Findings of the International Ccmnloslon(ICJ) Observer Team toWSYrs
concerning Panamanian Charges of Aggression (ri against the United States
ne Team believes
that the student narch4 was carefully prepared and did not nave the characteristicspontaneous student aovexont. There is reason to believe that tbe FanamanlenIncluding the Minister of Foreign Affairs, was informed beforehand of the students Intent to demonstrate. The Team finds that mob violence began In Pa twee City prior to the student re-torn from Balboa High School.
The Team received no evidence of any attempts by the Government of Panama (COP) to assuage, entreat, or otherwise control the sobs lo spite erf repeated atteapta by Canal Zone authorities to have the GOP call out tbe national Guard. The Team believes tbat if the national Guard had taken charge earlyanuary or noon thereafter, violence would probably not have taken place. On the contrary, tho Team finds thatwere allowod to use press and radio without restriction to inflame the situation and to misinform, the public. Panama City broadcasts were cited asajor factor contributing to excitement in Colon where the national Guard, remained disarmed, during the most difficult days.
h-. The Teejn found, however, that there was no indication that any Canal Zone authority tried to persuade Americans to behave quietly at tho Balboa High School. It alio found that the Zone Iblico used riot control batons "toout tbe firing of bullets and tear gas was the only means by which tbe Halted number of Zone Police could attempt tomassive crowds. The Teen found that some Zone Police fired revolvers Into, rather than over, crowds bent upon When the United States Amy took over, it called upon both Panamanians and Americans to return to their hcees. The Cceeandlng General, USARSOUTHCOM, made requestppropriate Panamanian authorities to have fire directedhe Canal Zone stopped. Falling this,wo-hour wait, and when Panamanian flroariety of arms grew in volume and effOct1venano, the Commanding Oencral ordered selective firing agalDSt Identified snipers by United States marksmen.
S. Conclusions on the charges
to United States violation of life,security of persons: The Team was "unable to reachtbat any such right had been violated. Doitedacted to prevent injury to persona and propertyviolence. While the Teem had grave doubts tbatused against Panamanians vas not in excess of thatnecessary, it recognized that temper and violencewaa such that there was little doubt thatto life and property existed and bad to be metmeasures. In short, rhoananlan violenceadopted by Canal Zone authorities.
to United States violation of the right The Team was unable to conclude that there vasof this right. rVuiamanlan nobs did notassembly, but posed violent. Immediate hasardsand property. The Team qualified this by statingZone authorities could have handled the situationforesight, that Panamanian students should haveprotected, and that United States students andhave been more firmly handled. However, thecondemns Panamanian authorities for failure tocontrol Ponorannlans.
Aa to United States violation of the right of freedon of movement and residence: Tae Teaa was unable to conclude that thereiolation of this right.
Orlg.: The Director of Central Intelligence
Special Assistant to the President for national Security Affairs
Thorns C. Mann
Assistant Secretary of Inter-American Affairs, Department of State
The Director of Intelligence and Research, Deparaient of State
The Honorable Cyrus Ft. Vance Deputy Secretary of Defense
The Director, Defers* Intelligence Agency
The Hocorablo Stephen At lee Secretary of the Amy
Joseph A. Caltfano, Jr. Special Assistant to the' Secretary of Defense
Assistant Chief of Staff for Intelligence Departnent of the Array
The Director of Naval Intelligence Department of the navy
The Assistant Chief of Staff, Intelligence U. S. Air Force
The Director, national Security Agency
The Deputy Director of Central Intelligence Deputy.Director for Intelligence Assistant Director for National Estimates Assistant Director for Current IntelligenceOriginal document.