SOVIET ACADEMIC AND TECHNICAL PROGRAMS FOR STUDENTS FROM THE LESS DEVELOPED COU

Created: 5/1/1965

OCR scan of the original document, errors are possible

3

REPORT

^SOVIET ACADEMIC AND TECHNICAL SRaCKAWS/FOR STUDENTS-FROM "THECOUNTRIES OF THE FREI WORLD

DIRECTORATE OF INTELLIGENCE Office of Research and Reports

CUIfiWI'S

SHE

Introduction

II. Number of Students and Country of

in. Academic

Friendship University

Soviet Institutions

IV.

V. Stipends and Allowances

VI.

VII. Technical

of Personnel and Country of

VTIT. Impact of the

Appendixes

Appendix A. Regulations for Foreign Citizens Studying in Higher and Specialized Secondary Educational Institutions and Scientific

Institutions In the USSR

Appendix B. Rules of Admission for Peoples* Friendship

University Imeni Patrice

Appendix C. Photographs of Peoples' Friendship University

Appendix D. Source

-T

Page

f Academic Students Departing for tbe USSR,

by Calendar Year,

of Technical Traineea fron Less Developed

Countries Present in the USSR at Bid of Calendar

Year,

Chart

Academic Students from Less Developed Countries Beingthe USSR, as ofI1 following page

SOVIET ACADEMIC AND TECHNICAL TRAINING PROGRAMS FOR STUDENTS

PROM THE LESS DEVELOPED COUNTRIES OF THE FREE WORLD*

Summa

More0 students from less developed countries haveacademic training in the USSR since the Inception of the program The number of such students enrolled in Soviet institutions of higher education has increased each year, and4tudents were studying in the USSR. In addition,6 the USSR has offered technical training to moreersonnel from less developed countries, primarilyiew toward providing them with the requisite technical and managerial skills so that they would help implement and staff Soviet aided projects in their home countries. echnical trainees were undergoing training in the USSR.

Although academic students from less developed countries studyariety of regular Soviet universities (for example, the state universities of Moscow, Leningrad, Kiev, and the Central Asianofhe largest such institution and one designed primarily for students froa less developed countries is Peoples' Friendship University, which opened its doors in the fallurrently, moreuch students are studying at this university, andesult of an ambitious program to expand its facilities and to make ituniversity city for students of theoviethave estimated that by the fall5 the school will be able to accommodatetudents.

The recruitment of students from less developed countries for study in the USSR is done through Soviet embassies and consulates throughout the Free World; through local Communist parties. Communist frontand leftist-oriented trade unions; through international organizations such as the International Union of Students; and, for technical trainees particularly, through bilateral economic andassistance and cultural exchange agreements between the USSR and the country concerned- Soviet recruitment practice has proved highly successful in Its willingness to accept students who lack adequate preparatory training and hence are generally passed over by the West, which places heavy emphasis on formal qualifications. Moreover, the lure of all-expense scholarships in the USSR, which include costs of transportation, tuition, housing, clothing, medical care, and, mosttipend which is liberal compared with that received by even the most capable Soviet students, has been especially attractive. The cost to the USSR of its academic training program is estimated at moreillion over the.

* The estimates and conclusions in this report represent the best Judgment of this Office as of

Student disaffection hasontinuing problem for Soviet authorities. In general tho environmental causes afthat have been most mentioned by students from less developed countries are the climatic rigors of thu USSR, the restrictions on personal movement and social intercourse with the local population, and the poor quality of the instruction. Vexing though such problems must be to Soviet authorities, there is no indication that such difficulties and the attendant bad publicity have led to any Immediate revision of the Soviet academic training program for students from leas developed countries. The decline in the rate of new enroUees, evidentayoviet decision to scale down its acceptance of student* for study in the USSR. What does seem certain, however, ia that although the Soviet claim of on average ofpplicants for every available space in Peoples' Friendship University may bea flow of students from the less developed countrleo atlevel the authorities may wish is likely to be forthcoming.

I. Introduction

Soviet interest In training selected nationals from less developed countriesong history dating back to the establishment of the University of the Toilers of the East in Moscow Its rationale, however, was as differont from that of contemporary Communist training programs as waa Stalin's concept of promoting political revolution in colonial areas different from his successors' more "gradualist" approach to the national liberation movement. Stalin's characterization of the mission of the University of the Tollers of the East, "to forge real revolutionaries who, armed with the theory of Leninism and endowed with the practical experience of Leninism, are capable of accomplishing the immediate tasks of the liberation movements in tha colonies andliving ins in sharp contrast to the more subtle approach that Khrushchev exhibited at the inauguration ceremonies of the Peoples' Friendship University in

Naturally, we shall not force our ideas, our ideology on any student. World outlook Ib anvoluntary affair. If you wish to know my politicalill not conceal the factommunist and firmly believe that the most advanced ideology is the Marxist-Leninist If any of you comes to the conclusion that this ideology is acceptable to him, we shall bear him no grudge. However, neither shall wo be disconcerted if you do not become Communists.

For more than one hundred years now, people who disagree with the Marxist teaching have been rallying their efforts to discover an antidote for thato halt that, to them, menacing phenomenon, the spread of Marxist ideas. But according to ourno such antidote has yet been discovered.

