Created: 1/1/1966

OCR scan of the original document, errors are possible




OfficeResearch and Reports

Archives s



Soviet and Chinese Communist programs for cultural and propaganda activities in the less developed countries are discussed in this report, with major emphasis on the activities of the USSR. The programs of the Eastern European Communist countries (which are appreciable if takenroup) and of the other Far Eastern Communist countries (which are the smallest programs and the most recently initiated) do not differ in approach from the Soviet and Chinese programs and are discussed only briefly. They are Included, however, in the tabulations of total Communist cultural activity in the text and in Appendix A. Programs of Cuba and Yugoslavia are not included.

The term Communist countries as used in this report includes the USSR, the Eastern European Communist countries (Bulgaria, Czechoslovakia, East Germany, Hungary, Poland, andhe Far Eastern Communist countries (Comtr.unist China, North Korea, and Korthnd Albania und Mongolia. For purposes of this report, Albania is grouped with the Eastern European Communist countries and Mongolia with the Far Eastern Communist countries.


A. Communist Objectives in the Less Developed


3. Organization of Communist Foreign Cultural and


II. Coir/nunist Cultural and Propaganda Activities

in Less Developed Countries,

A. Cultural Agreements

D. Friendship und Cultural

C. International

1>. Books und

V. Agencies

P. Films and

C-- Exchange

H- Economic and Technical Assistance for Local

Conrnuni cat ions Media

III. Cost of Communist





of Cultural. Agreements and Protocols

Signed ly Commu-'iiSt Conn trier, with Less15

Rroadcastinti to Less Developed Areas,

3. US and Communisl Broadcasting to Less Developed Areas,

h. Periodicals Distributed by Communist Countries

in foreign Countries,

of Cultural Agreements and Protocols Signed

Between Less Developed Countries and Communist


Developed Countries Having Friendship and

Cultural Societies with Communist

Broadcasting to Less Developed Areas,


of Books Published by the USSR in Languages

Used in less Developed Countries,

Economic Aid to Less Developed Countries

for Cultural and4

IC. USIA and Communist Expenditures for Cultural and



Figure 1. Major Less Developed Country Targets

for Communist Cultural aadas5

Figure 2. Soviet Organization for Propaganda Activities

Abroad (chart) following,

Figure 3- Crowth Ol" Communist Broadcasting to Less

Developedchart) UNCLASSIFIED


- vi -




Communis! cultural and propaganda programs in Ihc less developed countries have expanded greatly since the8 and now cost about0ear. Enough successes have been achieved in these costly programs to suggest that they will be maintained andxpanded. Of the total cost of the Communist propaganda and cultural offensive, the USSR pays about one-half, the Eastern European Communistabout one-quarter, and Communist China the bulk of the remainder.

In carrying out their cultural and propaganda activities-in the less developed areas the Communist countries have

sizable organizations to plan and

operate their cultural and propaganda program abroad;

cultural agreements withess

developed countries ande number of agreements signed annually6 to

binational iriendship societies and

cultural centers in more thaness developed counl rics;

their radiobroadcasting lo Ihese coun-

tries from 5S0 hours per week5ours per week

The estimates and conclusions in this report represent the best judgment of ihis Office as of

millions of copies of books and many

periodicals for distribution in less developed countries;

press representatives in more than

ess developed countries and signed more thanews agency agreements;

onducted film showings and exhibits and

exchanged increasing numbers of delegations, performing groups, and athletic learns wilh the less developed countries; and

xtended more0 million in economic aid for information media and cultural facilities.

Formerly, the major targets were the Middle Eastern and Asian countries, bul recently the most rapid growth in these activities has been in Africa. In Africa and Asia the programs probably will be maintained and expanded. In countries such as India, Mali, and Ghana, where the volume and range of activities already are substantial, Communist efforts will bc to refine existing programs. In all less developed countries, however, the continuing competition between the USSK and Communist China for influence will exert an important impact on the volume and content of Communist cultural and propaganda programs.


