APPROVED FOR4 CIA KfSTORIGAL REVIEW ffiOGItAIH
name for your number thomas w. marcquenaki
A collection of articles on the historical, operational, doctrinal, and theoretical aspects ol intelligence.
All statements of fact, opinion or analysis expressed in Studies in Intelligence arc those of
the authors. They do noi necessarily reflect official positions or views of the Central Intelligence Agency or any other US Government entity, past or present Nothing in the contents Should be construed as asserting or implying US Government endorsement of an article's factual statements and interpretations.
fteio advances inimple operational aid.
it is useful to have a
A NAME FOR YOUR NUMBER Thomas W. ftlatccjucnskl
"reversed" city telephone directory, that Is one In which you can lookelephone number or street address and get the name of the subscriber. It was once possible, for example, by Identifying the subscribers toertain telephonewas assigned in the Moscow directory, toist of officials and offices concerned with the Soviet nuclearprogram. The production of such reversed listings Is the subject of this paper.
For some years we haveimple and relativelymethod of listing the entries in ascending order of telephone number, but until recently an index by streethad been almost prohibitivelyariety of processing and computer techniques are now available,to speed up the production of street address listings and make it cheaper. The operational value of these aids can be Judged by the demand for them, since the cost of producing them comes out of the users budget. The original customers always come back for more, and new ones gather as the word spreads.
By Telephone Number
The process for telephone number listings entails key-ounching only the telephone, page, and column numbers from he latest directory. The telephone numbers axe thenput into numerical order and printed out with the orrcspondlng page and column to their right. If youlepbone number and want the name of the subscriber, you eed search only the indicated column In the directory. For ample:
Havana Telephone Book
legre AruUar Moreno Dr Santiago
lot Your Number
Telephone BookVdo deda
Reversed Listing Page No.
number reversaU costCo1en-tries.elephone bookOO names would cost0 to process.
The Address Problem
listings by street and bouse number as well as telephone are about three times as expensive and time-consuming under the best of conditions. The main cost Is keypunching the additional data. But what made such listings almosteconomically in the past was the problem ofthe data to be punched.eypunchers must follow the simplest, most ironclad rules to maintain economicalbut the directories of different countries, and often of different citiesountry, have different styles lorthe subscriber's name, his address, his profession or enterprise, his district, and his telephone number. In order to eliminate unwanted terms one mustet ofsuiting the conditionsiven directory fot the key-puncher to follow.
A method much too costly In professional manpower was used once7 on the East Berlin telephone directory Analysts with knowledge of the language went through the book deleting unwanted terms such as designation ofor enterprise in each entry and writingodefor every street name The resulting index, which could be put In order of either phone number or street code and house number. Included the full name of theluxury which most users now recognize to be unnecessary.
East Berlin Telephone Book
SAROE GERTRUD GABRIEL FRANZ OAGE BRIGITTE
In the past year we have developed new approaches to the Job. using simplified computer or human editing, simplein the keypunching Instructions,ombination of these, which bring It downeasonable cost and require little or no commitment of professional staff time. Briefof three devices found satisfactory In different cases are given below:
Computer Editing. The problem with the Havana directory, was to get ridingle Irrelevant word following thename and preceding the street name:
Abujaaen Jo&eCda0 . .
The solution found was to punch the entire entry after the subscriber's name andomputer to edit out the unwanted term. After thef the cards had been punched atachine listing was made and Spanish linguists underlined the word in each line to beA bog. Abogs, Agoq, Acad, Acc, Acum, etc. These words were punched and put into the computer look-up table as items to be Ignored, and on the basis of this random sample such terms were eliminated from all entries. The listing could then be printed out ln alphabetical order of the next followingstreet name:
HERNANDEZ ORESTES HERNANDEZ ELOISA ROMEOORGE ROUANDO
Convention. The computer approach wassuccessful on the Havana Job, but not on others. The Warsaw directory presented the same problem of Identifying terms for occupation and the like, but here they oftenof multiple words, complicating the computer look-up to delete. It was found, however, that these were not capt-
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tallied, whereas aD ot almost all street names began with capital letters:
Al. 6UllD|rsdskt S3 bl.7 Berlowlc* Mlchal, Ink,
5 Butud Leon, Bote M
he keypunch operators could therefore be told tounching with the first capital letter following thename. This device, however, could be used successfully only by keypunch operators of some skill and experience.
Expert Help. To distinguish the beginning of the street name in the East Berlincoding" step was found to be the most economical. Contract personnel familiar with German underlined each street name for thethis being cheaper by two or three thousand dollars than the complicated computer program required to edit out theof unwanted terms. It tookan-hours to code0 entries for keypunching. If the directory had bees three or four times thatther solutions might have been more economical.
These rather crude but reasonably accurate approaches to mass data processing with the help of business machinesroduct which may have more daily operational utility than any of the more sophisticated machine programs so far developed for operational support. Its great virtue Is ItsAnyone can use the productinute's briefing, and Its usefulness is apparent immediately to tbe greenest of Intelligence officers or analysts. The development of new procedural and computer tricks for listing by telephoneand address has brought costs down by as much as two-thirds from what we used to pay. It looks as though the intelligence community could afford to produce, andood deal more of this type of support material.Original document.