So if anyone of you wishes to find the reasons, to find out why people catch Communism, you are welcome to do so. m sure the Rector and professors of the University will help you with everything possibleliterature, textbookso that you might achieveoal. 2/

Thus the current objective, both us stated and as demonstrated ln practice, differs markedly from that of earlier Soviet training From the October Revolution until thes the Soviet aim was almost exclusively to train the "already committed" as profes sional revolutionaries, for example, Party workers and agitators,

* For serially numbered source references, see Appondix D.

espionage agents, guerrilla leaders, and the like. Although serious effort in this subversive field undoubtedly continues, the Cccmaunlst leaders now see added opportunity to extend their influence and to effect developments to their liking through the less direct means of influencing orientation, shaping basic concepts and operationaland establishing lasting rapport and contacts with tbeelite of developing countries. Wiis new emphasis accords with the current Soviet line that, if properly "enlightened" and enticed, the elite of the emerging countries can be led by sheer self-interest increasingly to oppose "imperialism" and of their own volition to travel step by step the road to "true socialism."

II- Number of Students and Country of Origin

Although the number of new students from less developed countries who enroll each year for study in Soviet universities has declined2 (seehe number of those studying in the USSR

Table 1

Number of Academic Students Departing for the USSR, by Calendar&

Persons

of Orlfiin

fi/

Bast

America

The figuresepresent the total number of academic students who were studying in the USSR.

has continued to increase, from less9 to more* as shown in the following tabulation:

Middle

Latin

0 students from less developed countries were enrolled in academic institutions in [footnote continued on p. 5]

By comparison, abouttudents from less developed countriesin US universities in

In the earlier years of the program, countries of the Middle East, principally the United Arab Republic and Iraq, sent the largest number of students for study in the USSR, butre than one-half or tne new enrollees have come from African countries. ,ot of,tnc ^dents from less developed countries studying in the USSR came from Africa, primarily from the Somali Republic, Ghana, and Kenya;ercent were from the Middle East, largely fromere from Asian countries, primarily Indonesia, Afghanistan, and India;ercent from Latin America (see the chart*).

HI. Academic Institutions

Friendship University

far the most important Soviet educational trainingaccommodating students from less developed countries isUniversity imeni Patrice Uimumba, wnlchnd which now accounts for more than one-third offrcm less developed countries studying in the USSR. of an institution designed primarily for studentsAsia, the Middle East, and Latinignified theand permanency that the USSR attached to this facet ofeffort in less developed countries.

. mendshiP University isstate"social-institution. Such organizations are ostensibly distinguished from state organizations by the fact that membership in them io voluntary and that the members participateelatively high degree in the administration of the organizations' affairs. ocial organization, theoretically, is not legally subordinate to any political organ of the government.

of the University, that is, the Soviet Solidarity

Committee for the Countries of Asia and Africa, the Union of Soviet Societies for Friendship and Cultural Relations with Foreign Countries and the All-Union Central Council of the Trade Unions, are nota part of the Soviet governmental apparatus. It is noteworthy however,oviet deputy minister of higher education vas appointed

all Communist countries; Eastern Europe accounted fornd

Communist China for-

* Following p. 6. Not all of the students enrolled in Peoples' Friendship University are irom less developed countries. Oftudents

the University in V* railere from

tne ubbri.

to be the University's first rector and that representatives of the Ministry of Higher and Secondary Specialized Education were appointed to the University Council, which drew up the rules of admission to the University and which, along with representatives of the founding organizations, reviews all applications for admission (see

1. Plant

Funds for the physical plant, including those for equipment of laboratories and study rooms, general services, land and buildings, were supplied by the Soviet government. Initially the governmentthree buildingstwo former military schoolsilitary barracks that was usedormitoryand made much propaganda of the fact that these buildings were available because of the reduction in the Soviet armed forces. Funds for its operations are supplied by the Soviet government but also may be supplied Indirectly through the founding organizations. An additional possible source of financing, which has not been confirmed, may be an International Patrice Lumumba Scholarship Fund, reportedly established in1 by officials of the World Trade Union Federation, the International Union of Students, and the International Organization of Journalists. The fund, to be maintained by contributions of the unions affiliated with these three organizations, then would be made available to the admissions committee of the University.

As of4 the University consisted of oneand six specialized academic faculties (or divisions) withcademic chairs* and bad moreaboratories andtudy rooms.o, in accordancelanned expansion of the physical plant, the facilities are toeparate building for each of itsuseum, workshops,omputeredical clinic, experimental farminiature machine building plant, and dormitories fortudents. Separate living quarters are to be available for married students. The design of the new university complex also providestadium that willotel for cut-of-townindergarten,ursery. 3/

2- Staff and Student Body

The teaching staff of the University consists of three types of instructors: (l) full-time staff members who possessexperience in teaching foreignull-time staff members with experience in teaching their subject specialty;art-time instructors from the regular higher institutions in Moscow. Amongnstructors reported on the faculty forcademic year,old doctoratesre candidates of

For the purpose of actual Instruction, the divisions of theare subdivided into departments or chairs that deal with one or several subjects of instruction-

science. With an estimated enrollment of moretudentsthishe Universityupil-teacher ratio of lesso/

tudents, enrolled in the faculties of Peoples* Friendship University forcademic year, were distributed as shown in the following:

Percentage of

Number of Student* Total Enrollment

Preparatory

and Law

and Physics

and Philology

Accordingtatement by the rector ofpecialists, includingrom the Arab countries,rom Southeast Asia, aodrom Latin America, will constitute the first graduating class at the conclusion ofcademic year. The graduating class will includengineers,conomists,awyers,griculturists,hilologists,hysicists,istorians,athematicians. 6/

B. Other Soviet Institutions

The foreign students in the USSR participate ln two majorsystems: the Peoples' Friendship University system and the Moscow-Kiev preparatory system. The former is made up of bothand university facilities; the latter consists of special language and preunlvcrsity programs that lead to study in regular universities.

