Created: 8/1/1964

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Ciaws:- n? 9i

Military-Economic Research Aid


INTELLIGENCE AGENCY Office of Research and Reports

central intelligence agency

estimated number, value, and distribution of merchant ships constructed by and for the principal communist3

The data presented instimated Kumber, Value, and Distribution of Merchant Ships Constructed by and for the Slno-SovietECRET, and ln other similar reports are revised and updated in this research aid. ftaphasis is given3 of major maritime ships for the USSR, whether or not these ships have been built in Soviet shipyards or in foreign shipyards, and to the estimated expenditures involved in building and buying these ships. Some discussion is given to the initiation of new shipbuilding programs and to the continuation or completion of programs begun

Information in this research aid has been discussed informally at the working level with representatives of the Office of Navalbut has not been coordinated formally.

- iJ .. P, i


I. Highlights of Sew Construction in


3- East

Communist China

Hungary, Bulgaria, and Rumania


3' Uest



II. Outlook for Future Major Shipbuilding Activity

1. Cargo


Miscellaneous Ships




Miscellaneous Ships

III. Western Credit Arrangements with the USSS

IV. Ships with Large

V. Position of the Soviet Bloc In World Shipbuilding

Appendix A. Photographs of Selected Ships with

Appendix B. Statistical Tables and Photographs of Selected


of tho Number, Tonnage, Value, and Distribu-

tion of Merchant Ships Constructed by and forCountries, by Type of3

of the Number, Tonnage, Value, and Distribu-

tion of Merchant Ships Constructed by the3

Value, and Distribution of Maritime Cargo Ships,

Tankers, Miscellaneous Snips, and Fishing Ships

Constructed by the USSR,

h. Number, Tonnage, and Distribution of Maritime Cargo Ships and Tankers Constructed by the USSR,

by Shipyard,

Number, Tonnage, and Distribution of..

Maritime Ships Constructed by the USSR,

by Shipyard,

Tonnage, and Distribution of Fishing Ships

Constructed by the USSR, by Shipyard,

of tho Number, Tonnage, Value, and Distribu-

tion of Merchant Ships Constructed by3

Value, and Distribution of Maritime Cargo Ships,

Tankers, and Fishing Ships Constructed by3

Tonnage, and Distribution of Maritime Cargo

Ships and Tankers Constructed by Poland, by Shipyard,

10. (lumber. Tonnage, and Distribution of Fishing Ships

Constructed by Poland, by Shipyard,


of the Number, Tonnage, value, and. Distribu-

tion of Merchant Ships Constructed by Eust Germany,

VaLue, and Distribution of Maritime Cargo Ships,

Miscellaneous Ships, and Fishing Ships Constructed

by East Germany,

Tonnage, and Distribution of Maritime Cargo

Ships and Miscellaneous Ships Constructed by East

Germany, by Shipyard,

Tonnage, and Distribution of Pishing Ships Con-

structed by East Germany, by3

of the Number, Tonnage, Value, and Distribu-

tion of Merchant Ships Constructed by3

Value, and Distribution of Maritime Cargo Ships

Constructed by Hungary,

Tonnage, and Distribution of Maritime Cargo Ships

Constructed by Hungary, by3

l6. Summary Of the Number, Tonnage, Value, and Distribution

Of Merchant Ships Constructed by3

19. Huraber, Value, and Distribution of Maritime Cargoani Miscellaneous Ships Constructed

20- Number, Tonnage, and Distribution of MaritimeTankers, and Miscellaneous ShipsBulgaria, by Shipyard,

of the Number, Tonnage, Value, and Distribution

of Merchant ShipG Constructed by Stumanla,

Value, and Distribution of Maritime Cargo Ships

Constructed by Rumania,

Tonnage, and Distribution of Maritime Cargo

Ships Constructed by Rumania, by3

of the Number, Tonnage, Value, and Distribution

of Merchant Ships Constructed by Communist China,

- vi


Value, and Distribution of Fishing Ships

Constructed by Communist China,

Tonnage, and Distribution of Fishing Ships

Constructed by Communist China, by3

27- Number, Tonnage, Value, and Distribution of Merchant

Ships Constructed by3

of the Number, Tonnage, and Distribution

of Maritime Ships Constructed for theby Non-Communist3

Value, and Distribution of Maritime Cargo Ships,

Tankers, and Miscellaneous Ships Constructed for the

Communist Countries by Non-Communist3 -

- vili -



The Soviet prograja Tor construction and Import of cargo ships with large hatches, heavy lift equipment, and probably strengthened decKu and hatch covers shoved an Increase3 comparedotal off these ships valued at3ere eoapltted by or for the USSR3ore than The USSR nowotal off these ships, and probably this special group eventually will consist of morehips.

