Created: 12/1/1962

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A collection ol arliclcs on the historical, operational, doctrinal, and theoretical aspects ol intelligence.

AII staicments of faci. opinion or analysis expressed in Studies in Intelligence are those of

the aulhors They do noi necessarily reflect official positions or views of the Central Intelligence Agency or any other US Government entity, past or present. Nothing in the conients should be consirued as asserting or implying US Government endorsement of an article's faciual statements and interpretations.

features of the recent Soviet psyioar drive.

TARGET: CIA Lester Hajek


It is part of the job of opposing mtrlligcn(*jejylces to fight each other, and one means of carrying on this running battle Is arranging publicity to discredit the adversary In his own country, among its allies and neutrals, and at home.the opposing service at home serves to enhance the people's vigilance against the enemy said their support for the defending service (and more broadlyonvenientfor the instinct to portray the enemy aaxposing it among Its allies and neutrals will make Its liaison and Itsabroad more difficult; and discrediting It with Its own people tends to undercut Its freedom of action and Its very base. Much the same picture of It can be painted for all these purposes If there are slight shifts in the lighting for different audiences: people in the opposing nation ahould be impressed with the Ineffectiveness of their service, but not too much the people at home; the adversary's allies should especially be made aware of his treacherous spying on them.

It Is not surprising, therefore, that Soviet propaganda and other psywar operations long since fixed. Intelligence aa one of their preferred targets The main features of the bugaboo they wish to make Its public Image have beenIn an earlieruring the past two or three years, however, and especially since the captureilot Powers and the failure of the Cuban Invasion, the Soviethas been intensified, has been focused more narrowly on CIAersonal symbol. Intelligence, Allen Dulles, and has scored some telling blows. It has had the advantage of being able to use the Western press while the Bloc press remains Impervious to Western Influence. The major Bloc

'Leslie D. Weir's "Soviet Publicists Talk about US. Intelligence" In Studio TV. Alt OT.


salvos have come In six openly published books or articles and three series of covert mailings

The six publications include, in addition to three "white" propaganda productions issued in East Berlin and Moscow, three from ostensibly non-Communistbymember of parliament Bob Edwards and Kennethtudyaster Spy (Allenne published ln New York, Robert E. Light and Carl B. Marsanl's Cuba vs. the CIA* and Fred J. Cook's The CIA. publishedpecial Issue 'of The Saturn* What distinguishes these latter three from the recent welter of more or less honest and spontaneous scapegoatlng of the CIA and marks them as deliberateof the Soviet psywar campaign Is the similarity of their arguments to those of the Bloc books and In particular their coordination In buildingistorted structure upon certain document fragments that could have been furnished, directly or Indirectly, only by the Soviets.

The llohenlohe Papers

Back8 the Soviet Information Bureauooklet entitled Falsifiers of History portraying the USSR as the heroic vanquisher of fascism and the Western allies as conniving only to turn Hitler against the East. As one of many examples of this Western duplicity It cited "documents captured by the Soviet troops at the time of the defeat ofGermanyell of negotiations which took place between representatives of the Governments of the USA. and Germany ln Switzerland In"

In Ihrse negoUaUons the U.. was representedpecial delegate ol tha United St*tea Government, Allen Duties (brother ot John Fosterho figured under the pseudonym "Dull" and hsd "direct InstrucUons and authority from tha Whileis partner on the German side was Prince etossly connected with the ruling circles of Hitler Germany.

"Leicester Printershurch Gate. Leicester, England. Published by Housmansooksellers and the Chemical Workers'aledonian Road, Kings Cross, NX Introduction dated

'Maraanl and Marzanl Is the only one of the five authors known toommunist..4

who acted as Hitler's representative under the assumed name olhe documentummary of thesebelonged to the German Security Service (SD.>.

It is evident from this document, the conversation touched on important questions relating to Austria, Czechoslovakia, Poland, Rumania, and Hungary and. which Is especially Important, to the conclusion of peace with Germany.

In the coarse of the conversation A. Dulles (Bull) states that

. - . v ^<

"In theltuaUon will never again be permitted to

arise where nations like the German would be'compelled to resort

to desperate experiments and heroismresult of ln}ustlce

and want. The German state must continue to existactor

of order and rehabilitation. The partition of Germany or the

separation of Austria la out of the question."

Concerning Poland. Dulles (Bull! stated:

y extending Poland to the Bast and preserving Rumaniatrong Hungary the establishmentordon sanitatre against Bolshevism andvlsm most be supported."

The record of the conversation further says that:

"Mr. Bull more or less agrees to tbe political and Industrial organization of Europe on the basis ot large territories, on the assumptionederated Greater Germany (similar to the U., with the adjoining Danubian Confederation willthe beat guarantee of order and rebabuitatlon In Central and Eastern Europe."

Dulles (Bull) also stated that he fully recognized the claim of German industry to tho leading role In Europe.

It must be noted that this sounding was effected by the BrlUsh and Americans without the knowledge or consent ot their ally, the Soviet Union, and that nothing was communicated to the Soviet Government concerning the remit of It, even by way of post factum Information.

This might warrant the assumption that the Governments of the U. S. A. and Great Britain had in this Instance made an attempt to Inaugurate negotiations with Hitlereparate peace.

Clearly, such behaviour on the part of the Governments ol Britain and the U. S. A. can only be regarded as anof the most elementary duties and obligations of allies.

These documents, fragments of the supposed Hohenloheto the Sicherheitsdienst, are the seed which BobCarl Marzanl. and Fred Cook will cooperate in bring-



ing to full flowerhe Western writers will alsothe reasons adduced by Falsifiers of History for. Government's and Allen Dulles' solicitude about theof Germany:

The role played by the American monopolies, headed by the du Pont. Morgan. Rockefeller, Lamont and other industrial baronial families, in financing German heavy Industry and establishing the closest lies .between American and German Industrywellhe Schroederamishes a. fr/plcai example of the close interlocking of American and German, as well as British, capital. Allen Dulles, director of the JTHenry Schroeder Banking CorporaUon In New York, which represented the Schroe der Interests In London. Cologne, and Hamburg,eading role In the affairs of this bank. An outstanding role in the New York branch of the Schroeder bank was played by the law firm of Sullivan and Cromwell, headed by John Fosternd closely connected with tbe Rockefeller world oil trust.oil. as well as with the Chase National, the biggest bank in America, which made enormous Investments la German Industry.

