Economic Intelligence Report
ASSIGNMENT OF HIGH PRIORITY TO THE SOVIET TITANIUM INDUSTRY
CENTRAL INTELLIGENCE AGENCY Office of Research and Reports
Economic Intelligence Report
ASSIGNMENT OF HIGH PRIORITY TO THE SOVIET TITANIUM INDUSTRY
This material eopt&lns Information atfectlsg the Notional Defense of Ihetales within theorise an! sir ot the espionage laws. Title 1JVUSC,ncV-TH, the trans-or revelation ot which in any manner 'an unauthorized person ie prohibited by law.
CENTRAL INTELLIGENCE AGENCY Office of Research and Reports
I. Introduction .
TT. Soviet Production
IV. Soviet Requirements Compared with
Appendix A- USSR: Specifications for Titanium Sponge Metal,
Appendix B- USSR: Titanium
Appendix C USSR: Characteristics of Selected Titanium
War Id: Production of Titanium Sponge Metal,
Consumption of Titanium Sponge Melal and Output
of Titanium Mill5 and
ASSIGNMENT OF HIGH PRIORITY TO THE SOVIET TITANIUM INDUSTRY*
Gucaary and Conclusions
The USSR hae assigned high priority to the expansion of production of titanium because of growing requirements and,esser extent, because of the almost complete embargo on shipments of titanium from the Free Vtorld to the Communist countries.** Soviet production of titaniumas increased by aboutercentut inoviet Journal reported that production of titanium "still lagged behind requirements." The uses for titanium include parts for the manufacture of aircraft and space vehicles and forof corrosion-resisting equipment used in certain chemicalindustries. Because titanium has important strategicexports from the Free World to the Communist countries have been restricted by the Coordinating Committee on Export Control (COCOM).'
A probable reason for inadequate Soviet production of titanium is excess generation and underutilization of scrap in the conversion of titanium metal and alloys into mill products." In the USSRor example, conversionons+tt of titanium sponge intometal and alloys and then into mill products is estimated to have resulted inons of titanium mill productsonversion rate ofercentthat is, the tonnage of titanium mill products representedercent of the tonnage of titanium sponge. In comparison, in the USonversionons of titanium sponge resultedCO tons of titanium mill productsonversion rate of almostercent. In other recent years, such0he US conversion rate has reachedercent.
* The estimates and conclusions in this report represent the best Judgment of this Office asi.
** The term Communist countries as used throughout this reportthe USSR, Albania, Bulgaria, Czechoslovakia, East Germany, Hungary, Poland, Rumania, Communist China, North Korea, and Worth Vietnam.
*** Titanium sponge is row metal that requires further processing into ingot metal, from which mill products arc manufactured.
t Inoluntary informal consultative group wassecretly in Paris to formulate policies and guidelines for the selection of materials to be embargoed nultilaterally to the Communist countries. All NATO countries except Iceland joined the group,oordinating committee called COCOM was established to carry out day-to-day discussion of items. Subsequent joiners were Japan, Greece, and Turkey, and pledges of cooperation have been received from severalincluding Sweden and Switzerland.
tt Polufabrikaty (semifabricatee) is the Soviet term that corresponds to the US term mill products.
ttt Tonnages are given In metric tons throughout this'report.
Another possible explanation lo that the shortage of titanium Is not general but is confined to selected grades or shapes. The USSR cites technical difficulties ln producing high-purity titanium sponge and in controlling contamination In the alloying and eelting of ingots and In fabricating higher strength alloys.
Perhaps the problem ls administrative as veil as technical io that the types of aill products may not be geared properly to requirements. Administrative shortcomings are suggested by the pattern of purchases from Japan. ttore than two-thirds of theons of unalloyed titanium products thus for approved by COCOM for Japanese shipment to the USSR haa been tubing of exceptionally large diameter, which the USSR does not produce Industrially but which it probably could produce with little difficulty.
In any case, Japan is working hard to persuade COCOM to relax the restrictions on-shipping "nonotrutegic" (unalloyed) titanium products to the Communist countries, largely because of the excess capacity In the Japanese industry that has developed sincehen the US Government stopped buying Japanese titanium. Tbe USSR, however, does not appear to be counting on any significant easement of the embargo.
