Ri'i'HCVEi; ;nDATE: 7
PROJECT OXCART AND
OPERATION BLACK SHIELD BRIEFING NOTES
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I. BACKGROUND2 DEVELOPMENT HISTORICAL:
Tho OXCART program concept began in7reliminary design atudy effort involving Lockhocd and Convair focusingollow-on toircraft. In9 this study phase was complstedreliminary contract award to Lockheed. Inontract was awarded tohitney for tha development of8 engine. In2 the first aircraft was rolled out and in2 the first flight was completed,light was attained in Inimited operational contingency capability at Machas established for overflight of Cuba. Much5 has been spent In aircraftwhich were based on lessons learned from flight test experience. Recent flight experience indicates substantial systems improvement and hasapability to repoatedly fly ator prolonged durations and at altitudes0 feet. With additional systems refinement and simulated mission demonstration now underway, an operational capability should be attained by December of this year,
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RADAR CROSS SECTION:
Though2 aircraft radar cross-section hai been reduced considerably, the aircraft can be detected by Soviet radar. Defensive electronic countormcasureB equipments havo been developed, teited and installed to considerably reduce the risk to tho aircraftostile environment. Further effort* to reduce radar cross-section are under consideration and development of second generation countermeasures equipment Is underway.
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SIGNIFICANT DEVELOPMENT PROBLEMS ENCOUNTERED;
Fabrication of titanium. Sinco little was known in this area at iho beginning of the program, fabrication procedures and techniques were implemented concurrently with manufacturerial and error method ae experience was gained. Flight demonstration has substantiated these techniques.
Air inlet and controls. Approximately two years of flignt test were expended prior to the demonstration of acceptable reliability permitting repetitivelight. The fast reaction times required and rcpcatable accuracy demanded bypeeds and temperatures coupled with rapid airflow transients lead to additional controlwhich in themselves required development, refinement, and confirmation.
Fuel tank sealant life ai high Mach temperatures. Development of sealants to continuously withstandtemperatures has come hard and is not now delaying the program. Development is continuing for higher temperature capabilities.
Durability and maintenance of high temperature electrical wiring and connectors. This program has had to spearhead the state-of-the-art improvement in this area where this equipment must remain durable in
the face of repetitive sustained high Mach flights coupled with making and breaking connections during routine maintenance. This condition has contributed to current problems involving communicationsreliability.
Turbine inlet temperature profile. Flight demonstration has substantiated ground engine qualification teating in thia area at rated temperature of
Controls accuracy development. Engine power control accuracy is critical atpeeds and must exhibit extremely tight tolerances from sub-zero toenvironmental temperatures with widely varying fuel flows. Flight demonstration ia now substantiating thii required accuracy.
Engine life at high Mach fUjjht. While acceptable engine durability has been demonstrated over many flights, inspections must be made after every ten hours ato insure acceptability of the combustion section. Flight and ground test development is continuing for the purpose of Increasing these inspection Intervala,
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too wmPT OXCART
Numbor of flights: Total number of hours: Maximum Speed: Maximum Altitude:
time at: 4 Hours
Longest Supersonic flight: 6il0 Hours efuelings0 Hours above
Number of flights and total houra above certain MACH numbers (thru
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AIRCRAFT MODIFICATION PROGRAM:
As flight testing of2 aircraft proceeded various probleme emerged which required modification to the basic design. These modifications were primarily in the areas of propulsion, electrical and communicationsystems. As of this date, four aircraft have been modified. Three are currently undergoing modifications three are assigned as flight test aircraft; and onewo-place trainer.
OXCART TOP BBeKBT
Flying accomplished subsequent to the recent aircraft
modification program has demonstrated considerable improvement in aircraft performance and ancillary aystema. Specifically, the air inlets, the camera, navigation and flight control systems have demonstrated repeatability of performance. However, secondary problems remain in such araaa aa cockpit instrumentation and oil preaaure transducers but an intensive program is underway to solve
OXCART TPS SKCKST
VULNERABILITY AND ECM STATUS:
AU electronic countermeasures equipment!for curront uac in2 are on hand, Thoao ayatoms have been flown and operated successfully2 aircraft. Theeo ayatoma in combination with the operational speed and altitude of the aircraft and the unique anti-radar plaatic panala on tha airframe, give2 an acceptable level of Invulnerability to unfriendly environmenta.
