Created: 11/18/1964

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Intelligence Report

Japanese Nuclear Energy Program


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CENTRAL INTELLIGENCE AGENCY OVice o' Sc'ent-.'ic intelligence




Summary ond Conclusions

The Japanese nuclear energy program is limited by law iopurposes. Major applications to date have been the use oiin research, medicine, and industry. Interest has been shown in nuclear marine propulsion and nuclear electric power. The first nuclear-propelled ship is being designed now. Current plans for power production0 megawatts (electrical)ne station is now being built with British assistance.




The Japanese nuclear energy program, which starteds basedational policy for the development of the peaceful uses of nuclear energy. The Government has established an extensive nuclear research and development program; industry has made at least an equal effort in applied fields.oth are cooperating in programs for nuclear power and propulsion.

The shortage of funds and trained personnel and the lack of basic nuclear raw materials are being overcome by larger governmental appropriations and contributions from industry, establishment of training programs, and the importation of the necessary materials from other countries. Cooperation with other countries hasbenefitted Japan in the constructionumber of research reactors and its first nuclear power reactor.

The major Governmental organizations are the Japan Atomic Energy Commission (JAECj for planning; the Atomic Energy Board (AEBJ for administration; and the Japan Atomic Energy Research Institutehe Atomic Fuel Corporationoth at Tokai-mura. and the National Institute of Radiological Sciences (NTRS) at China for research and development.

Research Reactors

Japan currently haseactors In operation or under5 critical assemblies,ccelerators, overnstallations for radiation research, andacilities for fusion research. The milor research site is JAERI, where most of the research reactorsrototype power reactor have been constructed. All of thereactors, except one. have been constructednd use enriched uranium fuel supplied by the United States. The one exception is the Japan Research0 megawatt (MW) natural-uranium-fueled, heavy-water-moderated reactor, which went critical onhis reactor was constructed by the Japanese; however. Canada provided uranium for fuel through the IAEA and the United Stales supplied the heavy wateroth with safeguards. Construction of additional research



reactors is contemplated- but all those presently planned willenriched fuel which Japan cannot provide.

Nuclear Materials

Extensive exploration for uranium has been conducted, but nodeposits of uranium have been discovered. Three areas have been found to contain low-grade deposits of uranium. The most promising area is Ningyo Pass, where mining has been started and construction of an ore concentration plant was begun. Both AFC and industrial organizations have conducted considerable research to find an economic method to process the low-gradeores. The AFCilot plant for refining uranium and facilities for the production of uranium metal and fuel element fabrication.

While Japan hasimited amount of uranium, most of the fuel has been purchased from other countries. Overons of uranium concentrate have been purchased from Canada through the auspices of the IAEA, This concentrate has been processed into metal and fabricated into fuel elements by the Japanese. The natural uranium fuel for the first nuclear power station now underwill be supplied by the United Kingdom.ons of uranium metal are expected to be imported over the ten-year period at an estimated cos',illion The United States has supplied aboutons of natural uranium and overons ofuranium with enrichment rangingll of the uranium suppliede United States, Unitedand Canada is safeguarded.

umber of years researchhis bem conducted on theof processes for the production of heavy water. Although pilotere constructed, the Japanese were unable to producericeo'bet of the United States. Therefore,r. 'he Japanese nuclearenergyhas beenrom the United States under safeguards. The Japanese hAve priced sufficient reactor-grade graphite for the research reactor program. bit the amount required for the first nuclear power station wls beyond domestic capability. The graphite for the British-supplied pewer reactor has been purchased from France Most of the other basic materials for the nuclear energy

program either are produced in Japan or can be purchased from other countries through normal commercial channels.


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JAERI and AFC to study the use of plutonium for advanced reactors. Constructionuelreprocessingplantfortheseparation ofat the AFC Tokai-mura site began in4 and will not be completed until at leasthe plant is expected to be able toons of irradiated fuel per day and to handle several types of fuel and cladding.

Japan is interested inethod of isotope separation for the production ofhich would be less expensive under Japaneseconditionsthanthegaseousdlffuslonprocess.9 the Institute of Physical and Chemical Research began basic re-


search on the moiecular distillation ofnd the ultra-centriiuge process of isotope separation Two ultracentrifuge machines were constructed for developmental research, but nothing is known of this work2 when it was transferred to AFC.

The major appllcationof nuclear energy in Japanto date is the use of radioistopes in research, medicine, and industry. The principal organization for radiation research Is the NIRS.umber of governmental, educational, and industrial organizations also are conducting research usingonsiderable quantity of radioisotopes are used 'or gauging, process control, andtesting by industry.ndustry had investedillion directly in isotope work. About one-third of this amount is used for industrial production while the other two-thirds is used for research.

Considerable interest has been shown in developingonceptual designs of more thanuclear propelled ships have been madehe Nuclear ShipCorporation was established to construct the first Japanese nuclear propelled shipan oceanographic research vessel. The long-range program called for design of the ship to begin3 and final testing to be completedhe present plan is0 shaft horsepower ship poweredight-water type reactorhermal power ofW.

Japanmited natural energy resourcesong-range plan for the development o: nuclearpower has been made which calls for the constructionW (electric) of nuclear electrical generating capacityW (electric)apan Atomic Power Company, Ltd.ointand industrial company, was establishednd afor the construction of Japan's first nuclear power station was concluded with Great Britain inonstruction of this station, called the Tokai Nuclear Power Station, was started9 at Tokai-mura and is expected to be in operationhe power station consists of one reactor of the British Calder Hall type and will have an installed electric power capacityWhe second JAPCO nuclear power station is to. light-water type reactor with an expected installed power capacity in the rangeWhe reactor probably will not be

In operation until atn addition, three power companies have programs for the construction oi nuclear power stations. These programs are still in the early stages ofccnceptual design, and the stations, iibuilt,probablywillnotbeinoperation0 or later.



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