Created: 11/15/1962

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Surveyed tn this report are the major telecommunications systems operated by variou*f thc Soviet economy independently of the basic telecommunications eyatem of the Union-Republic Ministry of Also, (be interrelationship between these functionalsystems and tbe basic system la. examined. An economic survey of thc basic system will be found inostServices la the USSR.|SS. SECRET, which ie now under revision.

Excluded from this report are military and quasi-military system* and many email eyaleme operated by other sectors and subeectors of thc economy, such as agriculture, mining, and manufacturing. systems internallant or an enterprise also have been excluded.

Details on lhe radio facilities portion of the telecommunication*covered in this report, as well as the radio facilities ol all (mown telecommunications systems in the USSR, are given in the followingii'. of the National Security Agency:


SumiPtr- and Conclusions

Functional telecommunicationsaccountignificant pan of im total civil telecommunications tHNrctl ol tbe USSR. At Ike enddenlilled functional system, emulated ofadiooreiles of microwave radio relay Unas in operation or under construction,aat network of muUieonductor cable and openheee (acUiltee. the magnitude of which la understated in availablerovide large quantities oltelephone and telegraph servicesariety of specialised ner-vlcea to meet private needs. The most important functional systems are those operated by ministries and departments responsible for rail,air. and water transport, the olectrlc power and fishing industries; hydromeleorological and diplomatic services: and the sov-iail.hor.os.

ti ual telecomniualcatlona systems have been developed over the years by individual civil ministries andn order lo elletl better control and coordination of related economic activities, including dispatching control over the movement ol r fuels, and power. In most casee their communication* reejv Ire meals are specialised and entailneed for coatineous. direct, and taliable communication! service with widely diapersed points.

ThTcatimates and conclusions In Ihie report represent tbe be.tof this Oflicr as1 efinition ol technical terms, see Appendi* A.

The lerm functional telecommunicationsterns in thin reporl relor" to those telecommunications systems operated by and serving individualministries ond departments ol tho Soviet economy independently of Ihe basic telecommunications syttetn of common unagr operated by tha Ministry o! Communications

iun<ii"ii'il system* liaviT beun developed lately independent of the.

hichthe basic I'lfnimmiHiK*.

lion* tyilnm in the USSR, even Ihouph manyor

jointly own farwiih (heThie independentI piiwcomi aboutperl becausee inability of the Ministry iflo.meel *peciali*ed communication*in part

because of economic and bui preeeuree. Consumers o( bulk

.iiiiin, traffic have lunml thai they can opeiaie and maintain

then-own fenlitiesroiiomlcally Itian Ihey can lease fuciUtien from :Chef Communication*. In instance! where service requirement* and economic factors tail lo justify theand maintenance of an independent telecommunications system, lb* pieatlfe end convenience afforded Soviet officialdom byystem outweigh prececal ccmsidcra-tioaa.

Fnne.tional eyslcms of (he railroad system, gnn and ot) pipelines,lia electric power industry operate the largest networks ol open wire, multlconductoi cable, and microwave radio relay lines. One or more ul these media parallel theroute mile* of rati line, theiles of gas and oil pipelines. sod much of tbe more0 circuit miles of main electric power (isniraiieion lines. At present, open wireline is the predominant medium used by Iheae arstama. balof the mainline facilities constreeccd8 employ tne more modern multlconductot cable and microwave radio relay media.

nuriiio other functional systems, Ihole serving water end air transport, (be fishing industry, and diplomatic and hydromete otologic al services rely on radio as the primary medium el communications Tbis reliance on radio is diciaied by lhe need to communicate with airborne and waterboive craft snd with aeatioas in foreign countries and byconsideration* lhal lestrlct the construction of other type* offacilities in remote area* of (he USSR.

Inm ihc telecom mimical ions faciliiiun used by the functional system* have adequately met service requirements. Al pre sen! in addition to lhencrement* in demand for the iiriK'i ihil a<iowmg e'onomy. function', hair mi

term MiniWryol Commnmcitioni includes both the Ministry of

Communications of ilu- USSR and the minialrie* of communication* ol

the variousie IIS5R

areoil *iihply rising rernlt forat well Jh imivitii

servtcce. Thesertd.riooil tr .in an outgrowta ol (fee

current Soviet program ul auiomatiee. mechanisation, andplana lor IN* establishment ol cent rallied letetompiMermany points around the country. To meet these demands In In*mannar, th* functional eyalam* are introducing modarnmedia and equipment to supplemi-nl facilities. Among thc modern (acililies being Introducedand(VHF) radio relay, cable,end iropoipheric scatter radio, avaomauc ewilth.ogtelcdata equipment

In the light ol thane developments and the Advancing atari; ol tele -communications technology in the USSR, the Ministry ol Communications is now attempting to act as* thc local point lor coordinating tbeol functional systems Thc Ministry views this need loraa especially ctiliral in the planning, coottruction, and operation of nigh-capacity multicondiactor cable and microwave radio relayhere In evidence chat the economic advantages of sucti coordination are slowly overcoming the reluctance of many users o( functional sysieme toa with ihel Communications in thla regard.

, In contradistinction toother functional systems,

the Ministry of Cominunieeiioni seeks to assert direct and absoluteo( aystems operated by individual eovnarkho&as ao that they may he iniegtatad into the common usage system. Most ol tlie sovnarkhotci in the RSI'SR. the Ukrainian SSR, and Kasakb SSR continue to resistion. It la likely, however, that the lulIUIment of ihe Seven Year PlanbS)(be Ministry ol Communicationa. which includes greatof service capacity employing the most modern technology, will result in ihe eventual dissolution ol the redundant, aged, and uneconomical

sovnarkhos systems.