I. Intrpduction

A- bjectives in the Less Developed Countries

'1 ^hc Conrnunist countries have undertaken ambitious programs to establish close relations with the less developed ap showing the target countries and the general types of programs, see They have extended aboutillion in economic credits and grants and more thanillion in military assistance to these countries, In addition, trade and diplomatic relations between the two areas have grown substantially, and0 persons from less developed countries have received academic, technical, or military training in Communist countries. Supplementing these programs hasonsnd sizable increase Ln Communis propaganda and cultural activities in the less developed countries.

The distinction between "cultural" and "propaganda" activities, in Soviet eyes, is at best tenuous. Comniunist foreign propagandainvolve the manipulation of mass media to disseminate information and ideas designed to obtain the maximum possible support for Communist policies. Forist of these propaganda activities nay


and exhibits. ultural activities, in contrast, seek to depict Communist artistic and literary achievements and include the

In general, Communist cultural and propaganda programsto establish and strengthen rapport with the people ofdeveloped countries- The Communist countries particularlyidentify themselves with the political and economic aspirationsprejudices of thesf countries. The Communists,use their extensive propaganda apparatus to exploitand to encourage the overthrow of unfriendly regimes. Thetargets selected by the Communist countries depends upon thereceptivityroup, the type of available media most, the importance oi the target

The illiterate and poor are rarely the target of Communist propaganda. They have the least access to propaganda media, exert little pressure on government policies, and usually areevolutionary force-Those groups typically targeted are youths and students, youngand military officials, leaders of trade unions, and employees of information media.

The impact of these programs has varied dependingarge extent upon the political orientation of the less developed country involved. Tn general, where the Communists already have developed

' Tor serially numbered source references, sec Appendix fl.

close and extensive political and economic tics, the cultural and propaganda activities that have followed also have become widespread.uch situations, the Communist countries have been able to impress many people vith their achievements and capabilities, to project an image of benevolence, and to disguise political indoctrinationultural cloak. Increased contacts vith the Communist countries, even by less developed countries that are disinclined from the basic philosophy of Communism, may gradually lead to the acceptance of selected Communist methods and techniques on the assumption that they can aid In accelerating socioeconomic development.

Sino-Soviet competition has resultedapid expansion of Soviet and Chinese Communist cultural and propaganda activities in the less developed areas. The impact of such programs, however, has been dulled by the destruction of the myth of Communist unity and by the efforts of the USSR and Communist China to weaken the influence of each other. The recent failure of China to enlist the support of less developed countries in Its opposition to Soviet attendance at the abortive Afro-Aslan Conference reflected Afro-Asian unwillingness to become embroiled Is thequarrel.

b. Organization of Communist Foreign Cultural and Propaganda Activities

In the USSR, foreign propaganda and cultural activities are under the Jurisdiction of the Central Committee of the Communist Party of the Soviet UnionPSU. (See The Propaganda und Agitation Department of the Central Committee determines the content of all cultural activities. Policy lo executed on the official level by the Communiat Party through the Council of Ministers, with the Ministry of Culture and the particular State Coanittee for Foreign Cultural Relations responsible for carrying out the specific programs. Other state committees and agencies participating in Sovietactivities abroad are the Committee for Broadcasting and Television, the Committee for Publications, the Committee forand the Telegraphic Agency of the Soviet Unionr. addition, the foreign Bissions of the Ministries of Foreign Affairs and of Foreign Trade conduct varied propaganda activities along with their regular duties.

Propaganda activities also arc carried outonofficial level by "private" organizations, such as the Council of Soviet Societies for Friendship and Cultural Relations with Foreignthe All-Unlon Central Trade Union Council, the Union of Writers, the Union of Journalists, and the Academy of Sciences. Other organizations involved in propaganda activities along with their more legitimate functions are the Union of Red Crosti und Red Crescent Societies, Intourist, the "SputnlK" International Youth Travel Bureau, and the Soviet news agency Novoatl.