The merchantonstructed by and for the principalcountries3 are valued at about anillion. The value of ships constructed or importeds as follows:

e and

The estimates and conclusions in this research aid represent the best Judgment of this Office aa. The term Communist countries as used in this research aid includes the USSR, Poland, East Germany, Bulgaria, Rumania, Czechoslovakia, and Communist China. The terms non-Communist countries and non-Bloc countries are used toall other countries. Previous reports in this series have included only that part of production of ships by Yugoslavia that is exported to the Communist countries listed above. For statistical conveniens case ln making comparative analyses, these Yugoslav exports have treated as constructionestern country. Production of ship the other Communist countriesAlbania, Outer Mongolia,orth Vie try, and Cubas negligible.

been de-

** Dollar values are given0 US dollars throughout thii aid and represent the cost of constructing similar ships in thi Ships listed in this research aid are considered toivered,hipyard, complete and ready for service but notoperational, and the total value of the ships has been credited to the year of completion. Ships noted as operational during the month of January are arbitrarily assumed to have been completed during the previous year. Because soma ships are converted after completion to nnvul auxiliary and other services, the ships listed do not necessarily constitute additions to the several merchant fleets. All ships have been classified according to the following major categories:

Maritimeincluding cargo ships, tankers, and Miscellaneous ships such as passenger ships, tugs, port icebreakers, and research ships. These ships may be engaged ln oceangoing and coastal service, including the Caspian Sea.

Fishingncluding whale factory ships; crnb cannery ships; factory trawlers; medium trawlers; whale catchers; refrigeratorand refrigerated/factory ships; support ships; and small trawlers, seiners, and the like.

Inlandncluding passenger ships, tugs, and barges that mayused on Inland waterways.

0 US $

Construction incountries

Imports from non-

Conrounist countries


The value of merchant ships built by and for the USSR only3 amounted to2 million, orercent of the total value for all Communist countriesthe greatest outlay ever made by the USSR in any one year. The USSR itself built ships valued atnd imported ships valued6 million.

In comparison with previous years the total value for construction and import of merchant ships by the Communist countries remains at about the same level, with slight fluctuations probably caused by the phasing in Or out of production of various types and classes of ships.9 the average total value has been0ear. Construction and import of ships by Communist country, major types of ships, and value of shipsogether with comparative annual totals, are shown in the following tabulation:

HiiUcs u?

* Because of rounding, components may not add to the totals shown.omplete breakdown Of the figures3 and photographs of selected ships, see Appendixhrough ?f.

uifrrr WfceLi/eg?,^ fimim inimn -luml'



CM no

Imports from Non-Communist Countries

0 US $


The total value of ships imported by the USSR36 Of this8 millionercent) represented ships built in other Communist countries,8 million (aboutercent) represented ships built In non-Communist countries- Thevalue of these ships imported by the USSR3 isreater than

In terms ofhe USSR3 constructed, imported, or exported cargo ships, tankers, and major fishing ships as follows:

omplete breakdown of these figures, see Appendix B,

everal abbreviations that are used repeatedly in the tables in this research aid may be defined as follows:

Light ship displacementweight, in tons

pounds,omplete ship, ready for service in every respect,the weight of permanent ballast and Liquids in the machinery at operating levels but excluding the weight of the members of the crew and their effects and any item of consumable or variable load such as stores, fuel, and cargo.

Deadweight tons (DWT)the carrying capacityhip, in tonsounds, including the members of the crew and their effects as well as the weight of all items of consumable or variable load such as stores, fuel, and cargo. The deadweight tonnage is the difference in tons between full load displacement and light ship displacement.

Gross register tons (GRT)easure [footnote continued on p. U)

In the matter of imports by the USSR,ercent of the cargo DWT came from the European Satellites, butercent of the tanker DWT came from the non-Bloc countries. For fishing ships the percentage {DWT basis) of European Satellite and non-Bloc construction was about equal,ndercent, respectively.