I. Transportation

Ministries and department* responsible for rail, pipeline, air. and water transport in the USSR have established functionalv.yctems to matamixe the utilisation of their available transport Although allommon need for direct and continuous communications between administrative and operational unite, the unique aspects of each transportation system have necessitated the establishment of independent telecommunications networks.

A. Rail

In the USSR the railroad system, managed by the All-Union Ministry of Railroad Transportation, functions as thc backbone of the transportation network. 1 the railroad system handled nearlyercent ot tbe total domestic freight traffic in ton-kilometers. Theofailroad regions end about 1BD subordinate operating divisions end at the end1 covered0 route miles.

I. Facilities

The Ministry of Railroad Trans pot tail on through itsunit, the Chief Directorate of Signals and Communications.operates, and maintains an integrated network offacilities. This networkariety of conventional andcommunications and signals services.

Open Wireline

The open wireline nefwor* the major medium used fur local anil lung-distance railroadying Ministry

S -

headquarters in Moscow lo the varum* railroad regions(beiroperating divisions. With the exception of thoie Vail lines that have been electrified -lib alternating current (AC)ew other mainbe ope. wireline network serves all rail liaea. It provideeof trying capacity for tbe ttaasmieeioa of telephone, telegraph, aad signaling traffic. As is the case for other communication* media, open wire facilities are welln few exceptions, are separate from those of the Ministry of Communications.It

The wireline network runs adjacent to trackhereas the local part of lhe network uses wires of Hoc-coated steel, the long-distance part uses copper-covered steel. In order to increase the circuit capacity of long-distanceeealve is madehannelcbannel telephone carrier equipment. Some use is madecbaaoel equipment, bui tbe quality of voice transmission is poor. 4/

b. htult icon due tor Cable and Microwave Radio Relay

At tbe endhere an reiles of multiconductor cable aad microwave radio relay lines in operation or under construction along railhese media fsee there used on some main routes and on all AC electrified section, of the railroad system and provide both communications and signaling circuits. Because of electrical interference, open wirelines had to be replaced with underground cable or microwave radio telay lines on all ACsystems.

Tbe first multkeoductor cable tines metalled by the railroads were of tee lead.covered, paper-iaauleted type. In recent years the uae ot insulated cable has been emphasised. One such cable baa been laetalted on lhe Mariinsh-Zima section of the Trans-Siberian Railroad. Imported fron) France, it4 star-quad cableotential capacity ofelephone channels.

The railroads spend annually more thanillion lolu) rubles u> maintain their open wireline facilities. 2'

Of thisiles of cable linesiles ofradio relay lines were in operation,O0 mile, of microwave radio relay lines were under construction. Inside back cover.

utomaticmanual exchange* are nmployed to telephone service. Fully. And scimauicmai ilarc used uidicircuit, a* welt a* on circuit* nerving targe

railudC junclivn end marthaling yards. HlDCr'jT.

dllailed exchange*apacityine* or more have

THe owrr-ilj performance oftelephone lyilfin. inii-iit>v- and quantitatives good Some delays occur tn tbe completion of local calls, but these generally are confined to secondary area* equipped with obsolete manual exchange*. Tbe use of automatic and semiautomatic exchange* not only haa speeded istance anrvice nut also has significantly lowered operating and maintenance costs and reduced manpower requirements. Automatic equipment probably will eventually replace all manual equipment.

Tbe telegraph network of Ihe railroads provides regular telegraph serviceimited amount of facsimile service, Manualautomatic Morse equipment and teletypeare used on the Cole* graph network. Teletype equipment has been used extensivelynen the Ministry directed thai page printing equipment be the principal telegraph apparatus Recent reports state that teletype oquipment it to be converted to conform to tnternai.ontl standard*. This actionreflects the efforts of OSShDhe railroad tote graph services and facilities of member countries

- the telegraph ffers relativelyUt Operai;ug erftcteccy softer* oomew**ai from an insuif circuits SeCh circuits generally are available betweenand regional aad divisional but are in short

*uppfy for communications between regional headquarter* andpciaung divisions and be'w-'vnhisnecessitate* the multiple reUyiif, of large quantities of traffic throughoints. To overcome this deficiency, thc Ministry intends toub*umber ofplaced tsit roadnler* so ai to insure tttrrct ocrviceind thnn


aling divisions he nam* niliimi

either will be direct or will be rcl-iyd through no more Iben|>oinl Along with theie development* the'i ubicriber telegraph service (TKl.EX) betweenvolames of traffic

C. SlfnSli**;

The signaling facilities ol the railroads are largely of the manual or semiautomatic variety. Of0 route milei of railroad in operation, bl.TOC miles are equipped with manual or semi-automaticiles are equipped with automatic block signal (ADS) systems,iles are equipped with centralised traffic control (CTC) systems.