But first the East German and Soviet propagandists revive and nurture the story.9 It reappears, already putting forth new shoots,hapter contributed to ahistoricaly one Josef Hodic. Hodic hasparticipants in the Dulles-Hohenlohe conversations on both sides. He does not name the other Sicherheitsdienst agents, but says that Mr. Dullesubordinate named Robert Taylor (cover name Mr.n expert ineconomics, who also dealt with the Nazie says further that the Hohenlohe reports were accompaniedover letter over the signature of SS Hauptsturmfuehrer Ahrcns forwarding them from one Sicherheitsdienst office to another.

Hodic weaves into his account references to the Schroeder. Farben, Verelnlgten Stahlwerke,s. representative and the Nazis. He says that Mr. Dulles told Hohenlohe it was errors in Nazi foreign policy

'Die Hintergruende des Muencaner Abkommenseries said to be preparedCommission of Historians of East Oerrnany anddited by Drs. Karl Oberroann of Berlin and Josef PolLscnsky of Prague, published by Ruettea and loenlng. Berlin. Hodic's contribution is headed "Die FortseMung der Politlk von Muenchen durch die Westinaechtewelten Weltkrleg."

that had forced Great Britain and the United States to enter the war. and he continuesew Interpretive account:

The basis from which Dulles began the negotiation waa that the next war would be conducted between the USA and her allies on one side and the Soviet Union on the other. The entireorder of Europe should be subordinated to this conception of tbe development of tbe world. From this position Dullesfascist Germany's Infernal and external polIUca of recentecause of- a'psychologicalwaa mentioned manyGerman government caused the. Anglo-Saxon powers totate of preparedness for war. caused Great Britain to introduce general conscription, and caused the U. S. to turn away from her Isolationist.

From the beginning Roosevelt's special representative recognized the historical significance of Adolfulles declared that in principle he did not reject national socialism and Its basic ideas and actions. For example, he Indicated that the last Ooebbels speechasterpiece and tbat he had read it with greathe guiding principle for tbe new order In Europe after the war must be the realisation that the next war will be between the USA and theermany should not come out of the war weakened nor should people like tha Germans be forced to desperate measures to overcome injustices and misery. Moreover, the German state must continue to existactor of order and restoration. There could be no question of the division of Germany or the separation oftrong, federalized Germanyeighboring Danube confederation could guarantee order and rejuvenation In Middle and Eastern Europe. Through the expansion of Poland towards tbe East, through the creationtrong Hungarytrongordon sanilaire would be erected.

Dulles and Taylor ascribedimited Importance to the Czechoslovakian question. Both of them visualised that someolution to this question within the framework of the Reich would be

nformed himself exhaustively on tha question of whether there existed among tbe German bourgeoisie and German workers anarchistic or other nihilistic tendencies which would striveoUetlzaUon ofor Dulles there was no thought which was more unacceptable than that the Germans might enter discussions of any sort with the Soviet Union after the military catastrophe of IMS. Nothing disturbed bun more than the possibility of the postwar expansion of the influence of the USSR In Europe or In the Middle East. Max Hohenlohe emphasized that Mr. Dulles, unlike the British, did not want under any conditions to see the Russians reach the Dardanelles or the oil areas of Rumania and the Middle East.

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Dulles and Taylor never missed an opportunity to emphasize that the discussion with Herr Hohenlohe and the other negotiatorsleasure, lor they had heard enough from the old bankrupt politicians, Immigrants, and prejudiced Jews.

This elaboration, buried in the midst of other ponderous historicalannot beajor salvo in the anti-CIA campaign. But also9 there was published in Eastheap, sensational paper-backemale spy on Its cover entitled Allen's Gangsters in Action, by Juliusnd containing, among other denlgraj^ons of theurther distorted version of the Hohenlohe episode asby Hodic. Maderacsimile of the purported cover letter signed by SS-Hauptsturmfuehrer Ahrensthe Hohenlohe report to Sicherheitsdienst office VI D

' Mader changes the identity of Mr. Dulles' "sulwdinate" and carries the solution of "the Czechoslovakian problem" to its logical conclusion:

Both of the American gentlemen (at the conference with the S3 deputy, in addlUon to Dulles, was present Mr. Myroneading manager of the VS. Steelcould Imagine, for example, that one day andolution touritAfn the German Reich [Italics In original! could behe German state tin other words, the Hitlerlan versionmust remainactor of order andthere could be no questionivision of GermanyeparaUon of Austria.

Mader treats the insidious influence of banking and big business, especially oil, as follows:

After !K6 we Andlienartner in the law office of Sullivan and Cromwell, established by his brotherhich Is situated In Wall Street, Hew York, and which, significantly.

Mader. Aliens Ganpiter In Aktlan, Berlin. Kongress-Verlag.

' The Mader and Hodic versions had actually been anticipated, with JoumalisUe promptness, by the Czech parly dally. Rude Prava, which In8imilar account, Illustratedacsimile of the Ahrens letterhotograph of nine lines of Hohenlohe report text.

represent* the Interests of the Standard Oil Company, among others,ontractual basis. Then followed years during which he exercised the following functions: director of the American Bans Note Co. member of the board of directors and of thesection of "Council on Foreign Relations" In New York. Together with hto brother John Foster, flee year* his senior. Allen Dulles hastily snatched up several million dollars and already belonged lo the "top drawer- of "better" American society. The basis for hU millions was sweat, but not his own. : .

The nextaw the publication,or an even more elaborate version of the Hohenlohe story in the" New Times ofhis eight-page article repeats all the main themes of the earlier versions and is the most complete of all,acsimile of the Ahrens letter and aof five lines said to beohenlohe report* But there remained the task of winning credence for thisln the West by arranging for Its publication from an ostensibly non -Communist source.

The British M. P. Bob Edwards and his co-author Kenneth Dunne met this requirement. In1 Edwards writes:

Now let us analyse the famous negotiations that took place la Switzerland For this purpose we shall have at our disposal three authentic documonUecord of the talks which Mr. Dulles and his assistant held with the German emissaries Prince Maxiinlllian Kg on Hohenlohe and Dr. Schudekopf. Thesewere written In April and belong to the file* of theVI (Ami. [tic] VII of the SS Reich Security Office.