In the USSR, high priority appears to have been assigned toproduction of titanium in the economic plan The plan calls for completionecond titanium plant,eflection of Soviet requirements for titanium for missiles and aircraft now being developed. The second plant probably will be in partial operationhen Soviet production of titanium sponge shouldoes per year. oviet capacity probably will be0 tons, and0 it may te as high0 tons.
I. Int. rod uc tion
Development of commercial production of titanium metal after World War II was spearheaded and supported by the US Government inof large defense requirements for the metal- Q the US he-came the first country in the world to produce titanium spongeommercial basis. From an initial output ofonsS production of titanium sponge roseeak of0 tonsnd the productive capacity of the US industryons per owever, US production had dropped precipitously to lessonsesult ofof military aircraft2 bombers) and stretchouts leading to the termination of US Government acquisitions for stockpile from domestic producers- After that, US production recovered somewhat andevelonsrimarily because ofrequirements of the programs for missiles, spacecraft, ond commercial aircraft and,esser extent, because of increased requirements of the chemical processing industries.
The program of the US in theO's ands toarge output of titanium spongehort period of time was instrumental. If not determinant, in encouraging the development of the Japanese titanium industry in thes. apanese production hadons- Much of the Japanese output of titanium sponge has been shipped to the US. Duringear, when Japan was shipping titanium to the US under barterwith the Commodity Credit Corporationapanese exports to the US averagedons of titanium per year, all in the form of sponge. 2/ Mot all of this metal was exported under barter contract; some was exportedutiable basis, and dutiable exports continued2 The decline In Japanese output of titanium spongeons per year23 directly reflected the cessation of exports to the US under CCC barter contract in2 and has left Japan with idle capacity, (for data on production of titanium sponge in the Free World, sec
Disappointed in its efforts to expand sales of titanium in Western European markets, Japan became interested ln the Communist countries, primarily the USSR,otentially large market for its surplus titanium, and the USSR showed interest in buying. In1 the USSH mode what is believed to have been its first inquiry into buying Japanese titanium. The USSR indicated that it had planned to buy titanium from the UK but was considering Japanese titanium because of its high quality and low price. Tne USSR expressed an interestons ut first anddditional tons. It followed up its inquiries by sending inelegation to tourproducing titanium in Japan. 3/ Thus far Japan has obtained
* For serially numbered source references, see Appendix D. elow.
Free World: Production of Titanium Sponge Metal a/
Thouiiand Metric Ton?
such aa Canada,
57- Several other industrialized coui France, and West Germany are believedaboratory or pilot-scale basis. All of the Japanese and much of the US output of raw titanium metal is in the form of sponge produced by the Kroll method using magnesium as the reductant, whereas all of the UKart of the US output of raw titanium metal is In the form of platelets produced by the Kroll method using sodium as the
b. Because of rounding, components may not add to the totals shown.
permission to Cell only small quantities to the USSR as exceptions to the embargo maintained byn shipments of strategic materials to the Communist countries. Actual shipments from Japan to the USSR have totaled onlyons of titanium mill products withons more having been approved for export byn3 for shipment in3 andI1.
Japanese requests to sell titanium to the USSR have requiredanalysis of Soviet needs for particular grades and shapes ofThe requests also have aroused general interest ln theand Intentions of the USSR in the field of titanium.
- it -
II. Soviet Production A. Bponge
Allegedly less convinced than the US of potential requirements for titanium and less willing or able to undertake the large Investment necessary torash program in the development of titaniumtructural metal,he USSR ditThot begin production of titanium sponge on an industrial scale,ears after the US and at about the same time as Japan and the UK. All of the Sovietof titanium sponge on an industrial scalethat is, all of the output of the Communist countries on an industrial scales produced ot one plant, the Dneprovskiy Titanium-Magnesium Plant in the Ukraine.oviet production of sponge Is estimated to have increasedons52espectively, ae shown in the following tabulation JJ:
all of the Soviet output of raw titanium Is spongeby the standard Kroll procesB using magnesium as the reductant,lthough the USSR has experimented with sodium as the reductant inof raw titanium metal. The US uses magnesium and sodium, and Japan uses only magnesium in reducing titanium tetrachloride, theproduct, to raw titanium metal. Because the USSR lacks high-quality raw materials such as rutile, the basic material used in the preparation of titanium tetrachloride is either ilmeniter slag melted from ilmenite Japan uses slag, whereas the US uses rutile-
lhe USSR evidently is not able to produce titanium sponge of as high purity as Japan doesegular basis or as the US is able to do when required. The highest purity sponge that the USSR produces on an industrial basisrinell hardness of between llUthe lower the number, the purer thehereas the sponge that the US imports from Japan generallyrinell hardness ranging- .oviet titanium specialist, during his recent visit to the US is reported to have "lamented" the Soviet lack of high-purity titanium sponge for programs in research
tor Soviet specifications for titanium sponge, see Appendix A.