The preparation of foreign students for study In regular Soviet higher educational Institutions has been on important element in the international education program of the USSR and was reflected inadministrative directives as early- In order to meet the special problems of these foreign studentsthoseack ofin the Russian language and inadequate academic background for

University officials estimate that by tbe fall5 the school will be able to acccoBodatetudents. tudents enrolled in the Preparatoryore in the firstn the second, andn the third year.

college level workspecial emphasis was directed to increasing the number of language teachers; preparing textbooks, study aids, and special texts on the Russian language; using visual aids; and the like. In addition, preparatory faculties within the regular universities were created. Inoscow State University organised aFaculty for Foreign Students with the goal of preparing the students and post-graduates for further study in Soviet higher schools, with emphasis on language instruction but also including elementary courses in science and the humanities. After attending the Preparatory Facultyeriodear, the student then continues his education in the regular faculties of the University. Kiev State Universityreparatory Faculty for Foreign Students early. imilar faculty has been established at Leningrad University and another at Tashkent University. The Georgian Polytechnical Institute in Tbilisi admitted foreign students in- jj

IV. Curriculum

The undertaking of an educational venture of such magnitude was novel not only for the USSR but also in the history of education in generalut was one that inevitably was fraught with great In an article written after the completion of the first academic year, the rector of Peoples' Friendship University defensively asserted:

The higher school is the natural continuation of the secondary school. Continuity between them is absolutely necessary if the higher school is to function successfully. Naturally those foreign students who have received their secondaryin their own countries experience greatin this respect. The Peoples' Friendship University is inosition. Students have ccoe here fromountries. The majority of them had not the haziest notion of the Russian language. Theyost diverse education. Therefore, when organizing the teaching process we strive to take into account all of the peculiarities of our student body and to ensure that they are well trainedhort period. 8/

Thus Soviet procedures for preparatory training of foreign students contrast sharply with Western practices. Western selection methods largely limit higher educational opportunities to those academically qualified for advanced trainingthat is, those who possess aschool educationanguage facility.

is-T

In addition to these problems of linguistic and academic deficiencies, the Soviet effort was further hampered by the existence of fewor other study aids for foreign students. To help solve tbe special problemschool devoted primarily to foreign studentsiversity of cultural and linguistic beckgrounds, considerable use is made of audio-visual aids- Lecture rooms are equipped for simultaneous translation and with movie and slide projectors. Matriculants aretoinimumcademic year,ours, learning to understand, speak, and read the Russian language. Foureek, are spent in classes accommodating five or six students. In addition, atay le to be expended in the language laboratory listening to tapes and recording spoken Rua-

Inaumuch as the syllabuses for courses and the curriculums of Peoples' Friendship University were formulated with the assistance of many of the established Soviet universities and Institutes, all of which are under the pervasive control of the Ministry of Higher and Secondary Specialised Education, the course content is aligned with that prevailing throughout the Soviet educational system. In fact the rector so stated in an article reviewing the first anniversary of the Universityin terms of the time allotted to general scientific, general professional and special subjects, the curriculume of the lU specialties of the university do not differ free those of other Soviet higher education

In the Preparatory Faculty, classes for basic subject* related to the student's special field of study accommodate betweenndtudents and are larger than those held in language training. Those students preparing for study in the fields of engineering, physics, mathematics, and the natural sciences undertake coursee in mathematics, physics, and mechanical drawing; medical and agricultural ntudente study chemistry and biology. Enrollees in all these faculties also are required to take the course "Historical Geographic Survey" in which, accordingoviet education journal, they receiveasic, general view of world history and geography, and of the tenor of life in the Soviet society." It would seem highly probable that thie required course includes Indoctrination in Communist ideology, althoughthe "social science" courses, required of all Soviet students in regular universitiesDialectical and Historical Materialism, Political Economy, and History of the Communist Party of the Soviet Unionre omitted from the program of Peoples' Friendship University. Inasmuch as one of the stated mainr Soviet higher education is tho training of specialists "on the basis of Marxist-Lenin 1stunounlst doctrine presumably is interwoven wherever poealble.

Soviet higher education has no equivalentiberal arts program common in US colleges and universities, and students pursue narrowly specialised curriculums. In all, Soviet higher education covers morepecialties, of which more thanercent ore industrial

(including construction, transport, andgricultural, and economic fields, ll/ Associated with each specialtypecific curriculum, each course of which is guidedyllabus and selected instructional content, textbooks, laboratory work, and study assign-meat. Illustrative of the narrowness of the training Is the fact that programs for mechanical engineering are separate for agricultural machinery, machine tools, casting equipment, automobiles, tractors, and aircraft engines. There are programs for metallurgical engineering specialists in copper and alloys, ln lightweight metals, and in ferrous metallurgy; for mining engineering specialists in the drilling ofand gas wells or in the exploration of coal deposits; and for civil engineering specialists in bridge design, in building large-scale hydro-technical structures, or in erecting industrial This fragmentation is applicable to every field of professional education.

Thus the student from the Middle East, Africa, Asia, or Latin America, be he an enrollee in Peoples' Friendship University or in one of the regular Soviet academic institutions, will receive an exclusively professional education rathereneral higher education or liberal arts program of instruction. Every graduate of Peoples' Friendship University, provided he hss spent all his university years there, williploma stating the specialty in which he was trained and the occupational title he has earned. If heoviet citiaen, theoretically hie certificate also would indicate the occupation in which he should be employed.

