COMMENTS OF PRESIDENT SEGNI ON THE FAILURE OF THE CENTER-LEFT EXPERIMENT

Created: 7/25/1963

OCR scan of the original document, errors are possible

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I. ON3 PRESIDENT ANTONIO SEGNI STATED THAT RECENT DEVELOPMENTS WHICH TOOK PLACE WITHIN THEO SOCIALALIANO (PSI; ITALIAN SOCIALIST PARTY) AFTER PRESIDENT KENNEDY'S VISIT TO ITALY HAVE FURTHER COMPLICATED PSI RELATIONS WITH THE DEMOCRAT IANA (DC; CHRISTIAN DEMOCRATIC PARTY) ANO HAVE LESSENED THE POSSIBILITY OF THEREAKING WITH THEO COMUNISTA

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PAS I

(PCI; ITALIAN COMMUNIST PARTY) AND JOINING THE DEMOCRATIC

CENTER. PSI SECRETARY PlETRO NENNI HAS BEEN FORCED TO YIELD TO RICCARDO

LOMBARDI. SEGNI SAID THAT HE BELIEVES LOMBARDI IS UNRELIABLE

AND IS LIKELY TO LEAD THE PSI TO TAKE NEUTRALIST POSITIONS,

THEREBY MAKINGINCERE AGREEMENT BY THE

PSI WITH THE CENTER PARTIES WHICH STAND FOR THE ACTIVE PARTICIPATION

OF ITALY IN THE WESTERN ALLIANCE. IT IS NOW CLEAR THAT THE DESIRED

BREAK WITH THE PCI WILL NEVER TAKE PLACE GIVEN THE PRESENT INTERNAL

. CONDITIONS OF THEAID SEGNI. NENNI WAS THE 0NE.8OCIALIST LEADE i

; WITH WHOM ONE COULD HOPE TO COME TO SOME SORTSEFUL UNDERSTAND rW.

f EVEN SO, NOT EVEN HE EVER AGREED TO BREAK WITH THE PCI. ON THIS

ESSENTIAL POINT, POINTED OUT SEGNI, NENNI NEVER ANSWERED ALDO MORO'S

REQUESTS IN THEIR TALKS FOR AN AGREEMENT ON THE FORMATIONENTER-LEFT GOVERNMENT. NOW NENNI HAS LOST ALL HOPES OF CONTROLLING HIS PARTY,OMMITMENT THAT COULD NOT BE OBTAINED FROM HIM WILL CER-

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TAINLY NEVER BE MADE BY RICCARDO LOMBARDI.

2. PRESIDENT SEGNI SAID HE WAS PLEASED TOETTER.RESIDENT KENNEDY ON THE QUESTIONON-AGRESSION PACTOVIETS. SEGNI ALSO STATED THAT HE WANTS TO EMPHASIZE TO KENNEDY THE SPECIAL PROBLEM FACING COUNTRIES SUCH AS FRANCE ANO ITALY WHERE, fc' ANGEROUS INTERNAL *mrcss.ion BY MEANS OF LOCAL COMMUNIST ORGANIZATIONS-DIRECTED FROM MOSCOW IS UNDER WAY. IN ITALY7THE DANGER OF INTERNAL-AGGRESSION IS FAR GREATER THAN THAT OF FOREIGN MILITARY ATTACK? -SEGNI

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SAID HE DOES NOT BELIEVE THAT THE USSR CONTEMPLATES ANY DIRECT ATTACK ON WESTERN EUROPE AT THIS TIME. THE REAL DANGER LIES IN THE PCI AND IN THE HELP THE SOVIETS GIVE THE ITALIAN COMMUNIST ORGANIZATIONS WITHPSYCHOLOGICAL WARFARE AND MONEY. SEGNI SAID HE WOULD LIKE KENNEDY TO BEAR THIS ESSENTIAL POINT IN MIND IN HIS CONVERSATIONS WITH THE SOVIETS, WHO, UNDOUBTEDLY, WILL DENY THAT THEY ACTIVELY INTERFERE IN ITALIAN AFFAIRS. NEVERTHELESS, THIS POINT SHOULDRESSED AND SHOULD BE GIVEN ALL THE IMPORTANCE IT REQUIRES.