The average size of cargo ships built and imported by the USSR3 vas0hichegligible increasehen the average size cargo ship acquired by the USSR0 GRT). Tankers built and Imported by the USSR3 averaged0n increase of0 GRT) compared This increase was the result of Importing large new tankers from non-Bloc countries and the initiation of constructionarge new class of tuckers in Soviet shipyards.

Tho outlook for the immediate future is that the USSR will continue to build most of the classes of ships That were under construction Generally the USSR will continue Lo import more cargo ships from the European Satellites than from non-Bloc countries and more tankers from the non-Bloc countries than from the European Satellites.


whereby the entire internal cubic capacity of the ship is expressed in registerubic feet to the tonot including certain spaces such as peak tanks and other tanks of water ballast, openbridge and poop, hutchwayertain light and air spaces, anchor gear, steering gear, wheelhousc, galley, cabins for passengers, and other minor spaces specified by law.

* abulation of theeading shipbuilding countries of the world, secelow.

Based on the quantity of GRT that it has completed, the USSR is estimated to have occupied sixth place in the world* Poland and East Germany, the only other major shipbuilding nations of the Soviet Bloc,hh places, respectively. TheGRT completed3 by the USSR, Poland, and East Germany,

o ii b

ons, was equal to aboutercent of worldotal that made these combined countries rank as the fifth largest shipbuilder exceeded only by Japan, Great Grltain, West Germany, and Sweden-

Based on meager information. Western credit arrangements for the sale of ships bo the USSH appear to beercent down and the balance payable in equal Installmentsonthseriodears.

I- Highlights of Kew Construction3

A. Communist Countries 1. USSR

3 the USSR built0 GRT) of cargo ships and tankers;0 GRT of miscellaneous maritime ships; andRT of fishing ships,otal value for all seagoing types of more0 million. In addition, theof inland ships was valued5 million. This total value,0 million for indigenous ship construction of all types,the largest annual outlay in the history of Soviet essercent of this constructionfour fishing ships valued6 millionas exported to Ghana."

The lead hulls of four new classes of cargo shipshe largest ship of this group, the Perekop, mayoderni zed version of the Poltava class, construction of which beganhe other three new classes of ships are Limber carriers, the Vytegrales. Vyborgles. and Maloyaroslavets. The Vyborgles may bewith the Vytegrales, but -he lack of information at present makes it impossible to confirm this supposition.

The program to build Pckin-class tankers ended3 with the completion of the seventh and last ship. Two Leningrad shipyards are building another new and larger class of tankers, the Sofiya, one unit of which was completed at each of the shipyards during that year. The Sofiya class is the largest tanker ever built by the USSR.**

* For total data on Soviet shipbuilding, see Tableppendix B,elow.

** For number, tonnage, and shipyard data on construction of cargo ships and tankers, see Table <i. For number, tonnage, and shipyard data on construction of fishing ships, see Tableppendix B,elow.

- 7

Construction of fishing ships continued apace during the year with-no -new. classes of ships being buiit but vith..the introduction of construction of on old class, the Kayakovskiy,econd building yard. That class is now being built at the 3altic Shipyard in Klaipeda. The construction of the Tavriya class of refrigerator ships may be Hearing completion because the Maioyaroslavcts class of cargo ships is now under construction at the same shipyard that built the Tavriya. class. Thi3 shipyardelatively new and small yard and is not believed to be able to simultaneously construct two classes Of

2. Poland

oland built0 CRT) of cargo ships and tankers and0RT) of fishing ships,otal value of8 million. As in the case of the USSR, this amount represents the greatest outlay ever for merchant shipbuilding in Poland.* Current indications arek will exceed that

Unlike thearge percentage of the total value of Polish shipbuilding, aboutercent, or5 millionas exported. The greatest share,argo shipsankers valued at0 millionishing ships valuedillion, went to the USSR. Also during the year, Poland exported two cargo ships worth about $lU million to Cuba and six fishing ships worth aboutillion to Ghana.

