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Camera Configuration Characteristics
Aerial Panoramic Photography, Typo I
Ground Coverage Format, Straight and Laval Flight, Typa X
Q-Bay Package Type I, Physicalay Package Type I, System Dimensionsontrol Panel
Q-Baynd Article Attitude HCaged Condition
Vehicle andttitude Relationships. Uncaged Condition
ackage Frame Relationship To Ground Coverage Pattern
Data Recording on Film
Type II Camera Configuration
Aerial Panoramic Photography, Type II
Ground Coverage Format. Straight and Level Flight, Type XI
Type XI Control Panel
LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS |CONT)
Package Type II and Vehicle
Relationships, Caged Condition
Type XI Mission
XI Package Format Relationship To Ground Coverage Pattern
Ground Coverage Format, Straight and Level FUght. Type HI
Q-Bay Pakcage Typo HI Physical DescriptionXXI Control
Typical Type XIX Mission
PHOTOGRAPHIC. General Information.
The primary payload of the airplane consists of various camera
configurations. These different groupings are designated as Type I. Type II and Type HI. Any one of these may be installed in the equipment bay aft of the cockpit, depending upon the selectivity of the operating command. The characteristics chart., provides data for each of the different configurations.
Three types of lower equipment bay hatches are provided withwindow locations and sizes for tho corresponding camera
configuration. iVg^Type I - General.
transverse,l lish the
Tbequipment bay package Is an aeriallln tne niisslon of obtaining photographs of the earth The camera system photographs the earth
amera package (stable platform) are employed to accom-forward system and an aft system.
to the vehicle line of flight. Two optical systems with-
Conilg. Operating Cycle Mode* of
N. Resolution Operation
swath widthaut. miles
sweep which Iseach sideertical centerlinc
Type III n.
Max. swath widthaut. miles
Max. swath widthaut. miles
126 sweep which laeach sideertical centerllne
Five position sweep, three position stereo
0 sec. Vertical only
CAMERA CONFIGURATION CHARACTERISTICS
Photographic coverage of the camera system Is represented in. The forward optical system scans the earth fromto the left of nadir toto the right of nadir. The aft optical system scans the earth fromto the left of nadir tofrom the right of nadir. Each mission can0 nautical miles of flight line coverage0 frames andoautical miles (ortotal transverse coverage. The scan overlap provides full stereo viewing of mission results for all points on each frame format. See.
The package consists of two major assembliestable platformupporting frame assembly. See. The - Stable platform i* an aircraft type structure that contains both camera systems and associated subsystems, and the stabilization system. The stabilized platform is gimbal supported at its center of gravitylmbal support rod that Is fixed to the frame assembly. The frame assembly is installed diroctly inay
at four Isolation shock mounts.
The platform la normally In either one of two condition*aged or uncaged. In the caged condition, the platform la locked to the frame and therefore fixed with reapect to the vehicle (except" isolator freedom). In the uncaged condition, the platform i* freely suspended from the gimbal support rod. and la allowed to stabilize with respect to rate and vertically. The caging system provides an effective means to quickly and automatically change the condition of the platform.
The control panel for theackage Is shown in.
The control panel is located on the left cockpit console, and occupies an areanchesnches.
The large STATUS selector switch.. controls the operation of the package. Theption selector switch controlsnput for camera functions. TheFF toggle switch controla the data recording on the film and the automatic exposure control programmer. Three indicators are: CAGEDnd OPR (green). Control panel switches and indicators are listed in Table I. Package failure is indicatedAYOUT Indicator (red) located on the warning light panel, center console.
ensor input and, therefore, provides an uncorrectedignal for camerapredeterminedormal vehicle ground speed and nominal altitude above ground scene. Used during conditions of cloud cover to preventnformation from controlling system operation.
an uncorrectedignal for camera operation pr edeter-mined for an emergency vehicle ground speed and emergency altitude above ground scene used in event of loss of one engine.
system exposure program tape and data from operating. Used during preflight system checks.
on exposure programmer and allows data flasher to operate. (Data information will be recorded on film during OPERATE condition only. ) Timer must be turned onreselected time, usually during refueling.