3. SEGNI CONTINUED BY SAYING THAT.IT IS NOW EVIOENT THAT AMINTORf FANFANI IS THE CANDIDATE OF THE COMMUNISTS AND THAT HE, SEGNI, WOULC DO ALL IN HIS POWER TO PREVENT THE FORMATION OF ANOTHER FANFANITHIS FALL. SEGNI SAID THAT THE FRIENDSHIP BETWEEN NENNI AND FANFANI IS ONE OF THE REASONS FOP HIS HAVING LOST ALL HOPE OFTHE PSI. AT THE TIME OF THE RECENT GOVERNMENT CRISIS, SAID SEGNI, NENNI CAME TO HIM PLEADING FOR FANFANI. NENNI DID NOT SEEM TOTHAT FANFANI INEVITABLY MEANT THE INCLUSION, NOT THE EXCLUSION, OF THE COMMUNISTS IN THE MAJORITY. IF THE SITUATION THIS FALL PROVES TO BE INSOLUBLE, WHICH IS ENTIRELY POSSIBLE, THERE MAY WELL BE NEW ELECTIONS. SEGNI SAID HE CONSIDERS THE DAMAGE DONE BY THEPRIL ELECTIONS TO HAVE BEEN SO GREAT THAT THE PENDULUM COULD NOW START TO SWING IN THE OTHER DIRECTION; NEW ELECTIONS ARE UNLIKELY TO ADO TO THE PRESENT CONFUSION. IN ANY CASE, HE SAID, THERE MAY BE NO OTHER WAY.

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SEGNI SAID THAT WHILE HE REGRETTED THAT IT HAD NOT TAKEN PLACE SOONER, HE WAS SINCERELY PLEASED BY THE VISIT..OF PRESIDENTND SECRETARY OF STATE DEAN RUSK, PRIMARILY BEAUSE IT GAVE KENNEDY AND RUSK THE OPPORTUNITY TO REALIZE THE INADVISAB ILITY OF THE UNITED STATES' SUPPORTING THE CENTER-LEFT EXPERIMENT IN ITALY AT THIS TIME. SEGNI SAID HE REFRAINED FROM OlSCUSSING FANFANI WITH PRESIDENT KENNEDY WHILE THE LATTER WAS IN ROME, BUT IN NAPLES HE FELT HE COULD SPEAK MORE FREELY WITHOUT GIVING KENNEDY:THEN THAT HE, SEGNI, HAD PLANNEO TO CRITIZE. INTERVENTIONS. (SOURCE COMMENT: SEGNI MADE ITHAT THIS WAS EXACTLY WHAT HE HAD PLANNED TO DO, ALTHOUGH HE WAS NOT VERY CLEAR AS TO WHAT HIM.) IN NAPLES SEGNI HINTED TO THE PRESIDENTF THE UNITED STATES' PURPOSE IS TO STRENGHTEN THE WESTERN ALLIANCE AND TO DENY THE ITALIANETERMINING ROLE IN ITALY'S AFFAIRS, IT WOULD BE WISE TO REFRAIN FROM DOING THAT MIGHT HELP THE RETURN OF FANFANI.

5. SEGNI SAID HE IS SERIOUSLY WORRIED BY THE GROWING STRENGTH OF THE ITALIAN AND FRENCH COMMUNIST PARTIES. THE FRENCH COMMUNIST PARTY (PCF) WILL BE KEPT UNDER CONTROL AS LONG AS PRESIDENT'. CHARLES DE GAULLE IS IN POWER, BUT THE'PICTURE APPEARS MENANCING AFTER DE GAULLE LEAVES OFFICE. SEGNI SAID HE BELIEVESNE OF THE REASONS DE GAULLE IS NOW THINKING ABOUT VISITING MOSCOW