'"Documents, on Allenecret Negotiations with the Nazis lnew Timet, published by Trud. Moscow.repared for the press by L. Bezymenskyeonldov.

ifferent paee than the nine lines reproduced by Rude Prow.

Edwards does not tell how he came into possession of the "three authenticor does he print anyBut his account Is detailed, spinning out all the main themes of the preceding versions and like them twistingconversations that may have taken place between Mr. Dulles and German sources including Hohenlohe intonegotiations with Nazi "emissaries."

Mr. Dulles' representation of big business interests,is handled with greater restraint for the British

He had littlenost In the highlylegal firm of Sullivan and Cromwell. This firm,old John Foster still had dealings, was one of theWallmong the mighty concerns to which It gaveadvice were the Rockefellers themselves, its ties with theno less firmly

But Edwards Is careful to mention the. Besides repeating the passage from the earlier accounts in which Mr. Dulles "on no account wished to sec the Russians at theor in the oil areas of Rumania or Asiae points out that

e had been placed hi charge of Near East affairs at the Slate Department. This was an extremely busy post, for In the twenties the Near East was regarded with considerable Interest by the united States. The Near East meant oil.

The British book now becomes the ostensible source for the two exposes published later1 In the United States In Cuba Vs. the CIA, Llght/Maraanl announce:

A British Member of Parliament. Mr. Robert Edwards, haaand published documents from the flies of the SS Reich Security Office of conversations held between Dullesigh SS official In

Note that the documents are now said to have been puWtsned. and that Hohenlohe, who according to the Ahrens facsimile was Slcherheitsdienst agentas becomeigh SShere is no discussion of how Edwards acquired his mysterious documents.

Light/Marzani devote two pages to quotations andfrom Edwards, stressing the theme of Mr. Dulles' anti-Semitism Introduced In Hodic's reference to "prejudiced Jews" and making the now familiar references to big business and oil Interests:

ecame head ot the Division for Nearear East means oil and during this period the batUe between American and BrlUsh oU companies look place with Rockefeller finally getUoger cent of the shares ofellon's group of the Oulf OU Corporation getting priority rights on the Bahrein Islands.

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8 Dulles resigned from the Slate Departmentest In the powerful legal firm of Sullivan and Cromwell which had ties and dealings with Rockefeller and Morgan among other American corporations Dalles' knowledge of oil stood him In good ateadide need quickly by the affair of the so-called "Barco Concession" In the oil fields ofwhich) Colombian president Dr. Miguel Abadia Mendes denounced The Morgan-Mellon group chose two experts on the art ol putting pressure, both former StaleDulles and Francis Loomla.

The culmination In this transformation fromad-polo hatched by the Soviet Information Bureauroakingupposedly American pond appears In Fred J. Cook's The CIA. Exceptew changes Infor the benefit of American readers. Cook follows the Edwards text, even to the chapter headings, almost to the point ofample of his treatment:

The Near Cast, then as now,ensiUve area, and for much the sameBritish interests hadammerlock on the rich preserves of the entire Mediterranean basin and had tried to freese out American rivals; but now such companies as Gulf and Standard OU were no longer to be denied. The years during which Dulles headed tbe key Near Eastern Division were, aa It ao happened, the very sears during which the Rockefeller interests In Standard OUoehold In the Iraq Petroleumnd the very years in which the Mellon* of Oulf were laying tbe groundwork for valuable concessions In the Bahrein Islands. Both of these developments became public and officialhe year after Dulles left the State Department lo Join the New York law firm of Sullivan and

Just at Allen Dulles was quitting the State Department, Dr. Miguel Abadla-Mendcs was elected President ofa threatened to repudiate the Barco. Worried American oilurned naturally to their legal brains One such brain was Francis B.ormer State Department official; another. Allen W.

and hia older brother. Johnen partners in the ftrra of Sullivan and Cromwell; they represented the same clients and the sameost important among their varied interests, andajor share of their attention, were some of Germany's greatest InternaUonalGermany, the Schroeder financial empire stretched long and powerful tentacles In England. It hadchroedern the United Btales, the Schroeder Trust Company andenry Schroeder CorporaUoos. Allen Dulles sat on the board of directors of


The Allen DullesS, ol.. mnu the same man, with the same strong alliances to top-level Germans regardless of their ideology.

Cookinal important contribution to theof the Hohenlohe fabrication. Whereas Edwards keeps very quiet about how he obtained his documents, Cookeliable source^intrlbutcsas^ Edwardsumber of documents, Including the three dealing with Mr. Dulles andhereas Bdwardsotal ofhe whole composite structure thusrests now on an authentic Western original TOurce.**

Now that the Cook piece has appeared in The Nation, the Communist propagandists arc all set for their regular West to Easthe Bombay weekly Blitz, whose editorin attacks on the United States and CIA, printed the following In Its1 issue:

Blitz-readers have heard of the cloak and dagger of the CIA, the notorious American agency of espionage, subversion andNow they willerrible and terrifying exposure of this secret agency and its international crimes by Fred J. Cook, whose exposures have won him several Important American press awards during the last three yean.

And the next day.uly, Izvestia carried an article by V. Matvcyov headed "The Nether Regions of Allen Dulles" and subtitled "Department for Overthrowing Governments and Imposing Puppet Regimes: Dollars Are Buying Diversionists and Provocateurs" which consisted of excerpts andfrom the Cook article.


In tracing the development of the Hohenlohe legend tothe direct line of descent that runs from the Soviet Information Bureau to Bdwards. Marzani, and Cook, we have



seen illustrated some of the themes used in the recentof defamation against CIA. One might summarize:

Allen Dulles is pro-German, friendly to fascism, and anfi-Semitic. He owes primary allegiance to rich and powerful private commercial interests, and his CIA is the servant of big business.

mon in the Bloc press and radiot the time of Gomulka's coup In Poland, for example, H* was said that Allen Dullespecial reason for being interested Inin private life he hadawyer for the "Harrimanhich at one time owned extensive natural resources and industrial enterprises in Upper Silesia. "This indicates what is behind the alleged anxiety of the two Dulles for PolishNeues Deutschland,) similarly, in reviewing "The Fruits of American Espionage":

The United Fruit Company grabbed the lion's share of the US. victory in Guatemala. The Dulles brothers are principal share-holders in this company. (V. Cholakow In RobotntchakQ Delo,)

But0 the Communist media seemed to becomevehement in charging. intelligence was being perverted to the service. business:

The close and long association of Allen Dulles with the billionaire family, the Rockefellers, insured him for rapidt cannot be said that Dulles has not been grateful to his patrons. On the contrary, he Is trying In every way to poison thesituation so that his masters may eonUnue to make profits out of the armaments race. (The Soviet international Affairi.)