The STATUS switch isosition selector switch. Positions and functions are:
a. osition. This position energizes the forward and aft camera
scanner drives, the gyro spin motors and all electronic subsystems for warmup. The scanner cubes are exposed to heat via the vehicle windows;esult, the scanner optical elements may tend to expand. Thermal expansion of the optical elements is evenly maintained and possibleof the optical surface is prevented by having the scanner cubes rotateonstant idle velocity priorission run. This position also energizes theackage data recording mechanism stepping motors. The stepping motors must be synchronized with the INS inputs to rsflect correct latitude, longitude and ground speed. The INS (Inertial Navigation System) and the data recording stepping motors areprior to take-off. At that time the data recording mechanism readouts follow INS signals. Data Information, however, la not recorded on the film until the TIMER switch Is placed to the TIMER position. Thsosition of the STATUS switch also places critical systemarmup condition. Theackageritically aligned assembly both mechanically and electronically. Thermal stabilization of all critical components is achieved for proper operation of the overall system by placing the STATUS switch in theode prior to take-off.lso energizes the gyro spin motors to allow time for them to reach proper rpm.
2 position. Theosition energises the magnetic dataand maintains all of the conditions determined by STBY 1.
The flight recorder tapes critical system functions for post flight evaluation of overall system operation. Theosition thus maintains the magnetic data flight recorder in operation during intermittent operation of thequipment.
position. The OPR (operate) position of the STATUS twitchpackage in the photography mode. When the STATUS switchin OPR, the following events normally occur:
The system "starts up". The green Indicator light comes on. Film is transported through each camera, all phasing andof components occur, and photography takes place. Time from initial start-up to normal operating speedinutes.
The system will uncage if the vehicle attitude is within discrete altitude limits. The red caged indicator will not light, or
The system will remain caged if the vehicle attitude is not within discrete attitude limits. The red indicator will light.
d OFF position. The OFF position of the STATUS switch shuts down the entireackage.
The OFF position le equippedpecial detent to prevent accidental placement to the OFF position The STATUS switch must be simultaneously pushed in and turned in order to place switch fromo OFF position.
ption Switch. ption switch controlsnputs to the camera eystem. Three typesnputs are provided for threeflight conditions. These are:
position. The SENSOR position le the normal position for
OPTION switch. This position is selected during normal flight conditions and cloudless weather conditions.
(clouds) position. The CL (clouds) position is selected duringflight conditions where partial cloud cover lntermittenly obstructescene.
(emergency) position. The EMER (emergency) position isduring abnormal flight conditions when one vehicle engine isan emergency vehicle altitude is necessary.
TIMER switch. The timer toggle switch controls the data flasher and the camera exposure programmer. The main purpose oi the timer is to permit the operator to control the operation of theission and thus assure that camera operation during preflight checks will not inadvertently cause the data chamber tothe operational base coordinates on the film.
The Data Flasher can operate only when the TIMER switch Is in the TIMERand the STATUS switch is in the OPR position. The Exposure Programmer will operate when the TIMER switch is in the TIMER position and the STATUS switch is in STBYr OPR position.
Theackage is dynamically influenced by the vehicle under normal conditions in two ways:
Power. Vehicle attitude
The package normally derives its power from inverter numberower requirement* and input configurations are euch that operation of theshould not be affected by thef one engine or by switching invertere
Photographic performance of the package depends upon platform attitude. Platform attitude should be level in pitch and roll and
parallel in azimuth with ihe vehicle line of flight. The package Is installed in the vehicle such that in the caged condition ihe platform is level in pitch and roll when the vehicle is at nominal cruise attitude ofIn pitch andin roll. See.
The package will uncage in the operate mode only when theIs coarse levelithin^of true vertical. The vehicle must be within +in pitch and roll of its nominal cruise attitude as shown in.
In the uncaged condition the package will stabilize with respect to rate and vertlcallty and will automatically align itself with respect to the vehicle flight path. The package will remain uncaged and stabilise within the follow big vehicle attitude limits :
The package frame physically prevents the stabilized platform from exceeding the above limits. When any limit has boonorresponding clearance switch will close and cage the platform.
Vehicle Andttitude Relationships, Uncaged Condition
Platform Caged When Yaw Attitude ExceedsWith Respect To Flight Path.
In the caged condition lhe package Is fixed with respect to thr vehicle andevel In pitch and roll only when the vehicle attitude Is :
ormal mission-run, the package is expected to cage and
uncage possibly more than once due to vehicle attitude perturbations that exceed the platform caging limits. Uncaging is accomplishedompressed helium supply of limited quantity. When theis exhausted, the platform will not uncage.