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THAT HE IS PLANNING TO ASK THE KREMLIN TO STOP AIDING THE

PCF. THE PRINCIPAL REASON FOR HIS CONCERN, SEGNI SAID, IS THAT

HE BELIEVES THAT AS INTERNATIONAL RELATIONS BETWEEN EAST AND WEST

IMPROVE IT BECOMES MORE AND MORE DIFFICULT TO RESIST THE PCI AND

TO SAVE ITALY FROM INTERNAL AGGRESSION. UNTIL THE DEATH OF STALIN IT

WAS POSSIBLE FOR THE ITALIAN GOVERNMENT TO REFUSE PCI MEMBERS VISAS

TO THE USSR AND SATELLITE COUNTRIES. THIS IS NO LONGER

POSSIBLE, SAID SEGNI, AND ITALIAN COMMUNIST LEADERS SUCH AS LUIGI

LONGO AND GIULIANO AND GlAN CARLO PAJETTA ARE CONSTANTLY AND OPENLY

GOING BEHIND THE IRON CURTAIN, OBVIOUSLY TO RECEIVE INSTRUCTIONS.

SAID HE IS ALSO PREOCCUPIED BY THE POSSIBLERELATIONS BETWEEN YUGOSLAVIA AND THE SOVIET UNIONON ITALIAN SECURITY. SEGNI FEARS THAT SINCEHAS MADE HIS PEACE WITH MARSHAL TITO, YUGOSLAVIA

MIGHT CONCEDE FREE TRANSIT TO SOVIET AGENTS ON THEIR WAY TO OR FROM ITALY. HE FEARS THAT THE SITUATION ON THE ITALIAN-YUGOSLAV BORDER MIGHT REVERT TO WHAT IT WAS BEFORE THE BREAK BETWEEN BELGRADE AND MOSCOW.

SAID HE IS GREATLY IMPRESSED BY THE EFFECTIVENESSCOMMUNIST PROPAGANDA IN THIS COUNTRY. HE SAID THAT WHILE IS DISORGANIZED AND PARALYZED BY INTERNAL STRIFE, THE

PCI ISELL-PLANNED, LARGE-SCALE CAMPAIGN AGAINST ITALIAN INSTITUTIONS AND THE CHRISTIAN RELIGION ON WHICH THEY ARE

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BASED. THIS CAMPAIGN IS HANDLED BY WELL-TRAINED AND VERY COMPETENT PROFESSIONALS WHO ARE ENDOWED BY THE SOVIETS WITH ALL THt* MONEY AND OTHER HELP THEY NEED. AS AN EXAMPLE OF THIER ABILITY IN THE CULTURAL FIELD, SEGNI SAID HE HAD BEEN TOLO THAT THE SOVIETS HAVE TRANSLATED INTO RUSSIAN MANY ITALIAN BOOKS BY AUTHORS WHOM THEISHES TO CULTIVATE. THE AUTHORS ARE NOT TOLD THAT USUALLY ONLY SEVERAL HUNDRED COPIES OF THESE TRANSLATIONS ARE PRINTED IN MOSCOW, BUT THEY ARE PAID SUBSTANTIAL SUMS IN AUTHOR'S RIGHTS

TO GIVE THE IMPRESSION THAT THEIR BOOKS SOLD WELL IN THE USSR.

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SEGNI HAS ALWAYS HAD RESERVATIONS ABOUT THE CENTER LEFT. HIS STRONG OPINIONS ABOUT THE RECENT DEVELOPMENTS WITHIN THE PSIEFLECTION OF HIS RESERVATIONS. NENNI HAS" CERTAINLY NOT LOST MOPE OF CONTROLLING HiS PARTY; THE FINAL AGREEMENT, CONCLUDEDULY BETWEEN THE PRO-NENNI AND PRO-LOMBARDI GROUPS MENDING THE SPLIT THATUNE BETWEEN THE TWO GROUPS OVER DIFFERENCES IN THE EVALUATION OF.MORO'S PROGRAM, HAS NOT AS YET BEEN PUBLISHED. CERTAIN DETAILS OF THE AGREEMENT AS RECEIVEDOT INDICATE THAT NENNI HAS YTKLttD TO LOMBARDI. THE PSI AUTONOMISTS, IT IS TRUE, HAVE NOT MADE THE MOVES AWAY FROM THE PCI WHICH SEGNI AND THE DOROTEI WOULD: HAVE WANTED THEM TO MAKE,- MOVES SUCHOMPLETE BREAK WITH THE PC I IN THE CG.IL, IN.THE COOPERATIVES AND AT LOCAL