1 U

Tho Information Department of the Soviet Embassy in New Delhi, havingoviet and Indian employees, is one of the largest Soviet propaganda offices in the less developed countries. It8 structure ia duplicatedalthoughuch smaller scalen many other less developed countries. The Departmentress section ofomployees which prints and distributes Soviet booklets, brochures, and daily news bulletins (News and Views from the Soviet Union) and places Soviet news releases and feature articles in Indian newspapers. In addition, the chief of the Department, with the assist' anceix-mcmbcr editorial board andndian translators, directs the publicationropaganda journal, Soviet Land. ection ofmployees handles all administrative and housekeeping duties for the Department. 2/ In addition to the main office In Sew Delhi, the Department maintains smaller Information service offices in other Indian cities.

Communist China also has an extensive organizational structure for propaganda and cultural activities abroad. The Propagandaof the Chinese Communist Party directs all cultural, publishing, literary, and educational activities. On the government level, the Office of Culture and Education of the State Council coordinates the activities of the Ministries of Culture and Education, tho New China News Agencynd the Broadcasting Administration Bureau. The Staff Office for Foreign Affairs, officially listed aB part of the Stute Council, iu reported to be, inommuniut Partythat oversees all foreign relations, including political, economic, and cultural activities of the responsible government

Under the Staff Office for Foreign Affairs, the Commission for Cultural Relations with Foreign Countries is responsible for carrying out the cultural exchange program. The Commission has seven regional divisions, two of which were established4 to handle the growing Chinese Communist activities In Africa and Latineparate division Is concerned with Chinese participation incultural conferences. In addition, there are three functional divisional ropaganda division with sections for translating Chinese materials, presenting exhibits, and distributing films andoreign aid division to handle the construction of cultural facilities such as stadiums;adre division for recruitment, training, and assignment of personnel abroad. 4/

Organisational structure in the Eastern European ComrauniBt countries is similar to that of the USSR, with various ministries, committees, and agencies under the jurisdiction of their respective Conruinidt Parties. They have their own news agencies (the Bulgarian Telegraphic Agencynternational broadcasting (Radiond "private" organizations (the German-African Society in Kant Germany).

Most of the Communist countries have set up area studiesand special institutes to train specialists in the language, history, and Culture of the less developed areas to which theywill bc assigned. 0 the USSR reorganized its Institute of Oriental Studies, dating from Tsarist times, and established Asian and African Institutes under the Academy of Sciences to conduct research and train specialists in Afro-Asian affairs. omparable organization was set up for Latin America early In5 the director of the African Institute emphasized the expansion of Soviet-African cultural cooperation by announcing the readiness of Soviet scholars to participateyear program for studying and popularizing African

Ccnmunist China established an Afro-Asian Society2 to promote domestic scholarly research on African and Asian countries. China also is recruiting African nationals to serve as advisers for on African Institute in Peiping. 6J


II- Communist Cultural and Propaganda Activities in Less Developed Countries

A. Cultural Agreements

The signingultural agreement often is the firststep inresenceesshen three such agreements were concluded,esshave signed ateparate cultural agreementscountries. Ofgreements, the USSR has accountedHast European countriesommunist ChinandEastern Communist countries b,greements(the largest number concludedingle year)ess developed countries (see. Thisithgreements signed asecember. ommunist agreements with African countriesfor one-half to two-thirds of the total number ofprotocols

Table 1

Number of Cultural Agreements and Protocols Signed by Communist Countries with Less Developed5



1 -

January -


Cultural agreements usually are phruced in broad terms and refer to planned exchanges by general categories of activities. The annual protocols, however, describe in greater detail the exchanges to be undertaken. Most cultural agreements provide for exchanges of delegations, performing troupes, exhibits, publications, films, and

Foree Appendix A.

teachers und specialists in various fields. Many make availablefor study in Communist countries and call for cooperation in radio, television, and newspaper activities. The agreements and protocols are drawn up to give the appearance of full reciprocity and balanced Protocols concerning financial arrangements for executing the exchanges are sometimes attached. Many agreements are signed for three-year or five-year periods, with protocols concluded periodically to determine the yearly implementation or exchanges.