Control of train movements on sections equipped with manual or an till Automatic block systems requires lhe use of direct telephone or li'lrpiaph communications between thc siatlonmastnr. the dispali'har, llie switch and signalhe adjoining etscions. Sections of line .here ABS system* sre installed employ coded track circuits (signets ere transmitted along tbe irack) to contiol lhe three aspect ecarchlight signals as well as for wayside and cab signaling The signaling and communications circuits on the CTCem are carried by underground cable. Beside* uiiag the ba*ic features of the ABS system, the CTC system permits thc CTC operator, wbo i* constantly aware of the track conditions and the statu* of tracko control remotely the rowing of traine tbrougboel hi* territory

U Pipeline

The Ham Admini it ration of the Ca* Industry. Council ofuf the USSR, ii responsible for the conttruclton ami operation of ga* and oil pipeline* in the USSR. Its pipeline network at1 consisted ofl gasi Id*ml

- , - nmAii'rtei:

lhe switch is controlled remotely

** This network isxpanded! .ind ?ti. >oa miles of oil pipelines' by the end included in this plan arc Oil pipelines thai will link the Utalt-Voljia oilfields in lhe USSR wliHin Poland. Easl Germany. Hungary,echoslovaku


facilities runntiijj patfallel toetwork provide fhi* lulephonc, telegraph. Inlometnc. and teleconlrol Mtfrvicvt Dcceiury for the control and supervision of pipeline peiformaiic*

Mw( facilitiesbyndustry

Are jointly*twi operated with tbo Ministry of

Some fee tWitee Arc leAied from tbe/ew ar* believed to be owned wholly by thei-^jrir* The economic atlvAntAge of joint ownership ie apparent fromimAies by sharing construction costs with ocber or EAtions. the cost of .niUUing telecommunication* facilities can be reduced from aboutercent of tbe toUt investment costipeline tooercont.

pen wire Htm and mult iconduc tor cable were the main media paralleling pipeline!. During lhe IQ-yeariles of open wirehec and LOO mile* of cable were initialled along main pipelines by tbe construction truet* of tbe Ministry of

The first microwaveelay line was introduced9 along tbe Aktey (neer Rostov)Moscow section oi the Stavropol' -Moscow gas pipelinethe map*). This microwave tme. which Is Owned jointly with the Ministry of Communications,telephonc-channel equipment (Strela-M) and equipment for the relay o( television broadcasts The gau Industry, in conjunction wiii. the Ministry of Communications, has planned an Additional mU rowAve radio relay line to parallel the gas pipeline being constructed from Gasli toistaovee of Aboutrc This microwivt rAdio relAy line ie now under construction aoufh from Caali to Taiiihenl.en emisttng pipelines show* on tbelprneni prce>abiy will bealong the, eelr from Sverdlovsk to TAehkent. aa specifiCAtioeiS catt for the traa*mission of television broadcasts aa well as telephoneelcgJAph weffic and telemetric and telecontrol signal*.

Available information is insufficient lo identify vuMiiuwidi wipe-tine mutes that will employ mtcrownve radio relay, no- have operational

* ido: back cover.

or planned mulMeonduclo. .eble routes beer, Identified f cable,etata-

men. by lhe industry that, starling. lhe eteetronic*mustile. of polyetLylen. insulated cable having

(oure conductor pa.r. (or pipeline It I. probable that mu ticonduetorcabl. of <hi. type be.long thepipeline,oue.riee. foripeline, are buried ande .edece .heirn lime oi war

Telephone and/or telegraph serviceavailable at all manaedor operational control andducing area, andpo.nU forive and operational purpose.. TelerneUy aerv.eemploy^ eatenaively by tbe gas mdu.try for remotehe operational statue ol equipmentpipelines, bm onlyplkai.on Is mad- of telecontrol service for th. remote control of valve, and for pres.ure.hoo.ting and pumping stations. Plunned technological development in automation, however, will greatly increase lhe use of telecontrol service in the next few years.

C. Air

Domestic aed internationalair transport in the USSRontrolled by (be Ma-atio, ofounc.IMinister, of .he USSR.- The Civil Air Flee. (AEROFLOT)iv,! Directorate, androups, each havne Regional Controller, andf.eld.ieat.onal structure clo.ely paralleled by an admtnistr.iive lelecommunicaiion.ystem -Hi,. usoint. In addition. AEROFLOTav.gat.onal teletommus.cation. systemn. of navlgationa;located along air routes and al principal airfield..

Redlo. operatingne-HF end VHF. tbecommunication, medium used by AEROFLOT.

Sepamng9 Pola.*nated (torn tbe Ch.ef

to^lT'T T Me.cbae,

to me Cvil Air Fleet, td/

'* ieaa are controlled Lorn .he Moscowirccto.are irectorate ha.oh>oth Bloc and countries

- IJ


1 hie network I' tbe moat extensive nonmlltiary nol-.edio facilities in Ihe USSR. In some remote areas of Ihe USSHacilities of AEROFLOT ata shared with Other organisations. tover, AEROFLOT provides communications support to military aircraft in aroa* where military facilities are not available.

Open wireline, muitlcooductor cable, and microwave radio relay facilitiee that are owned and operated by AEROFLOT are believed to be confined to relatively short routes for connecting air traffic controlwith peripheral communications installations. Although evidence la Lacking, it is possible that AEROFLOT leases some open wireline, cable, or microwave radio relay circuits from the Ministry ol Com muni -cations for long-distance communications.