V- Stipends and Allowances

Among the costs generally covered by Soviet academic scholarships are transportation to and from the students' homeland, tuition, medical care, clothing, and housing. Perhaps the greatest inducement of all, however, is the living allowance; the stipend given isubles* per month for those enrolled in the preparatory program andubles per month In addition to the stipend, students from less developed countries are givenays' vacation during the winteraonth vacation in the summer, with the option to work for extra pay in addition to their stipend or to gotate-owned recreation

Equivalent to about. ominal rate of exchange based on the gold content of the respective currencies0 ruble tohis rate, however, does not necessarily reflect the dollar purchasing power of the ruble-

** By comparison, stipends for Soviet students, excluding only those with parents earning moreonth and those with poor grades, range fromonth for first-year students to UO rubles for those in the fifth year. Students who maintain an "excellent" scholastic averagepercent bonus.

ecent statement by the rector of Peoples' Friendship University asserted that, during the summerU, [footnote continued on

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The rector of Peoples' Friendship University has disclosed that the total cost per studentear training program in the USSR is/ ajor part of the total outlayis accounted for by the stipends that total0 and that are paid to the student overear period. lothinggranted to the student only one time, is valued Round trip transportation by air to Moscow is estimated at Theould represent the"TWrect resource cost6 ofthat is, expenditures on the physical plant, bousing, medical care, and the like. On this basis, the cost of academic training for nationals of less developed countries* is estimated to have beenillion. The cost for the entire program since its inception6 hasillion.

VT. Recruitment

The recruitment of students for training in the USSR takes several forms: directly through Soviet embassies and consulates throughout the Free World and indirectly through local Communist parties and Communist-front organizations, leftist-oriented trade unions, and international organizations and through bilateral aid and cultural exchange agreements negotiated between -Uie two countries concerned. In his speechthe establishment of Peoples' Friendship University, Premierproposed "that the new university train both those who are sent by government organs and those who express their wish tohis statement was tantamountolicy of admission for foreign students that involved the recruitment and selection of studentsprior screening, consultation, or clearance with the student's own government.

Some governments have been able to exercise control over theof scholarships to their nationals; others,esult of Soviet clandestine efforts or of their own disorganization, have not even been aware of the number of their students studying in the USSR. Where Uie cultural agreement stipulates the number of scholarships provided and the length of training, some governments have been able to control the selection of students. Tho United Arab Republic, for example, hasolicy of sending only those students who, authoritieswill be less susceptible to Communist indoctrination. Other countries, with varying degrees of awareness of the inherent dangers of this program, try to control selections or to maintain surveillance, or both, but with widely varying degrees of success.

In Africa, an aggressive recruitment of academic students ison through nonofficial and clandestine sources. ountry

tudents at the University went to labor and rest camps inade trips through the USSR; andpent some timeest home near Maikop on the Black Sea. For the firstetachment oftudents worked in the virgin lands.

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where there are no Soviet representatives or official exchange pro-grans, students go to neighboring countries and are enlisted there by recruiters who provide then with passports and travel funds. Ghana hasocal point for recruiting students from Togo, Nigeria, and Cameroon; Cairo servesenter ln northern Africa; aad Dar-es-Salaam is the center of such activity for eastern and southern Africa.endezvous in Cairo, the students ore then transported via Aeroflot planes to Moscow.

Students who have fled from the USSR and other Communist countries have told of still another means of recruitment that defies control by the home country. Many students enrolled in Western Europeanbut with inadequate funds to complete their studies often succumb to the offers of scholarships for study ln the Coeraunist countries with "all expenees paid."

Communist-dominated international front organizations, auch as the World Federation of Democratic Youth, the International Union of Students, the World Federation of Trade Unions, and tbe Women'sDemocratic Federation, also serve an channels for. International and national meetings of these and similarare used to establish and cultivate contacts in the lesscountries. Many of the African student organizations are on outgrowth of such actlvltiCD.

The International Union of Students reportedlyection known as the "International Fund for Assistance to Students of Seal-Colonial and Dependent Countries.1* Scholarships are granted to countriesto tbe strength and "progress" of their student organizations.

Local left-wing groupe and political parties in some cases have served as channels for Soviet scholarships and hope In this way toollowing among the students when they return home. among such groups are the Oginga Odinea faction of tho Kenya African National Union Party and the Ghanaian Bureau of African Affairs, which draw in students from outside Ghana to build support for Nkrumah's pan-African ambitions. Soviet cooperation with these groups ls viewed as another means of expanding Communist influence and ties ln these areas.

Attitudes of less developed countries on Soviet educationalare somewhat ambivalent. Some government officials havo been reluctant to recognize the dangers Inherent in such Soviet activities. They arc overly confident that those whom they select as recipients for official scholarships will remain impervious to Communist They welcome this type of scholarship because the aid Is long term and free of complicated bureaucratic procedures which, in their minds, characterize most Western offers of scholarships. In other governments, however, there is atrowing concern about the clandestine migration of students to Communist countries, and some

steps are being taken to establish tighter procedures for passport For example, as the first Sudanese graduates of Sovietreturned to their homeland in the latter partheof Sudan made it clear to these graduates that they could not expect to find positions in the civil service. Also, there were some indications that those holding degrees in medicine from Sovieton other than official scholarships, might find it difficult to obtain licenses to engage in private If Sudan's position on these few casesatter of general policy and becomesknown to young Sudanese, the temptationudanese youth to go clandestinely to the USSR for his university education may bereduced. On the other hand, such discrimination tends to aggravate and accentuate grievances among returnees and could result in casting them directlyubversive roletep that otherwise might have been avoided.