On0 the Peking NCNA named China as CIA's first major target because "this happened to be where Standard Oil suffered its greatest losses fromndthat CIA mobilized shock forces3 to overthrow Iranian Premier Mossadegh, it suggested the reader "note that the Anglo-Iranian Oil Company, which Dulleslient of Sullivan and Cromwell."

TASS reported thus the final Soviet version of the Hohen-lohe story on

V. Chernow has contributed to the Neu> Times magazine an article describing certain secrets of the office headed by Allen Dulles. He points out that the Central Intelligence office, whose activities reflect the will of the financial and Industrial niters of the United States, now represents the direct tool of the American


And onues Deutschland referred to

CIA, the espionage organlzaUoa of Allen DulleiTthe" man who represents the interests of the big American monopoly association the Rockefeller trust.

A frightening conclusion often drawn or Inferred from these charges forms another theme of the campaign, andits dominant note. It Is that

. intelligence serviceirect menace to world peace. This theme can be Illustrated In other contexts by somewhat parallel quotations from Fred Cook and from the third major white propagandaoviet compilation called Caught in the Act: Facts about US. Espionage and Subversion Against the1

From Caught in the Act:

The aggressive. provocaUvc nature. Intelligence calls for the constant and timely exposure of its machinaUons as dangerous to the cause of peace.

It is quite obvious that spy flights like these along the Soviet state IronUers.ime when an accidental or wilful intrusionpy plane into Soviet air space may happen at any moment,hreat to peaceource of InternaUonal tension.

The unmasking and stopping of the US. intelligence service's criminal provocations against the peace-loving peoplesrime condlUon for guaranteeing durable peace.

From Cook:

Destructive as such Incidents are to America's Image, they do not menace the peace of the world like the more grandiose CIA endeavors that led directly to the crises of Quemoy and Matsu.

The Burmese crisis that all but turned friend loto foe. thecrises on Quemoy and Matsu, vividly Illustrate the manner in which the secret and militant acUvlUes of CIA create for us a

Published by the Soviet Information Bureau, Moscow.

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foreign policy all their own. They illustrate the way the CIA tall wags the American dog and how such wagging can quite easily plunge Uie wholeall bisthe most horrible of history's wars.

Our people do not understand that, even as our Presidents speak, the actions of CIA frequently Invest their words with everyof the most arrant hypocrisy. The Presidents speak peace; but the CIA overthrows regimes, plots Internal sabotage and revolution, foisW. opium-growersriendly nation, directs mlU-^ut* taryacks right-wing militarists. These are not 'the1 actionsemoeraUe. peace-loving naUon devoted to the high Ideals we profess. These are the actions of-^he- Comintern In right-wing robes.

The last two quotations from Cook lead us into the first of some other thematic characteristics with which the Soviet psywar artists clothe their bogey-man. There are four of them:

CIA interferes with and even creates State Department and US. foreign policy. It tries unilaterally and secretly tolegal governments.

CIA is perfidious and unprincipled. It spies on America's friends as well as its foes.

CIA dominates and manipulates supposedly independent organizations, governmental as well as private. It misuses emigre: groups and turns them into spy nests.

Despite the fact that it costs the US. taxpayer fantastics incompetent.

We shall look at each of these in turn.

Cloaked Policy Maker

The theme that CIA warps national foreign policy or makes its own policy is illustrated in the following passages from Bloc propaganda, including the major vehicles cited in the foregoing.

The Job of the Office of National Estimates Is to be the greatest falsifier In the world, soolicy can be warped. (Alien's Gangsters)

Allen Dulles's separateeparts In many Important details from official American policy. SystemaUcally the Secret Service debvers Incomplete or even false information to theonly to exploit the actual lag of the US. by releasing to theesigned to further his asplraUons for power. (Budapest Peril Hirlap.

This highly powerful organisation headed by Allen Dulles la the most Influential of all American espionage organizations today. This Is no trifling matter In view of the lact that by now various mteltlgertce organizations have all but assumed top-level political control. (Budapest Magyar

In our minds Mr. Allen Dulles has always been associated with Mr. John Poster Dulles, and not only because they have lived thelr fasclnatlng lives almost side by side. Our anxiety La based on the

question mark against Mr. Allen Dulles'* noble intention of having nothing to do with policy and supplying only hartome people assert that Allen Dulles not only worked in close contact with John Poster but eventually began to conduct hia own foreign policy. Onhe Evening Star stated that the CIA. was "beginning to make policies at home andnd onhe Detroit Times remarked thatertain extentA_ was conducting "its own foreignEdwards/ Dunn)

The world has evidence that the decision to send the American Sixth Fleet Into Lebanon waters and land US. marines on Lebanon territory also came from Mr. Dulles. It has been described how In the early hours of the morning ofe literally got everyone out of bed and forced them to authorise the Intervention.


We cannot see thats "own foreign policy" has doneot of good. Mr. Dulles was not original. He was so taken up by brother John's political doctrine that he simply practised It In his own peculiar way. Even today, for Instance, sharp-tongued Drew Pearson claims that America has two Secretaries of State. One Is known as Allen Dulles. Pearson adds that the CIA. has harmed US. foreign policy on more than one occasion. We think Pearson Is right. (Ibid.)

Onhe New York Timeteport of the replies given by retired officers of the Foreign Serviceoreign Relations Committee Inquiry on American foreign policy. One high-ranking diplomat wrote: "Every senior officer of the Foreign Service has heard something of CIA's subversive efforts In foreign countries and probably most of them have someInformation about CI .A. operations of this nature in some particular case. Unfortunately, most of these activities appear to have been blundering affairs and most, If not ail of them, seem to have resulted to the disadvantage of the United States andIn terriblehe truth of these remarks is now obvious not only to former Foreign Service officials but to the whole world. The Westaughing stock In the eyes of the

East (ibid.)