Radio facilities of AEROFLOT provide telephone and Morse and teletype telegraph services

Most grouno-to-grouno raoio circuits in thetelecommunications system offer Morse service,ew oiler both Morse and telephone service. Teletype service is confined to thosecircuits thatigh traffic density. Both Morse and telephone services are available on radio circuits of the navigational telecommunications system for ground-lo-ground and ground-to-air20/

D Water

Commercial shipping in the USSR Is largely the responsibility of two Ministries, the All-Union Ministry of the Me rchant Fleet and the Ministry of the River Fleet ofSR. The Ministry of the Merchant Fleet controls commercial ocean and Caspian Sea shipping. Aunit, the Chief Directorate oi the Northern Seaoordinates

The sum of the transmission modes does not equal the total number ofs of AEROFLOT. as more ihan one transmission mode may

mployed on any circuit.


*if.i rc in i :/

by thef iliv River Fleet of thc RSFSR.

Both the Ministry of the Merchant Fleet and the Ministry of (he Kiver Fleet own and operate autonomous telecommunications ByeleniE. HF and VHF radio i$ the dominanl medium for point-to-point, shore-to-ship, and ship-to-shorc communications-* Opon wire and multicon-due tor cabin line* operated by Ihe Mir.islry ol the Merchant Fleet are confined to urban areas and to short interurban routes. The Ministry of thc River Fleet operates similar facilities in urban areas and, in addition,etwork of open wireline facilities that parallel mosl main inland waterways in Ihe European part of the RSFSR. None of the open wire or cable lines operated by these ministries is known to be jointly Owned with Ihe Ministry of Communications, til

Radio circuits,

furnish telephone and Morse, teletype, and facsimile telegraph Aa Shown in the table, Morw service is the most widely used, andimited numhgiircuits offoi telephone service AI;hough, generally, teletype service is confined to main radio circuits,

Low-frequency and meriium-fri-quenCy iailm ison someoint circuits in the For North because ol adverse conditions for radio propagation.. ft. above

"** Some radio circuits of tho Ministry of the Merchant Fleet are used lc. support military activities.


at IcAkl with rriprcl lo Ihcli.ri iImi teletype service will bc nd greatly

vxp'uded on main anil setondary radio circuits' Facsimile service for Ihe transmission ol weather data is broadcast by threecenters of tha Chief Directorate of the Nonhern Sea Route to aboutand nations Hid to an unidentified number of

The Ministries of thc Merchant and of the River Fleetsarge number of low-powered VHF radio facilities

Such facilities are available at pons and on most ships tor snort-raogc telephone communications. Commercial shippingalso are known to employ fixed VHF radio relay facilities, whichapacity ot two telephone and two lelegraph channels (Sovietdesignationor communications over distances of leasiles. Thia equipment ie known to be present at six installations of ne Ministry ol the Merchant Fleet in the Far Northomparable number of iaatallations of the Ministry of the River Fleet in the RSFSR. Operational use of VHF radio relay probably far exceeds thesedata.

II. Electric Power Industry

Control of Ihe electric power industry in Ihe USSR is exercised by individual sovnaikhoiei and is coordinated at Ihe All-Union level by Gosplan Thia industry generates electric power at thermal electric arid hydroelectric powerplants and distributes it through moraircuit miles HO, HO. HO, and WO KilovoU (kv) transmission lines, s

The electric power industry owns and operates an independentSystem toispaichinn points, powerplants,


andO* i This system employs power transmission hues. Open wirelines, mult if onducior cable, and microwave radio relay lines to

ine USSR, will otl eventually as ihe backbone for

liesl powerplam. in Ihe UNrt, win au

om ties and tor ihc transmission of bulksd.*-

on lines, which disir.bulO power from [I


pio-iuV telephone.nd lelemechaiiical.

To augi Ha communications tfatam in the event of outages, iha

(actlltiet ol the electric power industry tie in a) aelecledith communications centers of ihe Ministry ol Communicalione-

Moat communications of the electric power industry are carried over their own power transmission lines. The economic advantages of uaing these line* have proved ao favorable thai Iheir exploitation lias been emphasised, and multichannel carrier equipment has beendesigned totheir capacity. The number of installations using this communications medium has increased9 to

easiv*Dess of theireline aad multicoodoctor cable networks Is not clear. The electric power Industry is known to own and operate at lease one wireline, consisting of three wires, paralleling Ihe SOQ-kv power transmission Unas. Kuybyshev-Moscow and Kuybyshev. Sverdlovsk. Open wirelines probably parallel other main power llnea, but, became of excessive construction and maintenance coeis Inwith alternative media, it is doubtful thai additional wirelines have been conetrueted Multlconductor cable lines are largely confined to ubban areas and are uaad to connect substations with control points. Two such cable lines have bean reported in the Moscow

The first microwave radio relay Una of the electric power industry was completed This line parallel* ihe SOO-kv transmissionoscow and the Volehakaya Hydroelectric Station near Kuybyehev (see thcad was constructed jointly by the electric power Industry and ihc Ministry of Commuaicatioaa. Th* capacity of ibis line,equipment, i*lephen* channels, and each organisation haslusive us* ofhannels. The Ministry of Communications also ha* installedquipment on thia Ijoe for ihe transmission of television broadcasts.

The uloi trie power industry plan* lo expand lis usechannel microwave radio relay equipment along main power lines and within urban areas, but care routes have nnl been identified Plans also

Inside back cover


call lor the (cuing of new microwave radio relayh capac Uiesndelephone

Telephone and/or telegraph services aro available at powerplants. ar manned poinia along power transmissionnd at control and admiatatrat>ve centers. In addition, sabaiatiooa on SOO-kv Iranamieaion lines are equippediaena telephone exchange, for Internal substation eervice and for service with industrial consumers. These exchanges also connect with telephone systems of the Ministry of Communications. 2B/

Tele metric and tclcmec hanicei services have found widespread application in the electric power industry. These services are used for monitoring the operations of power lines and (or the remoteand supervision of unattended powerplants and substations.