To some extent, the Soviet educational authorities have now been forced to modify their recruiting methods. The tendency in recruiting recently has been an increasing reliance on exchanges negotiated with the national authorities concerned. This shift haa been due, in part, not only to the low standard of students recruited directly but also to the insistence of the governmentsfor example, of India, Nepal, Burma, Nigeria, Indonesia, end Iraqthat they should have the right to approve pplications for study in the USSR.

VH. Technical Training

Concomitant with and complementary to academic training, the USSR has accepted foreign nationals for training as skilled laborers and professional, organizational, and managerial personnel. Authorities in the USSR view this type of assistance to the less developed countries primarilyoans of providing requisite technical and managerial skills to facilitate implementation of Soviet-aided projects. arge part of the technical training is provided for under the Soviet economic aid agreements, personnel also are being trained under the provisions of agreements for scientific and technical cooperation and agreements between agricultural cooperative associations. Whereas the cost of training technicians for employment on projects undertaken under aid agreements generally is drawn from the lines of credit, otheris financed through scholarships granted under the agreements for scientific and technical assistance.

A. Number of Personnel and Country of Origin

In view of the general paucity of skilled personnel in less developed countriesnot only of persons capable of operatingand equipment but also of planners, administrators,and the likethose countries which have been recipients of Soviet economic aid have sent increasing numbers of individuals to the USSR for technical training. During the first It years of the Soviet

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economic assistanceationals from theand Asia vere trained in the USSR. U the total numberfrom less developed countries who had received rainees were receiving technicalthe USSR* (see lable

Table 2

Number of Technical Trainees from Lees Developed Countries Present in the USSR at End of Calendar1

of Origin Total

Middle East

Africa

Asia

Latin America

a/

The figures represent the total number of technical trainees who undertook training In the USSR- Data are not available for the number present for any one year.

The United Arab Republic and India have consistently sent the largest contingents of studentsa practice that reflects the large number of industrial projects being established in these countries under Soviet aid agreements and their comprehensive development The Aswan High Dam project ln the United Arab Republic and the Bhilai steel plant in India are, of course, the major industrial undertakings. Of the African nations, Algeria, Ghana, and the Somali Republic are the main beneficiaries, once more reflecting the presenc of sizable Soviet programs for assistance in economic development. The absence of trainees from the Latin American countries underscores the interrelationship between this type of training and the Soviet economic aid program.

B. Curriculum

Most of the technical training programs in which nationals from the Middle East, Asia, and Africa are believed to be engaged are for periods of lessear. Some trainees, however, specifically those entered In the formal specialized secondary institutions, may be so engaged for periods rangingears- Obviously the length of time is relative to the degree of training involved. In general, the governments of less developed countri.es appear to be more favorably inclined to offers of short-term training.

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Programs offered by the USSR encompaaB many types of technical training in the fields of industry, agriculture, public communications civil aviation, medicine, financial operations, and government Industrial operations include techniques for drilling oil walls afid laying oil pipelinen, operating an oil refinery, operating aI'autory production of textiles und hardware, manufacturingand paper, production processcH for iron and steel mills, flour milling and baking, shipbuilding, development of harbors and dockyards, techniques of the fishing industry, automotive mechanics, road building and maintenance,ugar mill,anning industry, industrial chemistry, installing andower station, and mining techniques.

Agricultural training may Include maintenance and operation of farm machinery, use of insecticides, grain sterilisation, irrigation processes, sericulture, raising poultry, animal husbandry, and other farming techniques. Those engaged in programs for public communications may study printing press operations, Journalism, radio and television broadcasting, photography, and cinematography. Training in the field of medicine includes public health and sanitation, practical training ln clinics and hospitals, and operation and maintenance of medical equipment.

C. Costs

The preponderant share of the cost of training technicians from less developed countries generally is met by drawing on the lines of credit extended by the USSR under its economic old agreements with the individual countries. Training that io not related to projects falling under aid agreements, however, is financed through scholarships granted under accords for scientific and technical assistance. Doth forms of arrangements usually include the cost of training or tuition estimatedonth for room and board, medical expenses, and an allowance for personal expenditures ofonth. The cost of round trip transportation, estimated0 rubles, andubles also may be Included.

Vlll. Impact of the Program

As yet it is premature to attempt to estimate the impact of Soviet academic training programs on students from less developed countries. The establishment of this long-term, comprehensive program is relatively recent, and comparatively few students have completed their terms of ntudy and returned home. What is certain, however, is that student disaffectionontinuing problem for Soviet authorities. Premier Khrushchev, in response to student demonstrations following the deathhanaian student inluntly offered exit visas to those students who did not like the treatment they werein the USSR. Following this warning, the USSB Ministry of Higher and Secondary Specialised Educationecree stipulating

regulations which, among other things, will govern the behavior and control of foreign students In the USSR. Students who do not conform to the regulation may be charged with "abuse of hospitality" and be subject to immediate deportation. Furthermore, such offenders may he prosecuted under Soviet criminal laws (see

In general, the environmental causes of dissatisfaction have been those most frequently mentioned by students leaving the Communist countries. Racial discrimination hasajor source ofand complaints from African students have been profuse. The creationpecial university for the students from abroad was interpreted bysians as well asegregationist action. Isolation from the local pcpulation and student bodies of the host country, the ubiquitous surveillance and irksome systems of con-

I? aoveDcnts associations, the censorship of mail, and restrictions onll these controls have added to the die-mnsionment.