and alio/ More specifically, other Soviet sources recently have stated that the requirements for high-purity sponge had risen in connection with the development of new heat-resistant refractorynd that the output of highrpurity sponge must be increased significantly, lj/ore basic problem that may not be completely resolved Is the standardization of the Kroll process for production of titanium sponge of more uniform quality. Xj*/ erhaps in response to both problems, the USSRew specification serie& for titanium sponge, which is at once broader and more precise than the one6 (believed to have been the second official Soviet specification series for titanium sponge).*
1. Melting Processes
tost of the Soviet industrial output of titanium metal and alloys (including the VT, OT, and AT series) constitutes ingotsfrom titanium sponge in consumable-electrode vacuum-arc furnaces-Titanium produced in this manner ie particularly suited for rolling, the basic fabricating technique used for the metal at present- Induction melting is used for shaped caBtings and for the preparation of alloys for small forgings and Induction melting is alleged to have one advantage over vacuum-arc meltingproduction of moreingotsbut the ingots suffer from carbon contamination and are limitedeight ofilograms. To produce flatter, broader ingots that are more suitable for rolling than the bar-shaped ingots of vacuum-arc melting, the USSR has worked with the electroslag retaelting process andrepared experimental ingots weighing up to
One limitation of the Soviet vacuum-arc furnaces is the relatively small size of ingots that they can melt. Not8 did the USSR develop and use consumable-electrode vacuum-arc furnaces capable ofon Ingots on an industrial/ ome US companies were producing ingots weighingons. urnaces capable of producing ingots weighing upons were being opereted on an experimental basis ln thendurnace capable of producing ingots weighing upons was announced During his recent trip to the US, Kornilov is reported to have said that the "usual" weight of Soviet titanium ingots Most final titanium ingotsin the US at present are larger, weighingons. Among the disadvantages presented by the smaller size of Sovietingots are greater scrap generation in fabricating and greater limitation in the length and width of titanium sheet and plate that Can be rolled.
"omparison of the two latest Soviet specification series for titanium sponge, see Appendix A-
2. Iodide Process
For-research purposes (particularly those requiring high-purity metalfor example, the development of high-strength alloys that can behe USSB uses the iodide process to produceaboratory scale titaniumurity of7 the USSR reported having madeitaniumurityercent. 2k/ "Superpure" titanium is believed to be iodide titanium that has been subjected to zonerocess described recently in Soviet
The broad Soviet effort in mastering the economic production of titanium metal hasarge volume of experimental work in various electrolytic processes. Some of the work has been directed to the purification ofnd much to the preparation of primary titanium metal froa titanium sponge and The USSR has claimed that titanium is to be produced by electrolysis in the new plant under construction at
h. Powder Metallurgy
One of the most original and successful Soviet efforts in titanium is the use of powder metallurgical techniques. The USSRturned to powder metallurgyeans of producing titanium metal with better mechanical properties than that produced from titanium sponge by induction melting. Accordingoviet source, the mastery of the melting of ingots in consumable-electrode vacuum-arc furnaces destroyed this particular advantage. The major limitation of powder metallurgy is the relatively small weightup toilogramsof the compacted (sintered) billets. With the wider use of vacuum-arc furnaces the importance of powder metallurgy may have diminished30/ Using the calcium hydride method, the USSR produces the IMP (and perhaps the T) alloy series; the purest powder of the first series, 1MP1A, contains atercent titanium.