ID. Hydrometeorological Service

Th* Mam Administration of the Hydrometeorological Service. Council of Ministers of the USSR, has the primary responsibility (or civil meteorological activities in the USSR and for the international exchange ot meteorological information. In the Soviet Far North Ihe HydI Service relies on the Chlel Directorate of the Northern Sea Route. Ministry of tbe Merchant Fleet, for moat of its meteorological information. iO/

All types ol telecommunications facilities are emplnyod in theol data from thousandsmeteorological stations; Inraiedtbe USSR and i- the dissemination of these data lo civil and military recipient*.* For reasons of security and reliability, open wirelines, cable, and microwave radio relay facilities are preferred and are usedreas where they arc available Moit j ill such

there areciivo moieorolutlicil This figure includes stations subordinatehr Clue'orthern Sea

omitK weather


facilities uncil by thed rometcorological Service are leased from ihe Ministry ol Conu>vinlrit<iin|. The telephone and telegraph terminal equipment associated with these facilities, however, is believed toowned and operated by tbe Hydrometeorological Service.

In area* of the USSR not served by open wire, cable, orrelay lines, the Hydrometeorological Service relies on HFradio circuit* I'

are operated hy tne uinoteorologicalart of the facilities used probably are shared with Other organizations.

Telecommunication* facilities used by tbe Hydrometeorological Service provide telephone and Morse, teletype, and facsimile telegraph servicea. Morse telegraph is the more service observed on radio circuits. Telephone, teletype, and facsimile services generally are confined lo main radio circuits connecting major meteorological centers.

IV Diplomatic

Soviet diplomatic posts throughout the world communicate with Moscow via international commercial facilities and/or Soviet diplomatic facilities. Asotal ofiplomatic poets outside tha USSR had been identified in communication with Moscow Of these, ere served exclusively by Soviet diplomatic facilities.ere served both by Soviet diplomatic facilities and international commercialandere served exclusively by International commercial

All diplomatic poata that have their own communications us* IIF radio, and all diplomatic radio circuits arehy either Ihe

Committee for State Security (KCB) or thc Chief Intelligence Directorate

P bove

i' Permission for Soviet diplomatic posts io opcraie an overl radio iacilityost country isubject ol bilateral agreement.

Ot (he ArmedCGRU,. The re-son (or .he administration ol dip-! -dlo circuit, by separate O.o. In no los.anee. however, do circuit administered bye organisations dup-licalc one another. IZl

V, Other

A. Fiahinglnduetry

The fishing industry, administered at the All-tlnion level by the State Commltece (or the risking Industry. Council of Mlnlstcra nf the USSR, owns and operates'an independent telecommunications system Available Intelligence indicates that the facilities of this system are largely HF radio and provide Morse telegraph service for point-to-point and shore-to-ship communications* (see the table"!. There is no evidence (hat the fishing Industry operates open wire. cable. or microwave radio relayor is there any evidence thai channels on such facilities are leased (rom ihe Ministry of


Be(ore the economic reorganisationherearge number of (unctional telecommunications syatems owned and operated by industrial ministries. When these ministries were abolishedheir tele communicationaystema were to be (ien*(erred to the Ministry of Communications. The responsibility lor resolving orderly transfers was left to (he Council of Ministries of each republic, ransfers inf Iheepublics had bean accomplished, but in (he three largest republicsthe RSFSR, (he Ukrainian SSR. and Kaaakb SSRha newly created sovnarkhoic* acquired control ol the to systems.

* Shinsihc miln iry a> tivilic*

P a. above

otsulr ol Ihcir (ragmpnulion "pwijiluntiional telecommunications leciliiivgongeromogeneous System of any nilionwide tignifitaiir.e. Collectively, how.hey represent substantial communication capacities, thuswhy thc Ministry of Communications is continuing ils efforts to gain control of

VI. Relationship pf Functional System* to

of Communication*

In addition to its primary responsibilities of providing domestic and international telephone, telegraph, and broadcasting services through an integrated telecommunications system, the Ministry ofhas the responsibility for thc control of telecommunicationsof all other ministries, and departments. This control, inwith tbe "Statute of Communications for thenvolves lhe establishment, by the Ministry of Communications, of uniform standards and rules (or Ibe construction and operation o( telecommunications Theoretically these statutory provisions should enable the Ministry toominant role in coordhratiug the development and Operation of national telecommunications resources. In practice,the Ministry has been only moderately successful in this regard.

1 Although the Ministry of Communications has no interest indirect'control of (unCCional Systems owned and operated byother than the sovnarkhotes. it has been attempting. In recent years, to effect tbe coordination of their development. This effort has bCcn especially true with respect to the constiuclion of high-capacity multiconductor cable and microwave radio relay lines. Thc Ministry believes that coordination and cooperation in the planning, construction, and operation of these lines can eliminate needless duplication of facili -lies. Moreover, because of shortages of telecommunicationsor dins; ion and cooperation in this ares canore rational allocation of resources.