It is possible for the platform to experience at leastncaging and caging cycles during one mission. Should the number of caging cycles exceedt any time during the mission,then the possibility exists that the platform will remain caged for theof the mission.
Theackage does not operate continuously throughout the entire mission, The package may be operated continuously for
a portion of the minion, or it may be operated intermittenly for an extended portion of the mission. The flight plan will normally indicate the exact operating procedure.
The package will operate properly and ahould be operated when required eitheraged condition or an uncaged condition. Beetperformance, however, can be expected in the uncaged.elf-stabilized mode. When the package ia being operated in the caged condition, vehicle attitude rate* directly affect theperformance. Vehicle flight should be kept smooth and changes in vehicle attitude should be accomplished as smoothly as possible. This will minimize photographic degradation.
Two typicalission profiles are shown in.
hows continuous operation of the packageegment of the entire mission. hows intermittent operation of the package for arbitrary portions of the mission. In practice, the package will always be placed In theode atduring the final pre-flight check and shall remain there untilwitch is selected. Specific flight instructions will state thesequence of operation of the status switch for thend operate modes, as shown in.
AY EQUIPMENT OUT indicator (red) on the warning
light panel, center console, will light in the event of package The package failure indication on the warning light panel can only occur when the status switch is in the OPS position. ayload failure occurs, the package will automatically switch from the operate mode to theode, the green OPR indicator will go out and the amberight will light.
Should theackage fail during normal operation, the following procedure is recommended:
the STATUS switch from the OPR position to the STBY AY EQUIPMENT OUT light on the warninggo out. On the control panel, the amberight willlight.
STATUS switch to OPR position. One of three possiblewill occur:
IfAY EQUIPMENT OUT light lights immediately, place the STATUS switch to the OFF position.
IfAY EQUIPMENT OUT light does not light
immediately, but doea lightoticeable time3 toeconds) return the STATUS twitch toosition and waiteconds. Then place the STATUS switch to the OPR position and observeAY EQUIPMENT OUT indicator. If the indicator lights, then the STATUS switch should be placed in the OFF position.
IfAY EQUIPMENT OUT light doee not light withineconds, then the package can be considered operational.
All three control panel indicator* are of theype. All three Indicators should be checked during the pre-flight checkout.
ission-run will be flownreat circle route; the
ackage will operate in an uncaged condition all of the way; the mission flight path will be exactly as expected; the photographic rceulte will Include the area of earth desired.
owever, clrcumitancet may beission-run that the flight path Is not as expected or the package has been operating caged most of the way.
Caged operation, however, requires the utmost attention. Vehicle attitude rates must be kept low; the vehicle must fly as smoothly as possible to minimise photographic degradation.
System operation, in most cases, will be programmed according to time and earth coordinates. However, circumstances could be that the operator is responsible for determining photographic coverage through use of the periscope wide field.
If an object to be photographed appears on die periscope wide fieldime when theackage is in theode, themust be placed Into the OPERATE mode withineconds after the object's first appearance on the periscope wide field. If the STATUS switch is not placed to the OPR position within the object's firsteconds of visibility on the periscope then the object will probably not be within the photographic field of view during tha time of photography.
Results of theamera system are matched eels of panoramic photographs in the format shown in Paired photographs one forward scan and the corresponding aft scan, appear with the associated data information recorded in an area between them.uch paired photographs with recorded data can be expectedull film supply0 feet. Film widthnches. Individual frame dimenelonsnches8 inches.
Vehicle ground speed, latitude, longitude, Greenwich Mean Time, and the mieeion flight number are recorded for each frame. Seeaged status indication is also provided for.whetheray package was caged or uncaged for any particular frame.
Principal Point Indicator
Aft Nadir Time (Approx.)
i Sec Separation
Fwd Nadir Point (Exact)
Principal Point Indicator
A2 FLIGHT HANDBOOK
. Data Recording On Film
The Type II equipment beyn aerial panoramic camera system with the mission of obtaining photographs of the earth from an airborne vehicle. The camera system photographs the earth transverse to the vehicle line of flight. The package consists of two mated or Joined panoramic cameras mountedibration isolated and stabilised platform. See. The combined electronic equipment that controls the camera system Is located separately in the upper hatch.