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ur profound conviction that In the next few yean great political struggles will take place ln our country to take American foreign policy out of the hands of the CIA. the Pentagon, the arms, mtnts corporations and the political dieespite Dulles' protestations to the contrary, the CIA under his dlrecttoo has consistently edged Into foreign policy and has acted again and again as If Itovernment superimposedovernment. (Uglit/Marranl)

It Is characteristic that Uie Senate Bub-Cmrunittee Ionolicy Machinery]secret service a* an iifftTXiVnt of national policy, emphasizing thereby that the task of the secret icrrlce was not only to collect intelllgence-tiut- also loirect hand Ln the conduct of stale policy. (Coaclit fn (A* 4ef>

It Is significant that aa the CIA became the headquarters of United states espionage and subversion, it acquired great Influence In shaping United Stales foreign policy under the Ftsenhowerhus, the well-informed West-GermanJoachim Joesten. In his book about tharote that the United States Central Intelligence Agency has In the past decadeeculiar Imprint on the entire American foreign policy The Central Intelligence Agency, its alms and methods,In Washington today over all other offices, principles and (Ibid.)

The Untied Stales intelligence establishment ls provided with enormous funds. Is vested with great powers, and has. Inody which often exerts decisive Influence on the entire stele policy of the United States, (toad.)

asic sense. CIA made foreign policy and this (says the Hew Republic, for example) "was the natural end-resultroad usurpation of power which look place, almost unnoticed, during those anomalous years when one Dulles ran the State Department and anotner the agency (emphasis added- L.lnee the death of Foster Dulles this usurpation has grown Increasingly risible, and Cubaearing spotlight on the phenomenonovernment which has come to have. In effect, two StatePerhaps the most Important consequence of the fall-are of the Cuban Invasion ls that for the first time the American people havelimpse ol the sinister Influence of the CIA in foreign policy- tIJght/Maraanll

Time and again. CIA has meddled actively In the Internal affairs of foreign governments And It Is In this field that some of Its most vauntedraise grave questions about the drift and intent of our foreignt Is certainly questionable enough to have American foreign policy tugged and hauled all over the map by the super-secret activities of CIA cloak-and-dagger boys,free ot any effective restraint or control. (Cook)

" Reviewed In Studies II.f.

The Hungarian Revolthe CIA's role ln promotingthis abortive and tragic uprising, which we wereto support after we had instigated It. remainstop-level, cloak-and-dagger secrecy. It seems wellthat arms were smuggled Into both Poland andby the CIA or Its Oehlenorethe unresolved issue ofs stillresponsibility of CIA ln whipping oprebels to fanatic self-sacrificeopeless-

One of the three series of covert mailings, supporting the anti-CIA campaign was also devoted to this theme. Itorgery basedenate Foreign Relations Committeewhich made public the views of selected retired Foreign Service officers. foreign policy, views whichquote from the New York Times in one of the passages reproduced above. The pertinent section of thepamphlet read as follows:

It Is recommended that members of the Committee on Foreign Relations read Harry Howe Ransom, Central /nfellloence andSecurity. Harvard University- This Is asa book on the CIA as Is available. The author Is an enthusiasUc supporter of CIA but In spite of himself, herightening picture of an organisation twice as big as theof State spending tremendous sums under tittle or noand he questions its compatibility with the Americansystem. He speaks of -undercover political Intrigue" and "backstage political action" and states that little reliable Intorma-Uon exists as to the extent to which CIA has aided foreignIt Is true that there Is little accurate Information available, but every senior officer of the Department ot State and every senior officer of the Foreign Service has heard something of CIA's subversive efforts In foreign countries and probably most of them have some authentic Information about CIA operations ot this nature In some particular case. Unfortunately, most of these ac-tlvltles seem to have resulted to the disadvantage ot the United States and sometimes ln terrible failure.

Ransom says: "Perceptive students of public affairs visiting or working overseas often get the Impression that CIA agents, and the Intelligence operatives of other Government agencies, areln uncoordinated fashion in every dark alley, behind every bush, and often In each other'sost diplomatic andofficers abroad can vouch for the accuracy of this statement. The situation ls exacerbated by the fact that In most diplomatic

Reviewed in Studies II.f

and consular establishments abroad espionage agents ot the CIA are stationed masquerading as diplomatic and consular officers.

Ransom saysertainly the scope of CIA operations Isarge extentertainly the Congress has no voice as to how and where CIA Is to function, other thanIt to engage In domestic securityhe existenceassive Institution possessed of secret InformaUon and operaUng Invisibly at home and abroadocus ornchecked bjlhe normal processesLmWlW^ikIt is recommended: (a) TrtaTlf the aubvennWsffitles^"CTA" In foreign countries are to be continued at all they be carried out very, very rarely, be subjected to greater control "than at present, and be carried out more secretly and skillfully than at present, (b) That the espionage activities of CIA be no longer carried out from the protection of embassies, legations and consulates. And <c> That Congress exercise greater control over the activities of CIA."

Beginning onhe following forgeryby this document was mailed in thermofax copies to various foreign embassies In Washington and to employees of the Department of State and newspaper correspondents.

Honest workers of the Department of State and Foreign Service are deeply concerned over the tendency on the part of the Central Intelligence Agency to take over foreign policy functions from the State Department,

Our Department has already lost toreat deal of Itsand control over VS. foreign policy.

The CIA has burgeoned Into an organizaUon twice as big as the State Department spending tremendous sums under little or no supervision.

In most of oar dlplomaUc and consular establishments abroad hundreds of espionage agents of the CIA are stationedas diplomatic or consular officers.

It Is true that there Is utile accurateutfTlcer of Uie Department of State andfficer of the Foreign Service has heard something of CIA's subversive efforts In foreign countries and probably most of them have some authentic Information about CIAn some particular case. Unfortunately, most of these activities seem to nave been blundering affairs and most. If not all of them, seem to haveto the disadvantage of the United States and sometimes in terrible failure.