A complaint often heard from students is one of financial hardship in spite of the rather generous terms of Soviet scholarships. The allowanceubles for clothing, given onceear study

suffJfient he purchase of heavy, winters students usually are advised not to bring much luggage with them, additional purchases of more ordinary clothing must be financed from their monthly stipend ofrubles. ure woolen suit,for social activities" and not included in the -winter"may costndrubles,imple pair of dress shoes betweenndubles. Expenditures on food may run as high as bOonth. In addition, in universities other than Peoples' Friendship University, charges reportedly ore made to the students for

wMd fltatl<*eiy- Another expenditure Is necessitated by the student's dependence on textbooks in other than the Russian10/ tudent is expected to be able to understand the Russian language, read books, and cope with lectures after studying Russianear, but in practice this has proved difficult. umber of governments provide their students with supplementary funds in order to ease this financial strain; the majority, however, probably do not, as they accept literally the Soviet offers of "all eposes paid."

Complaints about curriculum and indoctrination also are common but ore more frequent from students who have been exposed previously to Western educational systems and who have mastered the RussianSTt1* baHf0rm "PP^AJ- *rcm time to timeTtoey were nothe authorities

C8tUdy' OmC Cases' certaInstudy have been denied because of internal security considerations.

* According to one student's accounting,ubles for winter clothing were spent as follows: winter coat, IPO rubles;ocks and

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K-T

Vexing though such problems must be to Soviet authorities, there is no indication that such difficulties and the attendant badhave led then to slow their recruitaent and placement activities In spite of evidencesrowing sensitivity on the part of lesscountries to the treatment accorded their nationals Incountries, Soviet sources report an average ofpplicants for every available space lnriendship University, and although the claim may be exaggerated, the supply of candidateshas exceeded the availability of opportunities. Instances of friction betwoon scholarship students from less developed countries and the local population probably will continue in an educational environment in which academic facilities and bousing accommodations are heavily taxed and where many capable Soviet teenagers and others are directed Into the labor force by government educational policies. Such accumulated strains may have been reflected in the declining numbers of new enrollees evident As long as the USSR remains willing to accept and finance them,low of students at whatever level the authorities may wish is likely to be forthcoming.

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OS FOREIGN JlTlZaW

STUDTTNG D> HIGHER AND SPECIALIZED SEO

DioTITuTIOBS

SClEBrriKIC'i

USSR*

(Order of the Ministry of Higher and Specialised Secondary Education of the USSR, Ho.k)

The Minister of Higher and Specialized Secondary Education has approved tho accompanying regulations concerning foreign citizens studying ln higher and specialized Becondary educational institutions and scientific OBtabLiohraontJi in the USSR. The rectors of higher educational institutions [VUZ's] and the directors Of specialized secondary educational institutions and scientific institutions in the USSH arc to acquaint every foreign student with tho present regulations.

General Regulations

Foreign citizens are admitted to higher and specializededucational institutions and scientific institutions of the USSR for education, as well as for scientific internship, on the basis of inter governmental agreements and plans for cultural and scientific cooperation between the USSH aod the countries concerned, and also at the request of government agencies. Citizens of foreign countries whouitable education may, regardless of their nationality, race, sex or religion, study in educational institutions of the Soviet Union.

Soviet public organisationsthe All-Union Central Council of Trade Unions, the Committee of Youth Organizations of the USSR, the Union of Soviet Societies of Friendship and Cultural Relations with Foreign Countries, the Soviet Committee of Solidarity with the Countries of Asia und Africa, the Central Union of Consumers' Cooperatives and othersnnually allocate stipends for the use of foreign students accepted for study on the recommendation of the appropriate foreign public organizations. In addition, the Soviet Union allocates anumber of stipends to international organizationsUNESCO, the International Students' Union, the International Atomic Energy Agency and others.

Enrollment of foreign citizens for education at the Patrice Lumumba University of the Friendship of Peoples is carried out on the basis of statutes and enrollment regulations confirmed by the university' council.

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0tufents residing in the territory of the USSR arei#w'r and specialized secondary educational institutions of the USSR on an equal basis with Soviet citizens according to the enrollment regulations confirmed by the USSR Ministry of Higher and Specialized Secondary Education.

f' Higher and specialized secondary educational institutions of the USSH accent foreign citizens up to the ageraduate students up to the age of kO, and applicants for scientific internship without age limitation.

^ rl6htenroU ln hlftber educational institutions of the USSR is granted to individualsocument (certificate! of completion of secondary education or, in the case of those enrolling for graduate study in higher educational institutions and scientific researchocument [diploma] of graduationigher educational institution. Specialistsigher or specialized secondary education are accepted for internship for the purpose of improving their scientific or specialized training.

7. Foreign citizens applying for education in the USSR are to submit th? following documents through the appropriate organizations In their country to Soviet representatives abroad:

certificate of education;

health certificate;

application form (two copies);

photographs (six).