There are signs that some [In- uffori* exerted by lhe Ministry of Communications arc slowly becoming effective. Official publications of various ministries and dcp-iriment* arc now making reference tu lhe

economic advantageof tome joi*it undertaking with the Mmietry of

Communications Even tbn Mumir, iif Kailiuad Tr-ftiporUhon, which

has been extremely proud and ^jIou* oi ilk in de pendent commmiic&tions

iuiUI benefit Irom constnjciion.miIiom radio rrlay linen i- furtherthe (act thai otherndpari of the eaprnne-v*mctry ofis tnleraated In constructionf individual ratlroid branches forof :jof television, program*

and intcneil.cation of telephone

Furthermore. bypproach to tbe aitabtUkmatit oi mora realistic raie* for the Lease of chanoela -w< service to otherbef Conwtiaicauoni iting greater sap-port for tcs program of coordination and cooperation.

Ministry of Communications he! taken an aggrcttive sund in Lit relationship with thecms of the hi HoiP* to tive RSFSR, the Ukrainian SSR. and Kaaakh SSR. ia not seeking cooperation and coordination, but completeand ownership of these systems. Harsh words have been rxcftAn&ed on ihit subject, but there hat been evidence of some inroads by th* Ministrycione tn its efforts to gain control. Three targe

sovnarkhoaes in the RSFSR - Moscow, Leningrad* and Sverdlovsk have relincjtiisbed control of their tslecommumration* systems,ourth. Perm, is making preparationsimilar transfer. Other* may followbut tvi. problem will not be. resolved until (he Minian demonstrate, beyondan provideesired cosn-mumctmon. service* both better inn* mnre cheaply than thafunctional system The Mtni&lry nhnuld be inosition by the end Once this has been accomplished. tho functional systems o' iheiU duiolvc rapidly Jt>/

f or

II. Ticnds

Although Mi* functional lelecommuoicition* nyitrm* desruLed in this report liny- been developed lo meet th* mmumcat ions requirements ul Ihatr leapective area ol economic arlivlty. there are clearly discernible iiendi In service* and facilities thai are common lo all functional syitrmi Twothat have had the greeleel influence on iheie common trend* at* Soviet effort* to accelerate economicby the appl of automated and mechanited tec hniqvei lo produc -tionnd plant thai are being formulatedent rallied telecomputcr canter* to effect bene* coordination control, and planning of economic activity

These national actions are beginning toorceful impact oo theervtcei provided by each of the functional telecommunication*a they are generating requirement! for more ai well aainda of communication aarvlcee. Demands for conventional telephone andservices are staadily riaing, and demand* are being created for sophisticated transmission systems to supply inputs to computer, and to control, ope rale, anil monitor production processus.

To meet Iheie service requirements, functional telecommunications systems muat nave facilities that offer not only more circuits but alsowith more reliability, higher quality, and. in aome instances, greater band-width This development is currently being accomplished bythc capacities el many existing facilities and by introducing new. more modern facilities. Among, lhe more modern media being introduced ere microwavel radio relay. ceMe. and sideband and iropoapfceiic Scatter radio equipment. To complement these madia, modern terminal facilities are being introduced, such as automatic switching equipment, high-capacity carrier apparatus, and teledata equipment Noi all Ienc -

ayatama wilt us* all of thesefacilities he**will be determined by individual operational requirement* andconon*

Functional telecommunicationsuh the exception ofe<ated by anvnarllit . probably will comlnueetain ihi'ir nuioiomy Tin're will degreeooperation. however, bolwt'ti mini*lriea>

L i



Ampliti.ilr modulation (AM) The process byelected carrier frequency is varied in magnitude (amplitude) by other frequencies lhai contain the Information lo be transmitted in teleromraunicaiions (See Frequency modalstion J

Apparatus: achines, appliances, etvd other assemblies used irrlccommemcatlona facility

Automatic (as an adjective): Of or pertaining to any process involved in producing telecommunications servica (hat docs noiest, immediate Ituman assistance.

Bacd (ol frequencies) The entire range at frequencies between two numerically specified frequency limits Tne magnituderangeimiiing factor on ihe amount of information that can be irans -milled In telecommunications. With respect to frequencies of the radio spectrumhole, the International Telecommunication Union has for convenience divided llie whole radio spectium into eight mAjor bands, as follows:

jYcouencT Binds


JO sc" and belov rerj lev frequenciesvavea

o JOO Lc Lev tre scene leaveves

JOO to 3Re frequenciesvavci

J.OOO to jO.OCO ke High frequenciesWfM

e to

]00 Very blgh frequenciesvakiis

JOOc UltrafrcqueoeiesusUSgejl

j.OCO0 nr Super tlga freqMneieswet;-eves'

o yxi,CX> mt Kiirweely blah frequencies

lias* trie vbvp.,1

' rc -irlidiii'Ou oundin'

he air. ieslir ineilium Ifoolnotr <Ofltinwri1 ihi |i

Cable; undle ol shcalhcil. insulated wires end/or coaxial lubes, usedelecommunication, medium II ia sumetime. relerred U> as "mul-liconducfor table. *'

Carrier Us aal or pertainingechnique lorircuit, lane, supergroup, group, or channel into parta trial can be uaed independently of and aimelUneously with all other parta. Different frequencies or different pulaa* are aalected for each pari to "carry" the Information to he transmitted, eflet alteration by the infurination frequencies. Tbe carrier itself need not be transmitted.

