EXILE ACTIVITY AGAINST LEOPOLDVILLE GOVERNMENT

Created: 5/22/1964

OCR scan of the original document, errors are possible

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SPECIAL REPORT

EXILE ACTIVITY AGAIrBT LEOPOLDVILLE GOVERNMENT

CENTRAL INTELLIGENCE AGENCY

OFFICE OF CURRENT INTELLIGENCE

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IIS MATERIAL CONTAINS INFORMATION AFFECTv IXCKfHE NATIONAL DEFENSE OF THE UNITED STAT WITIih* THE MEANING OF THE ESPIONAGECSC. THE SION OR REVELATION OF WHICH IN ANY AN UNAUTHORIZED PERSON IS PROl

DISSlMINATLCN CONTROL:

This dor.jmep^MUST NOTELEASEDOREIGN GOVERNMENTS. If marked with specific: alsseWition contrprt in accordance with thc provisions, trur'docijnienr Tiust be handled within the ;rcmewcrW ie Ifmircriori so imposed.

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EXILE ACTIVITY ACAINST LEOPOLDVILLE GOVERNMENT

The reglae of Preaier Cyrille Adoula In Leo* poldville has many political opponents, and asong the most activeroup of leftist-oriented exiles based just across the Congo River ln This group, which calls itself theof Rational Liberationar In recent months made some contacts with representatives of Communist countries, has solicited support from the Brazzaville and other African regimes, and has sought to establish operations back in the Congo. Despite some successes, however, the CNL is weak, disorganized, and Ineffectual. Its troublemaking potential depends on forming alliances with other anti-Adoulaof which have as their primary asset the Congolese political structure.

For all its noise and notoriety in Congolese political circles, the CNL ls composed ofembers. It was formed lastafter the Leopoldvillewas dismisned--by followers of the late premier Patrice Lumumba and the Imprisoned An-toine Gizenga. From theirheadquarters the exiles proclaimed their Intention to overthrow Adoula's government.

These charter members, led by Christopher Gbenye, still provide the core of the CNL. Loosely attached to the group are sometudents recently returned from Koscowls-collany of army deserters and other malcontents.

The CNL's brief life has been marked by internaland by efforts toirmer base. Last February some of its members denounced Gbenye

and declared themselves the "real" CNL, but Gbenyeretains the allegiance of at least some members of the organization.

The CNL hasranch in Bujumbura, the capital of Burundi on the Congo's eastern flank, but the head of thisseems to act largely on his own. Even within that tiny group numbering no morenternecine squabbling is endemic.

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The Brazzaville regime thus far has given CNL members little more than food andeven though some of Its left-leaning elements, especially the security chief, havethe exiles from the start. These elements probably are Inhibited from providing more extensive support by the attitude of the moderates within the government, who want to ship the CNL elsewhere.

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Brazzaville foreign sinister in Mid-April stated privately that he was on tbe verge of expelling the CNL. Subsequently there werethat be was trying to send the exiles to Ghana. Tbla scheme seens to have fallan through, however, as tha leftward drift in Brazzaville haa continued.

Presidenttoderate, now auspecte, with good reason, that Adoula is turning the tables andBrazzaville exiles ln Leo-poldvilla.

In Burundi, the King is subject to siallar Internal leftist pressures and, since

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position is none too secure either, he reportedly hesitates to intern the exiles or curb their activities. He has Ignored aappeal fron Leopoldville to curtail the CNL.

Rwanda, on the other hand, has been arresting CNL adherents who come into its territory. Its cooperation with Adoulao someroduct of its intense hatred for neighboring Burundi.

Communist Ties

The CNL's appeals for Soviet tlv went unheeded.

Other countries Congo do not seen to involved.

aid

about extending any sizable ance at this time.

The Chinese Communists appear cautious, too. They are probably put off by the organization's petty feuding and lack ofeffectiveness. Several reports that they have already given the CNL substantialoriginate from CNL sources of doubtful reliability.

However, thediplomatic representation inis stillhavein both Brazzaville and Bujumbura which are known to be in contact with CNL leaders. Moscow asis assessing the CNL's future potential. It probably wants to be ready to step in quickly with an offer of substantial aid if the CNL shows any roal capability.

Activities Inside the Congo

So far, the CNL has formedew links with the many antiregirae groups inside the Congo. Last fall, when the Kwilu rebellion was germinating, Gbenye showed distrust of the rebels' leader, Pierre Mulele, and apparently failed to heed later appeals for aid. CNL agents have been active in the troubled Kivu area inCongo, probably with antigov-erniaent propaganda. There is no evidence that CNL machinations have contributed to lesser troubles elsewhere.

Indeed, the CNL's resources are so meager that It ls in no position to help others. Its arms supplies appear extremely limited. Four CNL groups picked up in the Congo early thisbent on assassinating topno sidearmsjew men carried grenades. that occurred nearin mid-May were probably the work of CNL agents who had been reported entering the Congoin the month. They evidently used plastic devices.

The CNL's Potential

The National Liberationas now constituted poses

little threat to Adoula's Nevertheless, his control over the country lm so tenuous that the various dissident movement even nowajor problem for his regime. Should thereceive supplies from abroad and some unifying direction, they could quickly bring about anwhich the Adoula regime would be powerless to control. The CNL with its foreign base,foreign contacts, and flair for political propaganda could iney role In such development. (SJECRSJUJ^-TCfcEIGN

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