The USSR began its systematic study of titanium-base alloysomewhat later than the US, but hasarger number of titanium alloys than the US. S study, however, concludes that the Soviet developmentarger number of alloys was promotedack of suitable melting and fabricating equipment in the USSR. These alloys generally are not as strong as US alloys, strength having been sacrificed in making the alloys easier to fabricate. 3J/ Of the more thanitanium alloys produced in the USSR that have been described in Soviet publications, only theere in series production TV 0Td,Tft,ndj/ VTli andlso are referred to as being
experimental alloys. The composition of thie particular grouping especially when the inclusion of VTlu ands doubtful, confirms the conclusion that the USSR has not yet mastered commercial production of high-strength titanium alloys that can bend that would be useful in some aircraft and aerospace applications. Hydrogen contamination in the fabricating (rolling) of the stronger "experimental" alloys such as VTH,nd VTl6 is resulting in problems of embrittle-ment not encountered earlier in the fabrication of weaker
D. Mill Products
Soviet reports tell of excessive generation of scrap duringof titanium mill products from titanium metal and alloys and of less extensive reclamation of such scrap compared with US practice. These reports indicate that the USSR has to use more titanium sponge per unit of mill product than does the US. During, aboutercent of US consumption of ingots became scrap in production of mill products compared withercent of the metallurgical charge used in the melting of ingots in the During the same period the US usedercent scrap in the melting of ingots. Although the USSR has claimed that it is possible to use charges containingoercent scrap In the taelting of ingots,ore recent Soviet source indicates that the USSR uses charges containing onlyoercent scrap in the melting of On the basis ofofons ofcrap generation ratecrap utilization rate ofoercent, the SovietP^lucts3 ls estimated to have beenons.- In the same year the USons of titanium sponge andons of mill products. For the esti-
V f1 consumPtlon of "Pons* and output of titanium mill products3 and earlier years, see
III. Soviet Uses
or example,ercent of the total US titanium mill products
ercent for missiles and space exploration,ercent for commercial aircraft, and theercent for applications where the resistance of the metal towas the major consideration. Except for general statements for example, that the use of titanium has great significance in aviation and rocket engineering, in the preparation of "cosmic" apparatus, in stup sheathing, and in various civilian industriesthe USSR has notse pattern for its consumption of titanium.
itanium alloys, their compo-
thelr characteristics, see Appendix B.
ingredients, however, probably made the out-
put of Soviet tntll products somewhat higher-
"** isting and description of selected Soviet titanium mill products, sec Appendix C.
Consumption of Titanium Sponge Metal and Output of Titanium Mill5
of Sponge a/
of Mill Products
For each year, consumption of titanium sponge metal is estimated to have equaled estimated production of titanium sponge metal.
Although the USSR also probablyarge part of its titanium in strategic applications, the only documentary evidence (beyond many technical articles on titanium published by men associated vith the All-Union Scientific Research Institute of Aviation MaterialsVIAM) possibly supporting this conclusion is the following statementoviet book on the welding of light alloys that was publishedt the present time the enief consumer of titanium is the aviation This reference, however, does not indicate where this is true and may Just be another descriptionituation in the Free World. Dramatic and direct evidence of Soviet consumption of titaniumtrutegic applicationragmentoviet space vehicle found in Pretoria, South Africa, in This fragment has been determined to consist oflat sheet of titanium alloy brazedorrugated sheet of commercially pureQJ The particular characteristic of titanium that makes it suitable for aircraft and spacecraft applications is its favorably high ratio of strength to weight coupledoderate resistance to heat.
Although the USSR may consume most of its titanium in direct and Indirect military applications, the limited discussion of consumption of titanium in Soviet publications deals mostly with actual and potential essentially civilian applications- For example, the USSR' has stressed the particular value of titanium for equipment in chemical, oil, food, textile, power, and nonferrous metallurgical enterprises, primarily because of the unique corrosion resisting
properties of the metal, 4l/ Production of reactors, separators,units, and heat exchangers made of titanium has been claimedumber of years-
Consumption of titanium appears to have been increasing in the USSR in recent years as uses of the metal have entered new fieldsthose strictly military in nature. The statementoviet journal in2 that "Recently, there hasarkedln the use of titanium in both shipbuilding and chemical machinery construction" illustrates theivilian application of titanium in chemical machinery that has received particular emphasis in the Soviet press during theears is its use in equipment such as pumps, shutoff valves, autoclaves, and cathodes for production of In thisecent Soviet achievement was the developmenteries of prototypes for four pumps made of thepure titaniumith flows,ubic meters per Experimental production ofubic-meter pump was carried out at the Severonikcl' Combine in Monchegorsk, and by2 moreumps vere reported to have been manufactured there. Series production of the pump was planned to begin at the Shchelkovo Pump Plant2 but had failed to get underway by November of that year.
