in general war, and for conducting "limited" war in space.
During this period, military space systems will already possess sufficient autonomy, not only for conducting war in space, but also for delivering strikes independently against ground objectives and targets when destroying or putting out of commission ground means of control and communicationsTheof military bases on the moon during this stage will significantly increase the "deterrent power" of space weapons.
In order to control combat operations, thedf space command posts and bases ln space is envisaged during this period. The need to createcommand posts was stressed by President Kennedy in his message to Congress on the budget foriscal year. Zn this message Kennedy stated: "Command posts and communicatloas centers that areand are permanently located in space are only the beginning of an Important and absolutely necessary effort directed towardr the creationenuinely, unified, ihvulnerabXe. national system ofigh level."
. Air Force, taking these conditions into consideration,tudy of the possibilities of creating space stations that could be used as command posts for controlling the combat operations of all types of armed forces, especially of space weapons, and also for carrying out reconnaissance and supporting the operations of their space forces.
Already, the American command does not limitonly to the development of various types of space weapons and to resolving the technical problemswith this. As. ia known, the formation of the first^Iarge.'units. and unit* of ballis'trc-missiles of strategic designation had already been started in the USAwo years before "Atlas" intercontinental
ballistic missiles were Introduced into armament. Now the first aerospace large units and units are being formedimilar manner. Their mission includes the combat employment of the space weapons being created.
0 theh Test Wing was already created in. Air Force. This Wing is located at the Vandenberg Air Force Base and consists of the following basic subunits: atellite launching supportquadron to insure the security of satelliteroup for collectingdata from satellites (the composition of this groupquadron to search for equipmentand photographic containers ejected from orbiting "Samos" and "Discoverer" satellites, and also of manned Project "Mercury" satellites.) fh Wing consists of0 men. At the present time the Wing has0 persons.
The formation of the 9th Antispace Defense Division was begun in The composition ofquadron for control and observation of space, which directs the work of theystem and collects data on the situation in space for reports to the military command. So far the staff of the division, composed ofen, has been organized. In the future,9th Division is to serve as the basis forother units and subunits of antimissile and anti-space' defense.
The first aerospace division has also been formed in the composition of. Strategic Air Command. It Is based at the Vandenberg Air Forco Base and at the present time provides training of the personnel for the missile units that are being formed. Apparently in the future this division will carry out theof personnel for space weapon units.
In conclusion lt must be stressed that plans for converting space into the arena of future battles are
a nature that Is far from theoretical. The US government and the command of. Armed Forces areroadly conceived program of military mastery of space, by which the scale and tempo of work ln this direction will Increase from year to year.
While advancing proposals on banning the use of apace for military purposes, the government of the USA has at the same timeyear program calculated to achieve supremacy in space which requires expenditures of tons of billions of dollars. *
It is impossible to discount the successes in this direction that have already been achieved In the USA up to the present time. 1 the Americans hadttempts and orbitedarious space devices, includingrtificialthatlearly military purpose. In addition, by that time there were alreadymerican military-purpose satellites orbiting the earth,"Samoa" and "Midas" experimental reconnaissance satellites.
Preparatory work for achieving supremacy ln space includes such measures as working out basic doctrines, organizing widescale military research work,pecial command to develop new armament systems,f0 men, and organizing large units and units of aerospace and purely space weapons.
All this requires further serious study of the opinions, plans and technical achievements of the USA In the field of mastering the aerospace, in order to retain and strengthen the leading position of our country in the exploration and mastery of space.Original document.