Photographic coverage of the Type II system Is represented in. In normal flight attitude the two camerasscan the earth across the ground track at theangles measuredine between the combined camera CG andhe forward cameranit)ft and scans fromto the left toto the right,he aft cameranit)orward and scans fromto the right toto the left.
light altitudeeet each mission can2 nautical miles of flight line coverage andiles (ortotal transverse coverage6 film frames. The scan overlap provides full stereo viewing of mission results for all points on each frame format. In addition to normal stereo.
convergent stereo is available within the scan overlap ofeach side of the vertical centerline. See.
package consists of two identical cameras mounted together
table platform. The entire assembly Is installed inay at two isolation shock mounts. The majority of theelectronic equipment associated with the Type IIis installed within framework on theay hatch.
three axes of the camera system are free to rotate about
lte center of gravity by mean*tabilized platformree gimbal- This rotation ie confined to approximatelyin roll and pitchn yaw from the centered position. will be arrested at any time one of the following events take*he camera switch la turned to OFFhe power to the camera la loat,ehicle perturbationa reach limits sufficient to cause limit switches to be contacted. The arresting of rotation of the stabilized platform is known as caging.
control panel for the Type II package is shown In Figure
The control panel is located on the left cockpit console, and occupies an areanchesnches.
control panel constats of twoEATER switch
AMERA switch. Tho HEATER switch control* the heatera in the package, and the CAMERA switch controls the camera syatem andagnetic tape recorder.
The CAMERA switch has threeN, OFF and START TAPE. When the CAMERA switch is in the. OFF position the camera is not operating.
When the CAMERA switch la placed In the ON position thetape recorder and the camera ayatcm atart to operate. Film is transported through each camera, all phaalng and ayn-chronism of components occur and photography takea place.
When the CAMERA switchoved aft to the START TAPE poaltion the magnetic tape recorder is started. Tha switch will not hold in this position, but when released will return to the OFF position, leaving tho magnetic tape recorder in operation.
Control of the switches will bo determined by the mission profile aa discussed in section
ackage dynamically influenced by the vehlclo under
normal condition in thro* ways :
package normally dorivosycle power from Inverter
nd its d. c. power from the TR unit.
equirements and input configurations are such that operation of the package should not be affected by the loss of one engine. If either the <Lc. power or inverterhould fail, return both control panel switches to OFF.
Photographic performance of the package depends uponattitude. Platform attitude should be level in pitch and
and roll and parallel In azimuth with the vehicle line of flight when the vehicle ta in normal flight attitude. The package le installed in the vehicle euch that In the caged condition theia level in pitch and roll and at the beginning of eachcycle when the vehicle la at nominal cruise attitude ofla pitch andIn roll. Sao,
The package will be uncaged at allhat the CAMERA
switch la in the ON position except when rapidare
In the uncaged condition, the package will stabilize with respect to rate and verticalltyutomatically align itself with reapect to the vehicle axis. The package will remain uncaged and stabilize within the following vehicle attitude llmlta.
The package frame physically prevents the stabilized platform from exceeding the above llmlta. When any limit hae beenorresponding clearance switch will close and cage the platform.
ormal miaalon-run, the package Is expected to cage and uucage possibly more than once due to vehicle attitude perturbations that exceed the platform caging limits. However, to the operator there will be no Indication of caging and uncaging. Subsequent analysis of the processed film will supply this Information In code on the film frames selected.
The Type II package does not operate continuously throughout the entire mission. The package may be operated continuouslyortion of the mission, or it may be operated lntermittenly for an extended portion of the mission. The flight plan will normallythe exact operating procedure.
16. The package will operate properlyaged or an uncaged Best photographic performance, however, can be expected In thelf-stabilised mode. In the caged condition, vehicle attitude rate changes directly affect the photographic performance. Vehicle flight should be kept as smooth as possible. This will minimize photographic degradation.
Two typical Type II mission profiles are shown in.
Mission shows continuous operation of the packageegment of the entire mission. hows intermittent operation of the package for arbitrary portions of the mission. During Initial ascent after refuel, turn HEATER switch to ON position and momentarily move the CAMERA switch to START TAPE position and release. This will turn on the camera heaters and thetape recorder. Specific flight instructions will determine when the CAMERA switch Is to be turned to the ON position as shown in.
AY EQUIPMENT OUT Indicator (red) on the warning light panel, center console, will light in the event of package failure. Should the failure light illuminate, turn CAMERA switch to OFF
position. Waitinute, and return CAMERA
switch to ON. If failure light comes on again, turn CAMERA and HEATER switches to OFF.
ission-run will be flownroat circle route) the Type II package will operate all of the way; the missl on flight path will be exactly as expected; the photographic results will include the area of earth desired.