Channel. art, electrical or phy.ical.elecommunicationslane, supergroup, or group that can be need to transmitindependently of andwith all other parte. hannel may be used to provide two or more subchannels.

Circuit: elecommunication* connection between two or more distant-pointsire, cable, or radio medium facility uaed to carry Thehc fundamental telecommunication* connection between distant points. By tbe application of appropriatnircuit may b* arranged in many different combination, to meet tbe need for variou. kinds and quantities of telecommunication* service la ue simplestircuit may carry only single telecommunication* units in sequence In it* meet complex lorm it may by apportionment carry aimullaneously thousand, ol telephone channel* and telegrapha number of television programs; and other apecialiacd kiods

and an electric waveisturbance in any medium whatever. Theof waves per second is the frequencyiven wave. Because thapeed of wave piupagation is considered to be constant, lhe length of awave is In inverse relationrequency the longer the wave lenglti. the lower thehe abetter tbe wave length, (he higher the frequency. length ta usually measured linear units of the metric ayatem

Kilocycle* per second,ycles perecycle* per second,illion cycle, per locond I ecoming common usage to refer to waves (frequencies) in tliete Ihree Demi a. "microwave* *'

ot service, such a* eliiyradarnd data-processing

For ia*unijiluften arranged into lanes, eachel can carry.elevisionor upO telephone channel*. In turn,O telephonehinnals are subdivided intoupergroup* a!elephone channels each. Each supergroup is subdividedroups ofelephone channels each. One or more telephone channels may be furtherInto three tootd-por-minuto teletype subchannels. Otherkinds of service may be accommodated by combining two or more telephone channels.

Coaxial fas an adjective): Of or pertainingodern telecommiinica-lion* cable medium technique using on* or more tubes (sometimes called "pipes"). ch metal tebeonducting wire supported

insulators. Tbe space In tbe tube usually contain*

nitrogen gas under pressor*. Generally, coaxial cable is used for the transmission of information la complea form, aach as radar, computer data, or television signals, and/or for the transmission of telephoae channel* and telegraph subchannel*. ingle tube usually carries ie-formation ia only on* directionime. The capacityube de nenda in part upon tbe distance betwean repealer nations. In the standard facility, which may haveube* in theingle tubeaneelephone channelselevision lane, lor which the repeater station spacing istatute milesew developmental coaxial cableingle tube mayanesotalelephone channelselcv.sion lanes, for which lhe repeater station spacing It expected to hetatute miles.

Clectromcs eneral term used to Identify lhal branch of elecinealand technology lhal treat* of th* behavior of electrons inaset. or solids. Today telecommunication, electronic technology

Facility: An association of apparatus, material, and electrical energy required tii furnish telccommenirslum lerixr


: Ifl-|M

ervice] In whichrawings. and printed Mllll arelor graphicallyplM. Hi one methodmage, ere belli up oi or doit ol constant inteneitr. In another methodmage* ar* up ol line* or

dot* ol varying, intensity, sometimes referred to a* "lelephoto" and

Feeder (as an adjective). OI or pertaining to telecommunications lac III-Ilea of relatively low capacity that join facilities of relatively high capacity (See Mam.)

Frequency: The rate in cycles per second at which an electric durrent. -ottaKr. wave, o. dcidc amnliuaer .lii'itlon, (See Hand.)

Frequency modulation (FMl: The process byelected carrier frequency ie varied in frequency by other frequencies that contain the information to be transmitted in telecommunications. (See Amplitude modulation.)

umber ol channel*r subchannel* combined Jmulupleaed) electrically in building up the total capacityale, communicatloaa circuit, lane, or supergroup

Ionosphere. ayers of tbe earth's atmospaeree apacetatute miles ie thickness extending from aboutfelute miles above theurface to tbe outer reaches (auoaphore) ol lhe atmosphere. Reflection from these layers makes poaaibie long distance traeamiasion of radio signals. Tbe layers, however, are responsible lor fading elkip distance, and differences between daytime and nighttime radio reception?' They also are usedcattering reflector for ionosphere Matter-transmission technique* to transmit lo diilaixaa olM statute milea.

i.iiiny Ammrntt,perated by iwo or mere agencies, organisations, companies,inistries, or other entities


Lane; way.i electrical ot physical,ay Hlnammunit*-tion* circuit.lhal can be usedn'entlv of and simultaneouslyll other parla Tha largest lanen handle bOOelevision program. Irapplications tbe directionane may be reversed.

Leased las an adjective): Of or pertaining to the direct operationserelecommunications facility owned by another agency.

Line: eneral term used toelecommunications circuit facility (wire, cable, or radio).

Maic (as an adjective): Of or pertaining to telecomrtHiaicalions facili-ties at and between principal cities aad center* that have relatively high capacity compared with feeder facilities. (See Feeder.)

Medium: Any substance Or space that can be used practically toa form of electrical energy for the purpose of providingservice.