The following two Nepalese agreements are typical of cultural agreements between Communist and less developed countries. Onebetween Nepal and the USSR calls for the exchange of delegations, publications, exhibits, films, and radio programs in accordance with an annual plan and "in keeping with the principles of sovereignty, equality, and noninterference in the internal affairs of otherJ The program$ specified that Nepal would receive one stagean exhibit of Soviet stamps, oae lecturer, an exhibit ofand two radio experts; the USSR^would receivememberdelegation,cpalese students, three literacy experts, and an exhibit of photography. 8/ Tbe program also provided for the exchange of literature between universities of the two countries and the exchange of radio programs, musical recordings, and textbooks. inancial protocol arranged for the host country to bear the local maintenance costs of the visiting delegations and for the country sending the group to payexpenses.

An agreement between Nepal und Communist China is similar. It calls for the two contracting parties "according to their needs Ond possibilities" to exchange delegations, lecturers, teachers, performers, publications, exhibits, films, and sports teams under the terras of annual programs. 9j 5 protocol provided for Nepal toman song and dancean friendshipan medicalun delegation ofable-tennis coach for six months, five Chinese students under scholarship grants, and an exhibit of paintings. China was toman culturalan publicity and broadcastingan medicalable-tennis team,epalesc students onepalese language experts, und an exhibition-

In many cases, it has been difficult for less developed countries to finance their part of even small cultural exchange programs, onsequence, cany less developed countries have attempted to discourage the C'oraunist participant from sending more cultural groups than they themselves can possibly send in return. In some instances, financial difficulties have compelled less developed countries to refuse proposed exchanges. ndonesia refused toultural agreement with East Germany because, Indonesia claimed, it could not afford the travel expenses Of students and trainees to East Germany us provided under the proposed

Whereas the Communists increasingly have been successful incultural agreements with many less developed countries, some less developed countries have insisted on ratifications of the basic agreements. h, Kepal refused toyear agreements w'th the USSR and Com-iunlst China but accepted agreements that could be -er-minated upon noUee. Jordanulturalommunistith the USS3 early5 but reserved* the right to reject any Soviet programs, rilms, or exhibits that it deems Turkey excluded student1 agreement with the Subsequently, the Turkishvoted against the decree which would have Implemented tVment. lb/ The Latin American countries have rejected proposed orwith Communist countries and carry or. mainly privately sponsoredhoc exchanges.

B. Friendship and Cultural SocietU-s

Another Communist technique eiajployed to develop closer relations with less developed countries is the establishment of blnationalsocieties and cultural centers, 7, Communist countries established such organizations in more than UO Less developed countries (see Many Ccraaunlst countries maintain branches of these societies in different citiesess developed country, "lies* organizations are responsible lor conducting many activities,xhibits, language lessons, fi In presentations, distribution cfmateriuls, and sponsorship of travel to Communist countries. In countries where such organizations do not exist, the Communistsestablish public libraries or reading rooms ln their embassies.

The annual expendituresriendship society may rangethousand dollars to asillion dollars, dependingscope of activities, the size of inercbership, and theby the Communists to the activities in the countrythe major outlays for establishing and expandingare taken care of by the sponsoring Communist country. when the Soviet-Indonesian Friendship Society was expandingthe Soviet consulate reportedly contributed more than* to ix itl . L'i/

Some activities of firmly established societies may beane trig and even yield revenue to support or expand other activities Income may be earned from admission fees to exhibits and filmenbership dues, entrance fees lor language classes, sale of -ternss books and records, and advertising subscriptions.

Evenajor source of operating income for friendship societies is the subsidies provided by Communist countries. For example the USSR reportedly has subsidized the Lanka-Soviet Friendship League n Ceylon6 with annual donations ranging up toCO ost Of the League's expenditures'- apparently were

Soviet nub-'iidien. According to Its official statement of accounts, the League0U for holding Russian-languageibraryooks, shoving SCO films, and presentingxhibits in Ceylon. lj/ Aboutercent of the League's total income came froa donations, presumably Soviet, and most of the balance freeentrance fees to language classes, and the sale of Russian textbooks. In addition to its cash subsidies, the USSR apparently donated items such us books, films, exhibit materials, and the servicesanguage instructorone of which vere listed in the official statement of*