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LEVELS. THIS SITUATION, WHICH SEGNI AND THE DOROTEI WERE WILLING TO ACCEPT DURING THE FANFANI CENTER-LEFT GOVERNMENT, PREVAILED BEFORE THE SPLIT ANO REALIGNMENT OF THE AUTONOMISTS. ACCORDING TO PAOLO VITORELLI AND GIOVANNI PIERACCINI, DIFFERENCES BETWEEN SOCIALIST AND COMMUNIST IDEOLOGY, WILL REMOVE THE OBLIGATION FOR THE PSI TO FORM LOCAL GOVERNMENTS EVEN IF THEYAJORITY, WILL ACCEPT ITALY'S ATLANTIC ALLIANCE COMMITMENTS AND WILL ALSO NOTE-THAT THEY ARE PREPARED TOENTER-LEFT GOVERNMENT EXCLUDING THE RIGHT WING PARTIES AND THE PCI. INHERENT IN THE SOCIALIST (MARXIAN) IDEOLOGY, BE THEY AUTONOMISTS (NENNIANI ORN I)ARRISTI, ISTRUST OF THEIR PROPOSED DIALOGUE WITH THE DC (CATHOLICISM) AND THE .POSSIBLE LOSS OF THEIR WORKING-CLASS BASE IF THEY MAKE THIS MOVE TOO SUDDENLY. SEGNI'S RESERVATION CONCERNING LOMBARDI MAYEFLECTION OF WHAT COULD OCCUR IF NENNI DID LOSE CONTROL OF THE AUTONOMISTS TOT THE PSI: CONGRESS IN OCTOBER, BUT SEGNI APPEARS SOMEWHAT PREMATURE IN MAKING THIS ASSESSMENT NOW. LOMBARDI CAN COUNT ON ONLY ABOUT SEVEN OR EIGHT OUTUTONOMIST MEMBERS IN THE PSI CENTRAL COMMITTEE HOWEVER, AND THE PROPORTION OF FORCES IN THE FEDERATIONS APPEARS TO BE THE SAME. IN THE KEY FEDERATIONS OF MILAN AND ROME, FOR EXAMPLE, THE NENNI FORCES WITHIN THE AUTONOMIST FACTION PREDOMINATEDECENT |HOW OF STRENGTH. ALSO, ECENT MEETING OF THE PSI PROVINCIAL DIRECTORATE IN FLORENCE, l8 OF THEEMBERS OF THE AUTONOMIST/*'FACTION VOTED FOR A

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MOTION ASRO-LOMBARDI MOTION. ALL THIS WOULD SEEM TO INDICATE THAT NENNI'S FORCES ARE BY FAR MUCH LARGER THAN THEOLLOWERS. WHILE WE ARE INCLINED TO' AGREE WITH PRESIDENT SEGNI THAT FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE FROM MOSCOW

ACCOUNTSOOD DEAL OF THE SUCCESS OF THE PCI, WE BELIEVE THAT ITS

REAL SOURCE OF STRENGTH DERIVES FROM THE FACT THAT ITUBSTANTIAL INTERNAL INCOME FROM ITS OWN DOMESTIC ECONOMIC CONCERNS, ARGE NUMBER OF PROFITABLE COOPERATIVES AND IMPORT-EXPORT NO ITALIAN GOVERNMENTASERIOUS ATTEMPT TO EXPOSE THE PC MS STRANGLEHOLD ON MUCH OF THE TRADE ITAL'i DOES WITH THE SINO-SOVIET BLOC. THERE ARE LAWS IN EXISTENCE WHICH, IF PROPERLY APPLIED, COULD DEPRIVE THE PCIOOD DEAL OF INCOME. BUT SEGNI, AS IS THE CASE WITH ALL OTHER ITALIAN POLITICAL LEADERS, DOES NOT HAVE THE COURAGE AND THE ABILITY TO TACKLE THE COMMUNIST PROBLEM INTERNALLY, HENCE THE APPEAL THAT WE INTERCEDE WITH MOSCOW FOR THEM, ROCEDURE WHICH SEGNI KNOWS WILL NOT REALLY AFFECT THE STRENGTH OF THE PCI.)

9. FIELD DISSEM: STATE (CHARGE D'AFFAIRES AND

COUNSELOR ONLY).

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