" Study ot United States Foreign Potiey: Summary of Views ot Retired Foreign Service Officers, prepared for the Committee on ForeignUnited States Senate, printed by the OPO on IS



This Is what we propose:

(at That the espionagee no longer carried out from the protection or us. embassies, legations and consulates.

lb) That If the subversive activities of CIA In foreign countries are to be continued at alL they be carried out very, very rarely, be subjected to greater control than at present, and be carried out more skillfully and secretly than at present.


About two-thirds of the letter was copied verbatim from the Senate document, but note the characteristicphrase "Honest workers" in the part not copied. Note also the striking similarity in name between the ostensible sponsor and the genuine organization "Protestants and Other Americans United for the Separation of Church andind of plagiarism the Bloc psywar operators often use inhantom organization. There are otherof the origin of theanother recent Bloc forgery was similarly based upon materials released by the Senate Foreign Relationshat Ittandard Communist tactic to surface forgeries through mailings toindividuals and newspaper correspondents, that It IsBloc practice to use photocopies or thermofax in order to hamper technical analysis, and that the State Department stationery, complete with seal, here used was used alsoater series of mailings, as we shall see. Moreover, theused were made of low-grade paper normally exported from the United States, and the typewriter that made the master copy of the letter and addressed all the envelopesemington Randtyle of type designed for Estonian writing and is probably the same machine that

"See pagesndf Hraring be/ore the Subcommittee tothe Administrationhe Internal Security Act and Other Internal Security tawshe Committee on the Judiciary: Testimony ot Richard Helms, Assistant Director, Central Intelligence Agency. June. Government Printing Office,.

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iplomatic note sent to Mr. Herter during his tenure as Secretary of State by the diplomatic representatives of Estonia, Latvia, and Lithuania in Washington.

A sub-theme of the portrayal of CIA as undercoverone prominent in the Foreign Service EmployeesIs that CIA meddles in foreign affairs by seekingto overthrow legal governments. This facet Is attention ln the following passages from the psywar


Inhe Cambodian governmenToup d'etat headed by the traitors Sam Sari and Daphe records ol the plot trial published ln the Blalitt Cambogienne on Octoberisclosed that the Americansirect part In the matter." (Caught in the Acti

CIA agentsig role In the overthrow of the Mossadegh government Inhortly before the overthrow, the centre was visited by Allen Dulles, allegedly on hisccord. Ing to the American press, tbe CIA spent seme nineteen million dollars to bribe the officers who were to perpetrate the plot. (Ibid.)

The records convincingly proved that the American secret service In collaboration with the Baghdad Pact members waslot against the Syrian Republic. The conspirators sought to overthrow the legitimate Syrian government and to put dummies In power in the country. (Ibid.)

Of late the US. Intelligence has been Increasingly trying to organise espionage and subversion against therying through plots to overthrow the lawfully elected governments of these countries and replace them with regimes that would side with the USA. (Ibid.)

It has been published and never denied that the CIA has sub. verted Government after government, not stopping at the use of military force. The CIA role in overthrowing the MossadeghIn Iran and the Arbcns government In Ouatemala has been underlined In Innumerableaturday Evening Post article over four years ago declared that CIA agents had worked with Nagulb and Nasser In the overthrow of King Farouk2 and the responsible British New Statesmanlatly asserted that the CIA "disposed of Patricehere are persistent reports In France that CIA agents were Involved In the generals* abortive revolt in Algeria. There are strong grounds for believing the CIA supported Chiang Kai-shek's defeated troops which retreated to Burma and set up bases there for hit-and-run

" This "proof* wasorgery. See Testimony of Richard Helms, op.




raids on China. Thii led to serious friction between the US. and Banna. (Light'MananD

Consider the cue of Chiang'a Burmese opium growersollowing the collapse of Chiang's regime on the mainland, several thousands of his followers Ced across the Yunnan border Into Northern Burma. American poller maker* decided to arm and equip these Nationalist troopseinvaslon of Yunnan Province From Formosa. CIA allegedly masterminded the operation.unitions, supplies were airlifted .Into Burma, hut despite Uili support, there Is HUle evidence that Chiangs gallant Varrlors ever wraaked much damage on the Chinese Reds, Instead, thediscovered they could achieve the finer life mora easily by growing opium,reat number of them settled down In Northern Burma and proceeded to do Just that.

Theost unreasonable people, were not happy with this Ideal. CIA-crcatcd situation. For some Inexplicable reason, they seemed to resent the presence of this foreign army on their soli; and when Chiang's fighters, showing no regard for Burmese sovereignty, practically look over the state of Kengtung andtheir own government, tbe Burmese actuallyigorous protest with the United Slates As Charlesrote In Th* Hatton (Nov.. the American Ambassador In Burma hadnt been let in on the secret of what the CIA and the Chinese Nationalists were up to The Ambassador. William J. Sebald. therefore dented In perfect good faith that America had anything to do with supporting Chiang's guerrillas In Burma. Burmese Primeu knew better and became so incensed heall US. Point Four activities and almost broke off relations entirely Eventually, our own Ambassador resigned his post ln protest against our own program, and American prestigeSoutheast Asiaouple of very unlovely black eyes. (Cook)

When, hard on the heels of Cuba, the French generals In Algeria tried lo overthrow Charles de Gaulle, we were confronted by all-but official charges in the French press thai CIA once more had egged on theoustelle,uncheon Inlast Decembers said to have talked long and earnestly to CIA Deputy Director Richard Bissell,n the proposition that de Uaulle's program In Algeria could lead only lo communism.aid to have been Impressed. General Challe. who led the revolt. Is said to have had several meetings with CIA agents; he Is reported to have been given the Impression that he would have the support of the United states (fWd-i

The rumor Ught/Marrani and Cook cite of the CIAor hacking of the Challe revolt was Itself instituted and spread by Blocs part of this campaign

' See Testimony ol Richard Helms,

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to picture CIA as seeking to overthrow legal governments through clandestine operations and more broadly as. policy Instead of serving it. Cook also treats at some length and in similar free-wheeling style the Guatemalan coup and the overthrow of Mossadegh, and then concludes as follows:

The answer seems clear and unequivocal to anyone who will study the record, it has been given In aTuimber otEast Germany, In Poland. In Hungary, In the Middleehind many of the eruptions ihat In recent years have shaken the peace of an uncertain world, close examination will reveal the fine, scheming hand of CIA. And It will reveal, too, that CIA time and again has stirred up the brush Ores without any regard for the long-range consequences.