Preparatory Faculties

JFo,rcasn citizensnowledge of the Russian language are enrollederiod of up to one year in preparatory faculties attached to educational institutions in various cities of the USSR.forel*ni" Preparatory faculties is handled by the USSR Ministry of Higher and Specialized Secondary Education. students in preparatory faculties receive instruction inphysics, chemistry, biology, drafting, history, geography and other subjects, in addition to the Russian language, depending on the specialty they intend to acquireSSR educational institution. Instruction in these disciplines is offered with the aim of giving theastery of special terminology in the Russian language and bringing their knowledge up to the level required for enrollment in Soviet educational institutions.

9- Sxaminations in the subjects studied are conducted in the preparatory faculties at the end of the school year. Those entering graduate study also take examinations in the specialty they intend to

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io the graduate divisionigher educational institution or scientific research institution. Students successfully passing the examinationsertificate of completion of tbe preparatory faculty and ore assigned for instruction to higher or special!red secondary educational institutions of the USSR depending on the level of their preparation and their selected specialty.

Instruction lo USSB Educational Institutions

he school year at USSR higher and specialized secondaryinstitutions beginseptember. Instruction of foreign

study plans and programs of USSR educational institutions. Higher, specialized secondary and other educational institutions of the USSR provide foreign students with all the conditions for acquiring the necessary knowledge and high skill in their selected opoclulty.

Ill Education in the USSR is free. All foreign students enjoy free medical services and are furnished dormitory quarters (without families) on an equal basis with Soviet students;ule they are assigned to rooms accommodating three or four persons.

12. Foreign students have an equal right with Soviet students to free use of laboratories, study rooms, reading halls, libraries and other auxiliary study facilities, as well as of the athletic facilities and equipment of the educational institution; and to participate in the research work of departments and of student scientific circles organized by departments and students' scientific societies of higher educational institutions.

13* The studentigher or specialized secondary educational institution lotudent cardrade-record bookorm established by the USSR Ministry of Higher and Specialized Secondary Education.

lU, Various Incentive measures are eatabliahcd for students for good academic achievements end for active participation in the life of the educational institution.

15. tudent who completes all the requirements of the study plan and program Is admitted to the defenseiploma project [diploma work) or to the state examinations. tudent who passes the state examinations or defends hie diploma project {diploma work] successfully is accredited by the State (Accreditation) Commission In the specialty he has acquired and ls presentediploma ln the established form ln two languages [Russianoreignnd. If the graduate requests lt,upplement listing all the disciplines studied and the examination grades obtained in each of then. In addition to the diploma, the graduateigher educational Institutionedallion. The most outstanding students are awarded, by

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decision of the council of the higher educational institution and in accordance with establishediploma with honors.

The length of education is established at two to four years for students in specialized secondary institutions and at four to six years for those in higher educational institutions, depending on the course of. _

The transfertudent from one educational institution to anotherhange in his specialty may be granted only in exceptional cases at the request of the government, embassy or public organization that sent the foreign citizen to study in the USSR, and then onlythe summer vacation [July and August J.

A graduation diplomaSSB specialized secondaryis equivalentorresponding document attestingunior college in the USA. raduation diplccaSSR higher educational institution is equivalentaster's degree in tho USA and to the corresponding academic degrees in other countries.

Foreign citizens enrolled for graduate study in higherinstitutions or scientific research institutions in the USSR on the basis of individual plans of work approved by the council of the higher educational institution (departmentj or of the scientific research institution are required to pass candidate's examinations ln the Russian language and the specialized discipline corresponding to

the subject of the dissertation and to write and defend their candidate's dissertation within the established periods. The term of graduate study, not including the time spent in the preparatory faculty, is established as not exceeding three years.

graduate dissertation must contain new scientificconclusions and recommendations and must demonstratecapability for independent researchhoroughin the area of discipline as well as in the [specific]research. Each graduate student is assigned an academic advisereducational institution or scientific research institution toin carrying out the research on the subject selected. Themust make periodic reports on the fulfillment of hisin the department, scientific section or laboratory and mustannually by the scientific supervisors. The certification

of the graduate student, confirmed by the rector of the educational institution or director of the scientific research institution isthrough the USSR Ministry of Higher and Specialized Secondary Education to the embassy of the country of the graduate student's origin or directly to the graduate student. raduate student who has not demonstrated ability in conducting scientific research or who fails to fulfill his individual plan of work within the established

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Period without valid reasons is dismissed from graduate study. oreign citizen who completes his graduate studies and defends his candidate's dissertation successfully is awarded the academic degree of candidate of sciences, corresponding to the academic degree of doctor of specialized sciences [technical, chemical,n the USA and the equivalent academic degrees in other countries, and is presented with the diplomaandidate of sciences. raduate student who fails to defend his candidates dissertation within the established period isertificate of graduate instruction but is not awarded an academic degree.

Responsibilities of Foreign Students

is the responsibility of foreign citizens accepted forin the USSR educational institutions and scientific researchto observe Soviet laws and respect the customs andtraditions of the peoples of the Soviet Union; fulfill all

the requirements made of students by the statutes of the higher,secondary or other educational institutions of the USSR in which they are enrolled; observe the established regulations on residence and travel of foreign citizens on USSR territory; systematically and thoroughly master the theoretical knowledge and practical skills of the chosen specialty and work at increasing their scientific and technical level; strictly observe student discipline, attend all required study sessions [lectures, seminars, and practical work] and complete all forms of study assignments stipulated by the study plans and programs within the established periods; at the designated times take the tests and examinations stipulated by the study plan; strictly observe the rules of student and dormitory routine and participate in self-service [dormitory housekeeping].

student who has for valid reasons failed to takeiven course may at the discretion of theof the educational institution be allowed to remain forof the course. tudent who fails to take testswithout valid reasons is dismissed from the

23- Disciplinary measures of punishment, up to dismissal from the educational institution, are applied to foreign students, Just as they ure to Soviet students, for violations of study discipline or of the rules of Institutional routine or for improper behavior.