, Poland completed the lead ship of four new classes of cargo ships, namely: the Muromn improved version of the Simferopolhe Francisco Hullohe Grudziadznd the Kolejarz Of these four new classes of cargo ships, only the Murom is for export to the USSR. Also for the USSR, Poland completed two BauskO)-class tankers, and this construction program has now ended with the completion of five ships. Pour of these tankers were exported to the USSR, and one was retained by

Also completed were the lead hulls of two new classesships, the Albacoratern trawler, for retentionPionerakactory-base ship, for the USSR. continued on two classes of factory trawlers, the Leskovthe Kosraoshich is an improved version of the Leskov "

3- Bast Germany

* For total data on Polish shipbuilding, eee Tableppendix B,elow.

** The letter-numeral designator,hip name, is thePolish designation for the class-

*** For number, tonnage, and ehlpyard data for Polish cargo ship and tanker construction, see TableAppendix B,elow.

1 For number, tonnage, and shipyard data on Polish fishing shipseeppendix B,elow.

For total data on East German shipbuilding, secppendix B,elow.

Shipbuilding in East Germany3 consisted ofAO0 GRT) Of cargo Ships;0 GRT ofmaritime ships; and0RT) of fishing ships,otal value for all seagoing types of more5 The value of the inland ships constructed amounted to

Of the maritime and fishing ships produced and valued atillion, aboutargo types,iscellaneous, and Ihotal valued at7 million,ere exported to the USSR-* East Germany aLso completed that year the lead hulls of two new classes of cargo ships, the Povenets and the Vyborg, both of which were exported to the USSR- Alsoast Germany completed the last ship of the Dzkankoyoal and ore carrier,otal ofhips in this class, and all went to the USSR.

ast Germany completed for its own fishing fleet the lead hullew class of fishing ship, themall freezer-trawler.**

k. Communist China

oamunist China did net complete any construction of major The country did complete one fishing ship, the Yuan-Lung, valued at aboutillion and believed to be the first shiperies of whale catchers. At present the Chinese Communists do nothale factory ship. Should future whaling operationsactory ship, China probably would find it more economical toa ship than to produce both the ship and the whale-processing muchinery domestically. It is estimated that3 Communist China also built ships valued at about S8 million for the inland

The decline in shipbuilding3 is related to the general, economic dislocation of industrial activity; shortages offor shipbuilding; and the probable inability to commandfor scarce materials, as well aa the inadequate industrial supporting, .base, for the construction, of major ship components-

Hungary, Bulgaria, and Rumania

Hungary3 produced the Keyla-class and the Hazam-class maritime ships (resumed after an interruptionears)otal valueillion. Hungary also constructed ships valuedillion for the inland waterways. All the Keyla-class Ships were constructed for export to the USSR and to Norway. Of the Keyla-class ships exported, about $l'i million worth went to the USSR and aboutillion worth to Norway.1

For number, tonnage, and shipyardor East German cargo and miscellaneous ship construction, seeppendix B,, below.

For number, tonnage, and shipyard data on East German fishing ship construction, see Table lh, Appendix B, For number, tonnage, and shipyard data on Communist China, seeppendix B, p.elow.

1 For number, tonnage, and distribution of maritime cargo ships built in Hungary, seeppendix B, p.elow.

ulgaria completed for its own use theship Sofiya and forargo ship of the Varna class, both of which were valued at aboutillion. In the same year, Bulgaria built for the USSR tankers of the Oleg Koshevoy class valued at aboutillion and miscellaneous maritime ships valued at aboutillion.*

InRumania continued construction of Galati-class cargo ships for retention and completed the lead ships of two new classes of cargo ships, the Roman class for retention and the Hovyy Donbass class for export to the USSR- Of this construction, Rumania retained aboutillion worth of maritime cargo ships and exported aboutillion worth to the USSR.**

B. Hon-Communist Countries***

1- Denmark

Asenmark continued3 to build cargo and fishing ships for the USSR and Poland- For Poland, delivery of two ships of the Kraazewski class valued at about $lk million completed the contract. For the USSR, two cargo ships of the Beloretsk class valued atillion and two refrigerator/factory ships of the Skryplev class valued atillion were completed. ontracteloretsk-classave now been completed, andotalf the Skryplev class now authorizedong-range building program also have been completed.