The earth below the vehicle and extendingoile* on cither aide ia being photographed when the vehicle is atto maximum altitudes reapectively. With this extent of coverage "direct hite'1 arc not essential. Therefore, when the flight path is not as expected it la better in terms ofperformance to continue without flight path corrections. When corrections must be made they should be executedlowly and smoothly as possible.
If photography with the aid of Die periscope wide field le doalred, system operation, in moat eaaea, will be programmed according to time and earth coordinates. However, circumstances could be that the operator is reepoaaible for determining photographic coverage through use of the periscope. During this activity vehicle attitude changes should be keptinimum.
If an object to be photographed appears on the periscope, turn CAMERA switch to ON position. Photography will take place immediately. Sear in mind that tho cameras willanning the ground from approximatelyiles ahead of the vehicle toiles behind the vehicle.
Results of the Type II camera systems are panoramic photographs as shown in. Photographs from the forward camera and corresponding photographs from the aft camera are aligned as shown also in, along with the associated data information recorded alongside of each frame. 0 good photographs with recorded data can be expectedull film supply0 feet from each camera. Film width is5 inches. Individual frame dimensions arenchesnches,
Latitude, longitude, elapsed time, frame number, timing track,
principal point, mission number, date, caging signal, and camera unit numbers axe recorded for each frameredetermined code form.
Additional information is recorded on the magnetic tape recorder for assistance in evaluating the mission results.
Aft Camera Scan Ground Pattern
Forward Camera Scan Ground Pattern
ackage Format Relationship T6 Ground Coverage Pattern.
The Type III equipment bay package ia an aerial camera syetem with the mission of obtaining photographe of the earth from an airborne vehicle. The camera system photographs the earth transverse to the vehicle line of flight. ingle camera is utilised that sweeps laterally to take photographe In five basic positions two right oblique, one vertical and two left oblique.
Photographic coverage of the camera eystem is represented in. There are two distinct modes of operation with the Type III package. weeps continuously through the five basic positions whilehotographs continuously at the same rate, however,ertical position only.overs approximatelyeach side of nadir. overseach side of nadir . Eachcan0 nautical miles flight line coverage0 frames andoautical miles (or approximatelyof total transverse coverage. The scan overlap provides stereo viewing approximatelyeach side of nadir or an approximate total of See.
i-4. The Type III package consistsingle assembly which mounts directly to the vehicle through vibration Isolators. See.
he control panel for theackage is shown in. The control panel is located on the left cockpit console, andan areanchesnches.
The two position POWER switch when turned to the ON position provides power to the camera, but will not start operation until SCAN (mode l) or VERTICAL (modeosition is selected on OPERATE switch. The STANDBY position of the OPERATE switch is to be selected when camera operation is not desired.
The package utilisesolt D. C. electrical power from the
Essential D. C. Bus.
The package is installed in the vehicle such that it is level when the vehicle isominal cruise attitude ofin pitch.
2 FLIGHT HANDBOOK
. Type III Control Panel
FLIGHT HANDBOOK '
The Type HI package does not operate continuously throughout the entire mission. The package may be operated continuouslyortion of the mission, or it may be operated interinittenly for an extended portion of the mission. The flight plan will normally Indicate the exact operating procedure.
start of the mission.
tin there until
AY EQUIPMENT FAILURE indicator (red) on the warning panel, center console, will light In the event of package failure.
Should the Type III package fail during normal operation, the following procedure ia recommended :
the OPERATE twitch to STANDBY. AYlight on the warning panel will go out,
lssi on-run will be flownreat;ci rcl e*ype III package wiU'operatVja^
flight path will be exactly as expect*
will include the area of
- I he earth below'the-vehicle
on either side is being photographed w
OPERATE switch to VERTICAL or SCAN positions. Ifcomes on again, turn OPERATE switch to STANDBY', waitseconds minimum, and then turn POWER switch to OFPV*
to maximum altitudes. When the flight path is not asis better In terms of photographic performance-tox.oatlriuepatha "direct hit" not being important as farthe necessary photographic.
hotography with the aid of the periscope wide field la desired.
operat ion, in most cases, will be programmed according to time and earth coordinates. However, circumstances could be that the operator is responsible for determining photographicthrough the use of the periscope.
mil. is re