2*. oreign student who abuses Soviet hospitality is expelled from the confines of the USSR according to the procedure established by law. erson whoriminal offense is prosecuted in accordance with the USSR laws in force.

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Maintenance of Foreign Students

Tho size of stipends granted to foreign students, graduate students and specialists and the procedure for their materialare established in accordance with the intergovernmentalin force. The stipend begins at the moment of the student's enrollmentSSR educational institution and is paid out at times established by the educational institution. During the period of the summer vacation, the student receives his stipend regardless of where he spends his vacation. Persons arriving late for the beginning of the regular school year following the vacation do not receive.their stipends for the period of missed studies.

Persons accepted for education in USSR higher and specialized secondary educational institutions for terms of short duration fup toonths] are not granted stipends for the vacation period. All forms of stipends are paid in Soviet currency and are not convertible into foreign currency.

27- For students arriving from countries with warm climates, educational institutions will in case of need provide warm clothing [overcoat, cap, warm footwear].

Educational institutions help foreign students who remain in the USSR for their summer vacation to organize their leisure. Funds allocated for this purpose are not issued directly [to the students].

tudent travels to bis homeland or to another country during his vocation, the expenditures for such travels are not covered by the educational institutions.

Upon completion of studySSR educational institution, the foreign student receives payment for his travel from the educational institution to the capital of the country from which he came. In all other instancestudent's departure for his homeland, his travol expenses are met by himself or by the organization that sent him to the USSR for education.

The conditions of material maintenance of foreign students stipulated in these regulations may be modified in cases specified in the appropriate intergovernmental agreements.

Public Organizations of Foreign Students in the USSR

students receiving their education in the USSR haveto unite In associations [leagues, unions] of theirassociation [league, union] may be created if there are atmembers and if it unites students from one country whoat an educational institution.

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tctudents studying ta the USSR aveheir Purpose assisting the administrations of educational institutions in preparing from among

tudents highly qualified specialists, educatedpirit of humanism and the friendship of peoples, for their own countries; assisting in the solution of questions of the cultural and living conditions of the members of the association.

atIon fieaeue, union] carries on its work Inwith Soviet student organizations and the administrationeducational

on an equal basis withTB> student scientific tiviti dorQit0rIcs Participate in amateur

APPENDIX B

RULES OF ADMISSION FOR PEOPLES' FRIENDSHIP UNIVERSITY IMENI PATRICE IJJMUMBA*

As announced "by the Soviet press innrollment in Peoples' Friendship University was to be in the following specialized faculties:

uilding and development of

machines and mechanisms; construction;mining, and utilization of mineral resources;

Agricultureagronomy and zootechnics;

MefllMrv*edical treatment and pharmacy;

(h) Physics, Mathematics, and Natural Sciencesmathematics, physics, chemistry, biology;

and Philologyistory, literature,

Russian language; and

and Laweconomics, planning of

national economy, and international law.

Regulations for applicants were announced as follows: men and women underears of age will be admitted to the university, irrespective of race, nationality, or religion.

The course of study at the Medical Facultyears, at the otherears. Applications for admission from citizens of the countries of Asia, Africa, and Latin America may be submitted directly to the University or through the embassies and consulates of the USSR in foreign countries. Enrollment in the first course of Peoples' Friendship University is decided by the University Council after examination of applicantseneral secondary educationiven country. Persons without adequate preparation may be accepted in the Preparatory Faculty of the University for completion of general secondary education,eriodears. Persons whoeneral secondary education, but who have not mastered the Russian language, will also be enrolled at the Preparatory Facultyeriod upear.

Applications for admission to the University are to be submitted to the rector with the following enclosures: (l) autobiography with twoducation certificates,ealth All requests will be reviewed, by the University Council, and tbe decision handed down is final.

Tuition at the University is free, and the studentsree medical care, and dormitory accommodation. The University will pay the costs of transportation to Moscow and return after completion of the study program.

All courses are taught im the Russian language.

The final diploma is granted only to students who have spent all their university years at the University. Diplomas will be in two languages, Russiananguage of the student's choice.

appendix d

SOURCE REFEREKGES

ct 6l, p. 2. c (Quoting Pravfl.,

ay 2j.

lS. 1. U.

urrent Digest of tbe Soviet Press. vol XVI,,ec. Ibid.

5- International Affairs, no, Moscow. U.

FDD Summaryovietct 6k.

OFF USE.

Education, and Welfare. Studies in Comparative Education,

The Peoples' Friendship University ln tbe USSR,. 3. u.

vyashei shkoly, nooscow. U.

9- Health, Education, and Welfare. Studies in Comparative Education, U.

Vesting vypshei shkoly, no.

Health, Education, and Welfare. Higher Education in the USSR,

U.

Witt, Nicholas. Education and Professional Employment in the

USSR,

News Bulletin,, Sovctsfraynep 6k.

CTJC 6 Dec 6k. C.

Jloalth, Education, and Welfare. Studies ln Comparative Education,

. 5- U.

State, Khartoum. , l6 Feb 6k. C.

State, Dar-es-Salaam. . OFF USE.

Ibid.

Current Digest of the Soviet Press, vol XVI,3,

U.

Education, and Welfare. Studies in Corporative Education,

. 6. U.

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Original document.

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