2. Finland

Of the non-Communist countries building ships for the Bloc, Finland continues to achieve the highest value of construction because of the relatively large number and variety of ships completed-inland completed for the USSR four Krasoograd-class cargo ships and nine Irkutskles-class cargo ships (timber carriers) valued atillionillion, respectively. Delivery of these ships completed one-half of the contract forhips of the Krasnograd class and slightly more than one-half of the contract for possibly ko ships of the IrkutsKles class. Five tankers of the Drogobit2 class valued at about $lk million were exported to the USSRhus completing more thanankersontract for about 'iO.

* For number, tonnage, und shipyard data on Bulgarian shipsecppendix B,elow. ** For number, tonnage, and shipyard data on Rumanian shipseeppendix B, p. ^h, below.

*** For number, tonnage, and shipyard data on ship construction for the Communist countries by non-Communist countries, seeppendix b,elow.

The second of two cable-laying ships of the Ingul class valued at aboutillion each was completed and delivered to the

USSR Other miscellaneous ships such as tugs and non-self-propelled barracks ships valuedotal ofillion also vere completed for the USSR

3- West Germany

ontract that called for construction of tvo whaler/ factory ships of the Vladivostok class, each valuedillion. West Germany completed the second ship, and the contract, for the USSR

k. Italy

ontract that called for six tankers to be built in Italy, the first ship, the Leonardo da Vinci, valuedillion, was delivered to the USSR

5- Japan

Tbe Japanese completed two Omsk-class cargo ships valued atillion for the USSR Five ships of this class have now been built, and three others are to be built. One coal and ore carrier named the Kosice and valued at about $lk million wasfor Czechoslovakia

Japan completed three tankers Of the Lozovaya class valuedillion for the USSR. Nine more tankers of this class will be builtfourhipyard In Harima and fivehipyard in

II- Outlook for Future Major ShipPuilding Activity

A. Communist Countries

1. Cargo Ships

The USSR will build ships Of the Lenlnskiy Komsomol class butlower pace than inand possibly in the latter part4 the first gas turbine variant of this class will be built. The Poltava class and its modernized twin, the Perekop, reportedly will form the nucleus of the dry cargo fleet and therefore should be built in large numbers- Two classes Of timber carriers, the Vytegrales and its possible sister class, the Vyborgles, probably also are intended for large-series construction- Another program for timber carriers, the Pavlin Vinogradovas turbine ship of which four units already have been built, will end6 with the completion of seven units. Still another class of timber carrier, the Maloyaroslavets, possibly will consisteries ofonits to be builteriodears. Construction of un icebreaking cargo ship of the taftuema class is estimated at the rate of one or two units per

year over the next several years. This class is the only diesel-electric cargo ship under construction in the USSR.

An indication as to which type of ship the USSR considers significant is provided when more than one shipyard in the country is engaged in its construction. The following classes of cargo ships are under construction in two shipyards: the Leninskiyhe Poltavand the Vytegrales (Vyborgles).

Reportedly, Poland will buildnits of the Muromk) for export to the USSR for the next few years, possiblyhe total production of this class and of the Simferopolhich is very similar, should bo aboutnits. The Belomorsklesimber carrier, which is being built for the USSR, also will remain in production for several years, as the total output of this class and of its sister class the Volgoleshould be aboutnitsnow aboutercent completed. Continued construction of cargo ships for domestic use such as the Marceli NowotkoM, the Francisco Hullohe Kole.larznd the Domeykolso is expected.

East Germany will continue to build for its own use cargo ships of the Albatross class and the Edgar Andre (Type X) class. The Vyborg (Type VI) and Povenets classes will continue to be built in the foreseeable future for the USSR. Twenty units of the Vyborg class and an unknown number of the Povenets class will be built-

Hungary will build small cargo ships of the Keyla and Hazam classes or similar ships, but most of it3 exports probably will beto the USSR, Norway, and Indonesia- Bulgaria will build Novyy Donbass-class cargo ships during theears, at the end of which time the Soviet order for six ships will have been completed. Rumania probably will continue to build for retention Galatl-class cargo .ships at the rate of aboutear. Communist China can be expected to complete several classes of cargo ships during the next few years.

2. Tankers

Two shipyards ln Leningrad have the Sofiya class of tankers under construction, and the USSR will continue to build them for the next several years. (Accordingoviet radio bulletin late inu, Soviet engineers were thenanker0 DWT-) Before that time the only tanker that had been built at more than one Soviet shipyard was that of the Kazbek class, the earliest postwar maritime shipbuilding program of any real consequence in the USSR.