Treacherous Ally

The propaganda portrayal of CIA as perfidious andspying on friend and foe alike, Is seen In the following


The guiding principle of any coalition Is an honorable attitude to one's allies, particularly In face of the enemy. Mr. Dulles allowed himself to violate this principle both in regard to Russia, which Is understandable, knowing Dulles, and In regard to Britain, which Is monstrous and Incomprehensible. (Edwards/Dunne)

Now no one dared to believe that the American claim toof the capitalistic camp,espionage] can be guaranteed through "official" agreements. Whoever would be ready lo make that assumpUon would ignore the law of the wolf, which dominates everywhere under capitalisticthe secret services of capItausUcfor acoordination against the socialisticconspire-torlally against each other, now as In the past. (alien's Ganpaterii

The Wall Street Journal wrote in an editorial onnd If we arceather-eye out only on countries we donl like, we are extremely naive. We had better watch also those who don't like us now and those who may not tike us (Caught tn the Act)

Active cooperation and Joint action with its partners In espionage actlviUes directed against the socialist countries by no meansthe CIA from carrying on acUve Intelligence work with regard to Its own allies too. One Is amazed by the cynicism with which the American secret service makes use of the opportunlUes and channels furnished by its allies for work against the Soviet Union, for activities against these countries themselves.


It Is, of course, up to the VS. allies themselves to decidenot to tolerate such an outrageous fact) for Instance, asof their slate correspondence by the Americans.rate, according to the authoritative testimony of theof the KSA, B. Mitchell and w. Martin, the factthe Americana decipher the telegrams of moreheir allies Turkey, Italy, and France Included, makingthis purpose of electronics, their own agents In the cipherof their allies, and the sale of American cipher-

In Britain alone theremericanommanders of American bases must obviouslyertain amount ot counterespionage to protect their own security. But who canIt Is only counterespionage? In Ransom's classical work on American Intelligence, the CIA. Is blamed for not assessing the Influence of General de Gaulle's advent to power on France's post uon In NATO. The logical conclusion is that the CIA. Is employed to collect certain kinds of Information In all countries of theworld. We doubt whether thia country (Great Britain) Is an exception. (Edwards/Dunne)

But this portrayal has also been reinforced by another series of mailings, this time of authentico Western newspapers.1 Rude Pravo reported that two. directivesttaches abroad to maintain social relations with Soviet Bloc officials for the purposes of espionage and Inducingclaiming to have "incomplete and fragmentary" but documentary proof that this was so. Onanuaryof two documents were mailed to the New York rimes' Paris office, to the London Daily Express, and to Der Spiegel In Hamburg. Theyorged one-page secret document on official stationery headed "Department ofo.ubject: Defectoramong Soviet and Soviet Orbit Officialdom" and abut superseded Department of the Army document6 and headed "Department of the Armyand Returnee Exploitation Program and RelatedThey were accompaniedover letter signedho claimed to. citizen unable to "sit Idly by while responsible American officials engage in such despicable and dangerous plans of subversion."

Starting on. sent fromew cover letter and two new photocopy enclosures, both classified and

authentic,ider range of newspapers. Additionalwere the Copenhagen Dageni Nyhcter, theGuardian, the Stockholm Svenska Dagbladet,. explained that he wasclassified materials to newspapers because he wasthe espionage conducted by "our intelligenceour allies and friendly countries These activitiesanddJsj^orablc,ib'ut they undermine re-^

spect and confidence in America and endanger the solidarity of the freehe enclosures were^ciipplngsSAFE Dally Intelligence Reportepartment of the Army Headquarters Dally Intelligence Bulletin. Theof all four documents had been enlarged to preciselythe size of the locally-purchased envelopes used for thea technique that had characterized some earlier Soviet forgery campaigns-Starting. mailed the April enclosures from Rome to most of the original recipients and ten other papers in Italy. France. Iran, Lebanon, and England. Only the London Daily Express had reported the January mailing to its readers, and none of the papers had apparently used the April series. But now the London Daily Heraldtory about these June mailings under the headline "Mystery Man Starts US. Securityost of the other recipients followed suit,umber of non-reclplcnts picked it up.empo and La Grusftzia in Rome alleged thatriginated with CIA. Israel Epstein, former American turned Communist Chinese, onune had in his possession Inopy of. story in Combat ot that same date, not normally available there before the next day. and he spent that afternoon and evening calling it to theof Western Journalists.

Manipulator of Puppets

The Bloc campaign shows CIA dominating or manipulating supposedly Independent private groups andhe Act pictures Its hand in propaganda op eralionx

Official "white" propaganda li conducted by the |UA)Agency in direct contact with Intelligence bodies Many USIAhether radio broadcast* or newspaperre pre-

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pared from materials provided by the CIA. Hundreds of CIAare working abroad under the cover or USIAhe CIA regularly provides the RFC with broadcasting material It is the sole supplier of personnel lo the RFC and otherhemployees there is not one who is not connected In one way or another with American intelligence.

In1 TASS charged that CIA was using the Peace

refugees to be

Finally, the CIAource of indispensable aid In theand secret societies of emigrants. It has built them into nests for the aupport of espionage and stationed them In many countries. {AUtn's Gangsters)

It Is this charge that was supported by the third series of covert mailings. The American Committee for Liberationone Alexander Melbardis in Munich from6 untilhen he was dUmlssed forPhotocopies of working and administrative papers he had handled began to show up In the mails in latehort note, typewritten in Russian with the signature Grappa emigrantov, was sent to the I. G. Farben Budding in Frankfurt am Main. It read as follows:

To the Gentlemen ot American Intelligence:

Our group wishes to acquaint you with the attached documents We do not hide our hatred of the representaUves of Allen Dulless office, these people who turn our lives Into evil ways. We do not wish to barter our souls. Our goal Is to carry on tbe struggleyour agents andrs hit.

The characteristic technique of enlarging the photographed materials to exactly the right size for the envelopes was used also In this mailing. The enclosures were Melbardis letters, receipts for AmComUbummary report byof refugee gossip about possible Soviet agents, and the like.