There are aeven CIA pilot! currently assigned to2 program, all of whom havelying hour* in the aircraft. All are considered qualified and operationally ready at.
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III. OPERATION' BLACK SHIELD OBJECTIVE:
Tho objective of BLACK SHIELD le to employ2 to provide photographic coverage of critical targota in China and Southcaat Asia, This capability will be formed by2 aircraft and neceatary
to Kadena AB, Okinawa.
With the increased CHICOM defensesissiles andircraft) certain areaa in China have been denied toircraft. It Is anticipated that the number of such areas will increase with time. While the satellite reconnaissance program can satisfy long-range requirements, it does notuick reaction capability to meet Community requirements. 2 aircraft, operationally ready and pre-positioned, can maintain an on-call quick reaction capability to crisis situations.
PLAN OF ACTION:
A detachment comprised ofeople with2 aircraft and necessary support equipment will be deployed to Kadena AB, Okinawa. The Strategic Airrd Air Refueling Squadron from Beale AFB, California, will deploy to Kadena AB and provide necessary tanker support for air refueling.
Necessary temporary facilities required to support2 detachment at Kadena have been furnished by DOD and are essentially ready for use.
Operational missions will be planned, directed, and controlled by CIA headquarters as approved by higher authority against targets of Community interest. The iritial operational period will bedays duration during which time approximately eightmissions can be flown. Mission pilots will be American civilians under contract to CIA...
The operational mission profile will be flownpeed ofith range extension provided by aerial refuelings. which will be accomplished enroute outside the enemy Early Warning net. The minimum penetration altitude willeet. With aerial refuolingsthe majority of critical targets in China and Southeast Asia can be photographed by
SCHEDULE FOR DEPLOYMENT;
During late December it la planned to conduct an operational
readiness test of2 detachment and supporting forces prior to deployment. This will include simulated operational mission generation and actual launch and flight of2 within the Zone of Interior.
2 will deployJanuary with an
enroute stop at Hicham AFB, Hawaii. The2 aircraft should be in place at Kadena AB, Okinawa, by mid-January. The aircraft and detachment will be readied to conduct the firstmission on
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DECISION DATES: (See Attached Chart)
In order to meet the BLACK SHIELD operational date ofhere are four major preparatory actions which will require decisions at varying high levels of the government. These major actions with the required decision dates follow:
1 Movement of advance partyof materiel. Decision by this date will providefor the coordination of airlift, preparation of materielmovement during the last week of November.ounds of materiel will be airlifted.
ersonnel airlift. The majority
of2 detachment personnel are scheduled for deployment to Kadena AB during the first week of
Deployment of Thistime for the deployment of aircraft to Kadena AB andof the aircraft Into an operationally readyto the6 targot date.
Flrat operational mission approval.
If the first operational mission is to be oxocuted onho approval decision must bc made by6 to provide time for necessary planning and coordination within the government and with the operating detachment. This will require approval from the highest authority.
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I AIRCRAFT SYSTK" VALIDATION |
first msn approval
COVER AND SECURITY
The possible political consequences of what might be construedilitary mission necessitate operations In an essentially civilian and covert atmosphere.
The aircraft will operate without military markings. The operating detachment willilitary designation, but will be predominantly civilian, with the bulk of personnel representing Lockheed andhitney. The detachment commander and senior staff, however, will be Air Force officers or CIA civilians
Since the unique vehicle and nature of the operation will provoke many questions that cannot bo answeredlausible cover story, preliminary thinking is that emphasis will be on security rather than cover. Maximum physical controls will be in effect. Tho unit will create the illusion, at least, that some sort of environmental or technical testing Is Involved. Ae necessary, the operation will be described as classified, with no details to be released.
In the event of an operational loss over hostile territory, the pilot will be instructed to admit CIA affiliation.
OXCART TOP GEGftST
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4-OGC (Mr. John Warner)
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