Although the Soviet press hasather one-sided emphasis to civilian applications of titanium, there are no specificthat the USSR is using or contemplating more extensive use of titanium in such applications than the US. The most significant civilian consumer for titanium in both countries at present, with the exception of civilian aircraft, appears to be chemical processing equipment used by various industries. Soviet applications of titanium in equipment of this type as described above are like those Of the US. Chemical processing equipment made from titanium used in the USheat exchangers, tubing, pumps, and cathodes for use lnthat produce nickel, cobalt, manganese, acetaldehyde, pulp and paper, and certain other
Because of its high cost the selection of titanium as the material to be used in civilian applications in both the USSR and the US appears to be based on approximately the criteria that govern its selection in military applicationsthat ls, weight savings, longer life, and lower operating ForS company recentlya titanium chlorine cell which0 and which would operate effectivelyears. The titanium chlorine cell could betainless steel cell which0 but which would need to be replaced oviet source recentlya titanium5 times more expensivetainless steel cathode but capable of replacingrtainless
- IC -
IV- Soviet tti-qul rcments Compared with Supply
Idoviet Journal reported that production of titanium "still lagged behindlthough the eaae article stated that the plan for the first half2 had beenhe lag behind requirements probably is attributable, at least in part, to'the losses sustained in converting titanium sponge to ingots and then to mill products and fabricated items. ovietof sponge averaged aboutercent of US consumption, whereas Soviet production of mill products was only half that of the US. If Soviet production of mill products were almostercent larger, as would be the case if the Soviet conversion rate from sponge to mill products were the same as the US rate, the supply of mill products might be adequate.
The USSR, however, may be having qualitative as well asproblems. The USSR may be having difficulty in meshing production and delivery of particular shapes or grades of titanium mill products. For example, the USSR placed an order forons of unalloyed titanium tubing with Japan inoon after the publicationoviet statement that "recently there hasonsiderable increase in demand for tubes made of titanium and its Moreover,ons constituted tubing of unusually largeillimetersr aboutnd l6hich the USSR does not produce on an industrial scale hut which should present no great problems. (Unalloyed tubing of such dimensionsis not used in the US either industrially or militarily, but Japan indicated during the negotiations that the Soviet Intention of using large quantities of such tubing In the constructionlant producing acctaldehyde was in accord with Japanese practice.) The USSR does manufacture some titanium tubing on an industrial basis, but the diameter ls not believed tomowever, the USSR did report experimental productioniameteran (aboutnches) for use in autoclaves for oxidation leaching of sulfide nickel/
In any case, shortages of titanium in the USSR do not appear to be related to Soviet shipments of titanium to Cuba. As was bruited about widely in the Western press, the USSR has supplied Cuba with titanium tubing as well as sheet for repairing equipment at the Moa Bay Nickel Plant. The total shipped by the USSR is believed to have been so small and to have been composed of such ordinary products that these shipments alone could not have imposed undue or prolonged strain on the internal Soviet supply of titanium mill products. If titanium Of Japanese origin was diverted from the USSR to Cuba, it came out of the first major exception granted to Japan by COCOM in
* iscussion of other qualitative difficulties such bg the Soviet lack of high-purity titanium sponge and contaminationencountered in making and fabricating some titanium alloys, see II, p.bove.
- li -
2ons of assorted mill products, which were reported to have been shipped to the USSR duringft. Titanium tubing of various diameters madeons of this transaction, one-half ton of which was of rather large0 mm, orkf
Although the quantity of titanium required throughout thebeen increasing along with proliferations in itsstill cannot beommon structural metal and"metal of the future." In thes, some US expertsrequirements for titanium ofons by thethe US alone, but world output of0 tons3 demonstrated the prematurity of that prediction. owever, spokesmen of US industry remainthe future of titanium and haveS output0 tons of mill products0 (comparedonsS markettitanium mill products bynot specifying what
its requirements are today or one day might be, the USSR does not dispute the likelihood of much larger requirements for titanium at some future date- ecent Soviet publication noted that worldofons annually may be/ Another publication has stated that production of titanium and its alloys in the future "must" approach that of stainless In recent years the US has been producing moreillion tons of stainless steel annually, and Soviet output is estimated to rangeons annually.
For several reasons, there can be little doubt that the expected increase in requirements for titanium will materialize ultimately. Titanium embodies properties that are very useful for the space agefor example, it possesses an extremely high ratio of strength to weight at moderate temperatures, which givesistinct advantage over both steel, which is heavier, and lighter metals such as aluminum andwhich are not as strong. High-purity titanium metalnique toughness at very lowharacteristic that currently is being publicized. Competent technology for recovering the metal from its ores and for transforming it into products has already been highly developed, and so increasing requirements for the metal can be expected to lower its present high cost considerably. The abundance of titanium-bearing ores makes high-volume production feasible, and its wider use, therefore, may be encouraged.