In0 other Melbardis papers were mailed to aof Russian emigres In Germany and France, togetheretter signedellowhich

"See Teslimony of Richard Helms,

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denounced American Intelligence and the refugees who serve it. Later mailings of Melbardis papers continued to go to these and other emigre recipients; to date there have been twelve such mailings.

Costly Blunderer

The psychological warfare experts of the Sovietestlon^o'f"CIA's compe-

oncern manifested In English-language materials designed to convince. Government -and public that CIAs exorbitant costliness is matched only by its appalling blundering:

In its efforts to collect espionage InformaUon about tbe Soviet Union, the American intelligence Is meeting with one failure aftern the United States Itself little value la put on the results of the CIAshe poorf not the complete fiasco of the VS. Intelligence Service with respect to the Soviet Union can be proved by the fact that It failed In lime lo Inform the American government of the Soviet scientific andachievements In rocketry. The American Intelligencemisinforms the public and government of Its country as to the real situation In the Soviet Union and the other socialist countries, concerning which,ule, It Indulges In wishful (Caught In the Act)

We are always skeptical when people praisetell-known fact that It was not Mr. Dulles who distinguishedby discoveringockets but unassuming Miss Constance Babblngton Smith, the British expert on aerial reconnaissance photography. (Edwards/Dunne I

How did the American Intelligence service fare In this world-shaking event? The record Indicates two sadly disappointing facts: (al The OLA. failed to supply America with authentic InformaUon on the flghUng capacity of the Korean Communist forces (It was taken unawares, for example, by the presence of MIO-IS alrcrattl; (b> The CIA. failed to give warning of Bed China's entry Into the war. (cl "On OctoberS0)President Truman records In bis memoirs, "the CIA. delivered ato me which said that they had reports that the Chinesewould move In far enough to safeguard the Salho electric plant and other Installations along the Yalu River which provided them withctually the Chinese had begun crossing the Yalu four days earlier. (Ibid.}

But If we really want to find examples of CIA blunders, we mustook at its estimates regarding the Soviethe list begins with the appalling mistake In estimaUng the Utne re-

quired tooviet atom bomb and end. in completeover the Soviet rocket* (ibid.)

In the intervals he [Mr. Dulles) afford. Mr. rfhrushchev enormous pleasure He sends out agent* who afterwards hold pressin Moscow, Prague and East Berlin. He reassuresand Secretarie. by telling them not to believe in Soviet claims

democracy, thus creating confusion throughout uVWestem world.

We have naturally always been tolerant or UiUman. But deeply convinced that even Uie American* art not rich enough or power-Jul enough to allow themselves the luxury of keeping Mr.esponsible post any longer.has done his duly-we shall not argue how well. And now ho must definitely go. or all of us may perish In an atomic Inferno <iMd i

Dulles himself ha. said. -You have to look to the man who Is directing the organisation and the result he achieved, if you havent got someone who can be trusted, or who doesnt get results, you'd better throw turn out and get someone else."

Prophetic Itlsdouat-

ful that Allen Dulles will last through INI aa director ot the CIA (Ught/Marzanl)

But we must look deeper into the structure of the CIA. Leavlne aauSe the morality ofovereign nation in limes of or-ace the sheer massive misrepresentation of Indulgence a* weltbumbling inefficiency of execution .tagger. 5imagl" tioi jSZ j* an agency that has tan, ot thousand, of employe, and spends hundreds of million, ofear (the exact amount being unknown as lhe CIA ha* no Congressional *upervlslon) and yet can lau so dramatically torue picture of condition*mall nationiles from ouruntilll us citizens might freely visit. Where were all those secret agents and spies which the CIA Is supposed to have all over the world? Did they mislead Washington?id.)

The bad Judgement Implicit In ordering theight atelicate time the ridiculous CIA "cover .tory" thai Power* was Sphering weather data, the solemn promulgation of this fairy tale and the swift subsequent exposure of the United States before the world as an arrant bar-all of this wrecked the Summit, forced the United States to abandonerial program, and Inflicted enorrnous worldwide damage on American prestige. (Cook)

These initial blunders of intelligence in the Korean War were matters of relatively little moment compared to the final one tT" in the fall of ISM. Utarally cost the live, of thousands of Americanf US forces pressed on Into North Korea, would the Chinesenter the war?

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General Douglas MacArthur was confident that they would not. All ol" our Intelligence forces agreed In essence on thishe Intelligence for which we pay literally billions of dollars was abysmallyn the Korean War. as In the case of Cuba, there were many clear and explicit warningslindrefused to heed, (fold.)

Mere Scapegoat

Inowever, taking account of the prospecteorganisation and change of leadership-for CIA, the Bloc propagandists began to pull their audiencesback from the dangerous assumption that removal of the CIA cancer would. policy clean and wholesome. CIA, ineffective and. immoral as it Is, now becomes the mere instrument. foreign policycapegoat for Its failures; it is the policy itself that must be changed:

According to the US. press the CIA Is being reorganised on President Kennedy'she CIA has become notorious throughout the world for Its shameful acttons. This agency ar< rangedpy flights over Soviet territorylane was shot down. The agents of this institution prepared the armed mercenary aggression against the Cuban people. This institution Isarge degree responsible for the cold war.

Nevertheless the masters of shameful business have lately been experiencing more and more failures. They failed In Laos and they got what they deserved In Cuba. All this hastir in Washington, and no wonder, for the CIA. Oovemment Institution with many privilege* and rights. It* failures are failures and defeats for the US. Government.eries of shameful defeats, specifically In Cuba, President KennedyeerganlzaUon of the activities of the spy center.

eadjustment Is going on. The parties responsible are being sought. But It is public knowledge that In this case the CIA Is the scapegoat, for this spy center was merely carrying out instructions from higher official bodies and applying US. foreign policy In it* way.

And so the claims by the Yankee press that when the CIA is reorganised there will be no more failures are words Intended for simpletons. The shameful failures In foreign policy and tha signs of anU-Norlh-Americanlsm arc not Just the results of CIA activities, but primarily of the aggressive, imperialist foreign policy of the Unitedo avoid such failures what Is necessary Iseadjustment of the CIA,adical change. policy and renunciation of Intervention in other countries* domestic affairs. (Radio Moscow to South

Original document.

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