* Actually, ships of the Leninskiy Komsomol class have been underat two shipyards for the past several, years-

.Bulgaria and Poland arc the only other countries of the Soviet Bloc to have built or expected to build tankers in the imaediatc future for the USSR. Bulgaria will continue construction of the Oleg Kcmhevpy-class tankers, and Poland mayanker0 DMT-

3- Fishing Ships

Apparently at least two more cannery ships of the Andrey Zakharov class will be built in the USSR,ossibility ofunits. Latearge factory ship0 tonscalled the Vostok class, probably was in the final stage of design. Construction of this ship may beginith completion scheduled

Refrigerator ships of the Sibir class probably willto be built, but the program for the similar, smaller Tavriya-class ship may have endedotal of aboutniteew refrigerator ship for use on Soviet inland waterways and inland seas was under construction late3 in Zelendolsk, from which city is derived the name of the class, the Zelendolsk. The first units of this class will be completedk.

Factory trawlers of the Mayakovskly class were3 at two Soviet shipyards. The Baltic Shipyard in Klaipeda completed its first hull, and tlie other yard, in Nikolayev, has been building these factory trawlers The Nikolayev Shipyard is almost at the end of its construction program for the Mayakovskly and is replacing iteweries of factory trawlers- This new factory trawler, to be known as the Sever class, will be an improved version of the Mayakovskiy class, incorporating such things as increased horsepower and range.

The construction program for the medium-size fishing trawler, which began slowly2 with completion of the first Mayak-class trawler, gathered momentum3 when, in addition to the original construction yard in Kiev, this class of trawler was under construction In shipyards in Volgograd and Khabarovsk. Other shipyards eventually may become involved in the Mayak program because several hundred of these trawlers reportedly will be built to replace many of the old medium-si ae fishing trawlers that are not refrigerated and that have Less horsepowermaller operating range-

Mirnyy-class whale catchers, of which aboutave been builtught to be under construction for aboutore year. It is estimated that lk ships will be completedU,otalor the class and ending the entire construction program.

Factory trawlers of the Leskovnd Kosmosypes will continue to be built in Poland the former for retention

and the latter for export to the USSRk. The USSR is toaboutf these factory trawlers from Poland- 3 the USSR had received from Polandactory-base ships of the type known as the Severodvinsk Now Poland is building an improved model, the Pionerskt the rate of about twoear and will continue until IS ships are delivered to the USSR. Poland also plans to build for its own use two ship3 of this class.

Bast Germanyill continue to build factory trawlers of the Bertholt Brecht class for retention and factory trawlers of the Tropik class for the USSR. East Germany has builtropik-class Ships, and the USSR has ordered aboutf this type.

Miscellaneous Ships

The construction program for the Uzbekls tan-class passenger ship at the aidanov Shipyard in Leningrad ended3otal of four units completed. (The shipyard may now shift the additional labor and facilities to the assembly of timber carriers that have been under construction since Lateast Germany had in various stages of construction three large new passenger shipsifferent type, the first of which, the Ivan Franko, should be completed late These ships will be the largest ever built in East Germany and will be sent to the USSR- 'i, East Germany is expected tofor the USSR the lasteries ofassenger Ships of the Mikhail Kalinin class.

Bulgaria is expected to continue to build for the USSRships of tlie class known as the Georgi Dimitrov at the rate of aboutear.

B. Non-Communist...

1- Cargo Ships

With the construction of two cargo ships of the Beloretsk class, Denmark willontract with the USSR for six ships. Poland may build one ship of the Kraszewaki class.

Finland will continue to build Krasnograd-class cargo ships and Irkutskles-class timber carriers for the next few years for export to the USSR-

apan may build three ships of the Omsk class, thus completing contractu that callotal, of eight ships to beto the USSR- Japan alsoontract to build an ore carrier for Bulgaria

signed the first major shipbuilding contract with

the USSR in Moscow in2 and agreed to buildargo ships to be deliveredV65.

2. Tankers

Finland will continue to build amall tankers of thefor the USSR during

Large tankers of the Leonardo da Vinci class will be under construction in Italy for the USSRt which time the contract for six tankers of this class will be completed.