A most promising areaubstantial breakthrough to increased requirements for titanium in the near future in the US and probably ir. the USSR as well would be commercial production of the supersonicairplanes being developed in both the US and the USSR. Within the upper limitation of titanium, the faster the airplane is designed to
fly, the higher are its expected requirements for titanium. Depending on its speed, it has been estimated that the US version will require fromoons of titanium mill products per unit. At present the US ie leaning toward the selectionesignupersonicthat would flypeed ofr Machhich requires that titanium bc the basic structural On the other hand, the supersonic transport that the USSB is developing reportedly is topeed ranging betweennd/ Althoughransport would include some titanium in "hothe majormaterial used would be aluminum, the basic material to be used ln tbe British-French supersonic transport, the Concorde, which is to fly at speeds up to The USSR, however, possibly is working on the development of fighter aircraft that are intended to have speeds of about Mach 3. Titanium wouldajor structural metal used in such airplanes, as it Is in the secretly developed USwhose existence was revealed recently by President Johnson.
Both the US and the USSR are making efforts to insure thattitanium is available to meet expected increases ln In the US the Office of Emergency Planning (OEP) has begun to consider the reestablishmenttrategic stockpile objective for
In the USSR, increasing the supply of titanium has been an important objective since thes. The Soviet Seven Yearalls for an increase in production of titanium at least double that Achievement Of this goal, estimatedons of titanium spongeepends on whether or not the new titanium-magnesium combine now under construction at Ust' -Kamenogorsk in Kazakh SSR comes into operation on schedule. At present, achievement of this goal seems likely. In. Lomako, Chairman of the State Planning Committee, specifically notedubstantial growth in the Soviet production of titanium was plannednd that the first parts of the Ust'-KamenogorBk Titanium-Magnesium Combine would come intoduringear period. 6j/ Moreover, the combine is reported to have produced its first sponge metal in3 in on experimental shop- ok/ It is believed that, when in full operation, which should be Lhe casehis combine willapacity of atons or spongehat Is, as large as or larger than that of the Eneprovskly Titaniura-Kagnesium Plant in the Ukrainian SSR. Development of the titanium industry in the RSFSR also is being planned, apparently within the framework of the Soviet Twenty Year Plan, which calls for the construction of plants in East Siberia that are to have anannual output of some UO.OOO tons of sponge5herefore, If these plants in the RSFSR materialize, total Soviet capacity for production of titanium sponge would be0 tons per year
USSR: SPECIFICATIONS FOR TITANIUM SPONGEND
Maximum Content of Admixtures (Percent)
a^s believed to have been the first Soviet specification series and was composed of TGO and
harder the titanium sponge, the higher its Brinell number andits contamination.
TGOO was intended only for research, andthree were for use in the melting of
probably is an abbreviation for "experimental."
USSB: TITANIUM ALLOYS
AlloyB in use
Average Content of Major Alloying Ingredients (Percent)
Commercial titanium Commercialr
Forging alloy for ute at temperatures up to According to Tovctnyyc eetally, thisigh-temperature alloy capable of enduringup tofor prolongedand even higher for briefd/
Forging alloy for use at temperatures up to According to Tavetr.yye nctally, thislgb-temperature alloy capable of enduringup tofor prolongedand even higher for briefd/
Rolling alloy for use at temperatures up to
Forging alloy for use nt temperatures up toto
Forging alloy for use in temperatures up toto
Forging alloy for use at temperatures up toto
Content of Major Alloying Ingredients (Percent)
use at temperatures up toand, according to Tsvetnyye me-tally, d/ for use at temperatures upPC.
alloy for use at temperatures upfi to
use at temperatures up to "OO0OC.
use at temperatures up to
Other alloys as3
Average Content of Major Alloying Ingredients (Percent)
o According to Tsvetnyyeouse at temperatures up to
5 Al Al, Zr
Perhaps the same as Al-Zr, mentioned above.
l, Cr, Fe,
0 (Cr +
Cr, Fe, Si, B
Cr, Fe, Si, B
For use at temperatures up to
For use at temperatures up0 tof/
For use at temperatures up totoSj
Perhaps the same as ATentioned above.