Microwave radio relay fas en adjective): Of or pertainingadio medium technique in modern telecommunications employing radiohigher than JOO roc These frequencies do net normally afford practical direct transmission to great dWtaacea, principally because they do not bend well around the earth's surface and because they do not reflect well from th* ionosphere. They ere, however, capable of reliable transmission from horiaon to horiton (hne-of-sighr) by (he use of special antennae that concentrate th* radio energy and give it dealred direction. Creal distances can, in consequence, be reached by thin technique by the interposition of relay station* along the routee linnpacing interval of fromotatute miles, dependmg upoa terrain condition*. This technique can bepractically to carrymall number ofannel* and telegraph subchannels to thousand* of seen channel*subchannelsr more lanes and tor more tele vis ion and other specialisednd channel* (See Hand.)


top jki-.cwrf*

Mobile (as an adjective): Ofa telecommunications

facility lhal ntenncd la be operational while ia motion or during

ball* at umpecilinl points (Saa Poitable. |

Modulation: The process olarrier frequency or carrier palae* be other fiaqueociee or pulse* representing the Information being transmitted.

Multiplex (as mm adjective,: Of or pertaining to trieignals, modulated or unmodulaied. of tsvo or more lanes, supergtoups.hannrU. or subchannels for transmission over the same circuit.

Network: An int-reonneelion. electrical or physical, of two or more Circuits or parts the re el for the purpose of

Point-to-point (aa anenerally, of or pertainingixed points, using the radio medium.

Portable (as an adjective): Of or pertainingelecommunications facility that can be rcadUy moved from place to place but is notoperational while in motion. (See Mobile.)

Private (as an adjective): llelonging lo or concerning an individual person, organ!sailon. institution, or activity; not public or common

Polsa; purt ol electrical energy of *awemely short duration (usually measuied in millionth*et capable ot Doing used in telecommunication* id transmit information.

Quad ull ic endue toralien* table, therouponductors in any one of various arrangements for the purpose olay multichannel operation.

Recaption base: The aggregate telecommunication* receiving feelllttM employed inroadcast service

Route: The geographical path followedble, or radio line


at an adjective): Olpertainingadlo mediummodernby whichradio freajuaacie*

above JO mt ia deliberatelyinto on* or th* other ot twoportions of the atmosphere (troposphere and ionosphere)redate rm insable portion of the energy arrives at Ihe desired receiving location. This technique is especiallyto regions in high latitudes (Arctic sod Antarctic) whereof other media suffer from Ihe rigors of wealber and terrain and where the conventional long .distance radio media of ihe lowerhandsoe) are subjecterious disruptive prn-pap.itional anomalies. (See Band. J

r.el: CCri OS perygicaU, rtlBlwlWianelBHlBIl channel that can be used Independently of and simultaneously with all other parls. Ao appreciable number of telephone channels can usually be aabchaanelcd to carry frore three toword-per-minute teletype subchannels on each telephone channel so employed

Subscriber: Any customer who directly operates telecommunications apparatus in obtaining telecommunications service.

Supergroup: umber of groups (ofien live) combined (multiplexed)la building up the lotal capacityelecommunications circuit or lane.

System: All of the facilities and networks managedngle agency, organisation, company, department, committee, ministry, or other enlity in rendering either functional or basic telecommunications service.

Telecommunications: Transmission, reception, orof inforbetween distant poinle'by electrical energyire, calilc. or radio medium facility to produce telephone, telegraph, facsimile, broadcast (aeral andnd other similar services.

Talecomptitar centers: Computer centers thataia foraad transmit ptecetsed data by means of telecommunications media

. Jl -

- TO

Telecomiol: ontrol of An ecllon al a si imby wire, radio, ui light.

Teledau inoot lied notation (language, coda, or other artificial aymboti) transmitted in the form of signalserson or machine at one poirleraon or machineiatant poiol by mire, radio, or tighi.

Telemechanics: Telecontrol of an electromechanical actioniatance by wire, radio, or light.

Telemetry. The automatic process by which tee readingeaeuring instrument or the indicationondition is recorded or otherwise indicatedistance by wire, radio, or light.

type (as an adjective): Of or pertainingechnlque for effect-

ing telegraph service by lhe use of an apparatus similar to ain which information is Iranamilled by keyboard and received by type printeroll of paper,oll of tape, or by perforationsoll of tape, or bock. (Sorneiimear

TrannmisaiOn base: The aggregate telecommunications transmitting

iployn!1 jn-dviding Mr*tC4

A modern device thai Is capable of performingolid (germanium or silicon) meoy of the functions performed by theelectronic lubeaa or vacuum.

Troposjihore: Tbe layer of the earth's atmosphere occupying (he apace from the earth's surfaceeight oftatule miles. This layer is usedcatletiag fallacies for tropoapheiic scatter traas-.rmseion techniques lo distances olo MM) statute miles.

Wave jjuiilo (as an adjective)' Of or pertainingelecommunications medium, now under development in several countries, which may be capablr of transmuting eitiemely large amounla of conventional and

tompli . information It consulsircular Or reciaagolar hollow

metallic lube in which electrical energy travels in theuch es tin sound wavespeaking lubr


Jill' AliUKJ.J

Ai'i'KMiusouiu.k, HLFKHKNCCS

& valuations.heenlry -mil df? signaled "Evalave iheowin. significance'

r.outcc o( Information



Usually reliable

Fairly reliable

Not usually reliable

Not reliable


- Confirmed by other sources

- Probablyossibly true ADoubtful

Probably false

- Cannot be judged

"Documentary" refers to original documents ol foreign govern-mcnia and organisations: copies or translations of such documentstaff officer; or information extracted from such dtwumentetall officer, all ol *bich may carry thu field evaluation "DocumeA-tary "

Evaluations net otherwise designated are those appearing on the Cited document; those designatedare by the author of this re port No "BB" evaluation iahe author agrees with the evaluation nn ihe ciled document


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