The Japanese will continue production4 of large tankers of the Lozovaya class- ontract with the USSR that callsotal ofore are Scheduled for delivery. Japan and the USSRontract in3 by which Japan would construct two small low-pressure gas tankers to be delivered

Yugoslavia has contracted to buildankers for the USSR. These tankersart of the contract mentioned underbove),will be delivered.

3- Fishing Ships

Lateenmark launched the first hull of the second group of four refrigerator/factory ships (eight have beennown as the Skrypley class, to be built for the USSR. The current Danish-Soviet Trade Agreement provides for delivery ofhips of this type-

France, which never before has built any fishing ships for

the USSR, now is expected to complete three refrigerator/factory ships and two trawlers for that country The names of the classes are not known.

In the past. West Germany hasubstantial number of fishing ships for the USSR und nowontract that calls forand deliveryf eight fish factory ships, but the name of the class is not known.

4apan will build for the USSRfactory ships of the Leninskiy Luehi class and5 andbuild eight large fish factory ships. For Rumania, Japancomplete4 two fish factory trawlers of the

Several years ago,he Netherlandscries of refrigerator ships for the USSR. In3 the Netherlands againontract with the USSR for delivery5 of four refrigerator/factory ships Of an unnamed class.

In the early ands, Swedeneries ofships for the USSR and at present is again buildingships,f which are to be delivered.

Miscellaneous Ships

A large icebreaker of the Moskva class is now underIn Finland for the USSR and will be delivered This ship will be the third of its class built for the USSR.

Finland also should complete five non-self-propelledships oflassus. These ships willcontracts with the USSR callingotoL ofhips.

III. Western Credit Arrangements with the USSR

mall amount of information became available concerning credit arrangements with the USSR regarding shipbuilding contracts that had been signed during the year. Practically all of thisis from Japan, and the dataair guide as to the credit arrangements that the USSR may obtain from other nations of the Free World.

The USSR end Japan signed three shipbuilding contracts in May, June, and The May order Is for five tuna factory ships, the June order for eight fish factory ships, and the July order for two small low-pressure gas tankers. In all three cases, general credit arrangements are Identical: ercent down andercent payable in equal installmentsonths over theears.

West Germany reportedly has granted the USSR creditears* in connectionontract for eight fish factory ships. Thls-con-tractery similar to the Japanese order for eight fish factory ships, and West Germany has referred to it as the "other half" of the contract.

Basod on tho Japanese and West German experience, it would seem that in the future the USSR will try to arrange for ships built in the West on terras as favorable asercent down and the balanceeriodcars-

IV. Ships with Large Hatches

* This credit actually was reportedears, but Ituaranteeear by the shipyard.


Since1 the USSR has been adding to its cargo fleet new ships capable of handling large and heavy carRO. Thesw ships have been built both In foreign countries and in Soviet shipyards. roup these ships are remarkable for large hatches (more thaneet),

heavy lifton cranes andnd probably strengthened decks and hatch covers. This group of ships possibly represents the optimum in Soviet facilities for cargo handling and stowage. Some of them transported military cargo to Cuba during the crisis

Some characteristics of eight classes of cargo ships of large hatches arc presented in the following tabulation;









At least one other classor example, the cargo ships at present on order from Yugoslaviaay be added to the ubove list. Based on the known number of each class to be built and an estimate of the length of time for Soviet construction, this group of ships wLth large hatches probably eventually will consist of more. Forof selected-Ships-with large hatches, see

V. Position of the Soviet Bloc ln World Shipbuilding

* elow.

Baaed on data provided by Lloyd's Register of Shipping and onof GRT completed by the USSR, Poland, and Fast Germanyhese countries collectively occupied fifth place in the world with an aggregate GOT completedons, or aboutercent of world completions. Among theeading shipbuilding nations of the world, they rank individually as follows: the USSR in sixth placeRT, Poland in thirteenth placeRT, and But Germany ln fourteenth placeRT.

The tabulation below ranks theeading shipbuilding countries of she world according to the GRT completed:


Completions of O0 -CRT) Completions


East 3

Table 1

Summary of the number. Tonnage, Value, and Distribution of Merchant Ship* Constructed by and for the Communist Countries, by Type of Ship a/








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