Perhaps the same asentioned above.
Perhaps the same asentioned above.
Perhaps the same asentioned above.
ercent Ti powder.
Content of Major Alloying Ingredienta (Percent)
Al, If Nb
a Soviet book on aviation mctalworking publlohed2 bypublishing house, this alloy was singled out as being used inJO/
alloy woo reported3 to be in scries
alloy, according to.
US Bureau of Mines. Mineralsol 1,
h. Interior, US Bureau of Mines. KincraJ Facts and0- U. State, Tokyo. ,nd. 1. U. American Metal Market,. I'i. U.1 Feb 6U, U.
if Mines. Mineralsol 1,
7- CIA. of the Magncsiur. and Titanium
Industries of the- 7- ST 8. Tomachov,nd. ashchita titana
(Corrusion and Protection of, p. 8- fJI 9- Ibid.
titans, lssledovanlye ejektropluvki titanovykh shlokov (Metallurgy Of Titanium, Research on the EiccLroretnelting of Titanium U. USSR, Academy of Sciences. himiya titar..t"
(Metallurgy and Chemistry ofego splavy
(Titanium and Itso
after referred to asegc splavy, no 9)
12- egg splavy,,.- U-
Tsvetnyyc roctally, USSR, Acadeny of Sciences. "Issledovaniya tltanovykh spl&vov'1
(Research on Titaniumeeo splavy (Titanium
and Its. h. Ibid., "Metallektrokhimiya titar.a" (Thermal Reduction
and Electrochemistry ofcgo splavy (Titanium
and Itso. 3. U7 (hereafter referred
to OSego splavy, no 6)
Metallurgiya titana" (Metallurgy ofegg splovy (Titanium and Itso. U. (hereafter referred to ascro splavy, no 6)
dr. ego splavy (Titanium and Itsoleningrad,. dl- U.
nd. "Lcgkiye metally" (Light Metals),
Osnovy metallurgil (Basics Ofol. U.
N.M. Tltanovyyekh primeneniyc v
mashlnostroyenii (Titanium Alloys and Their Use ia Hachinc- U.
dr. romysnlcnnostl, sbornlk statey
(Titanium in Industryollection ofL. U.
Glazunov, op. cit., aboveJ,. U.
t al. Dugovyye vakuumnyyelcktronnyye
plavll'nyye ustanovki Tvacuum Arc Furnaces and Electronic Melting- U-
CIA. 0 C.
Zhur nai vsesoyuznogo khlralcheskogo obshchestva. Mendeleycva,
ego splavy,,- U.
Izvestiya vysshlkh uchebnykh zavedenll, tsvetnaya metallurglya,
ego splavy,,. U.
Kazakhstanskayact 6l. U.hizn',- U-
Moroz, op.,- U.
Tsvetnyye metally, U.
XI. ego splavy,-
Splavov tsvctnykh metallov (Melting and Casting Of Nonferrous Metal.. U.
Moroz, op.,. U.
nd. Svarlvaycmyye legkiye
splavy (Ueldable Light- U.
"Analysis Of Soviet Space Fragment Provides Insight into
Future Soviet Soace Materials-
Academy of Sciences. "Issledovanlya tltanovyko splavov,
ovyye splavy" (Research on Titaniumetal Chemistry and Newego splavy (Titanium and Itso. U. (hereafter referred to asego spluvy, no 7)
Tsvetnyye metally,. U.
nd. Tltanovoye oborudovaniye v
prolzvodstve nikclya (Titanium Equipment in the Production of U.
1 yego splavy,. metally, Feb 6l,. V.
i ratsionalizator,. 9- Chemical Week,. U.
Metals Information Center, Battelle Memorial Institute.
, Titanium ln Aerospace Applications,. (hereafter referred to as DMIC)
Tsvetnyye metally,. 1. U.
53- ego splavy,. U.
- Lashko, on., above).
58. New York U-
American Metal CTX 0 C.
American Metal Market. U.1. 1. U.
0. 1. U.1. 1. U-
Tsvetnyye metally,- 2. U.
laves-lya, . f.
FBIS- Econcciic Item, U.
CIA. CIA/RRtroitel'naya U.
- Uovyy prcmyuhlennyyitan (New
Al'tman, op.,. U.
ermlcheskaya obrabotka cietalloy,
p. 5- U.
me talloyedeniye (Aviationd ed,. D7Original document.