To conceal their involvement In the activities of the friendship societies and to avoid official objections, the Communists frequently resort to indirect methods of financing these organisations. Foryears, the Czechoslovak consul general in Bombay0 annually to the Indian-Cxechoslovak Cultural Society under the cloak of anonymous donations from Indian U the Indian-Soviet Cultural Societyonationorth of recordsamps from the USSR to be sol* in India to meet the currentof the The USSR planned to augment the* fundoal0 toillionbyultural troupe to India and donating the proceeds treat its20/

Friendship societies have been most active ln Latin America and in some of the Asian countries, particularly India and Indonesia. In addition to conducting their legitimate activities (exchange offlLT) showings, exhibits, and languagehesehave been used successfully by the ComnuriisLs as centers forpropaganda, meeting places for Leftvingers, and channels for distributing funds. When the less developed country suspects suchociety may be accused of Interference ln domesticand closely watched, as vas the Uganda-Soviet Friendship and Cultural Societyr even suspended, as was the Indian-Chinese Communist Friendship Society

C. International Broadcasting

5 the number of hours of Cccsenlst broadcasting todeveloped countries has increased rapidly,oursours pernd

Soviet broadcasts to these countrieo have mere tliar. tripled, andfron Communist China and the &iat European countries are abouttimes5 level. Broadcasts from other Fan Eastern Cocnuniot countries have increasedevel of moreines that5 but have been confined almost exclusively to the less developed countries in the Far This expansion continuednd hours of broadcasting totaled more0 per week at the end of June.

* The data for broadcasting include only those broadcasts openlyto transmitters in Communist countries. They do not Includetransmissions.

Growth of Communist Broadcasting to Less Developed Areas

Table 2

Comnunist Broadcasting to Less Developed Areas

Hours per Week



South Asia





eekly transmissions to less developed areas have accounted for almost one-half Of all Communist international oviet broadcasts alone were almost double thef output by the US Voice of America (VQA) to the same areas. Total Communist transmissions to the less developed countries were almost six times as large as VOA programs teamed to these countries (see

tabic .

US and Communist Broadcastings Developed Areas

Hours per Week

1'otal Africa

Latin America

Middle East and South Asia

Far East




he USSB accounted fcr J2 percent of totalto less developed countries, Communist Chinauropean countries forercent, and other Far Easternforercent. Aboutercent, of all -eeKlybeamed to countries in the Far East,ercent to those inEasl and South Asia, iC percent to P.cent to

Latin America.

In addition to the growth in the number of hours broadcast by the Communist countries, there hasubstantial increase in the number of languages used. Inor example, Radio Moscow initiated its first regularly scheduled broadcastsative African language, with Swahili broadcasts to East Africa. In subsequent years the USSR initiated regular broadcasts in Amharic to Ethiopia, Hausa and Uam'oara Lo West Africa, Somali to Eastla to the Congo, and Malagasy to Madagascar.

As ofadio Moscow vfs transmitting international broadcasts in thei languages; stoken less



D !


I .:


J '





nd 1

In addition, Soviet International Servicesku, rxishambe, Yerevan, Kiev, Minsk, Riga, Tallinn, Vilnius, and Tashkent broadcast inKurdish, Tadzhik, and Uzbek.

Radio Pelping's international broadcasts to Less developed countries arc transmitted in the following:





Indonesian Korean

P.'lV i


' 'ami

Turkish Vietnamc-i

Communist international broadcasts to less developed countries usually include international and domestic news, ccamentary, and feature itemsll interspersed with music. Many stationsegular series for radio amateurs, special youth and women's programs, and interviews with political leadere, outstanding personalities In the arts and sciences, and foreign guests. Most prepare feature programs on art, music, literature, science, and sports to acquaint listeners with cultural, life in the Communist countries- Special broadcastsnational holidays in the receiving country or anniversaries of important events in Communist relations with the less developed country. Both Moscow and Peiping have used their broadcasts to peddle their own brands of socialism- Some of the Communist countriesncludingChina, Czechoslovakia, East Germany, and the USSRnow give language lessons by radio.

Soviet broadcasts to the less developed areas emphasizei und the desire l'-'r iieace., . , ten ci.. they stress the economic and cultural achievements of thethe benefits of Soviet exchanges >'i th the less developedcontrast, Chinese Communist broadcasts are less restrained andin opposing the United Nations, US policies, and Sovietwith the West- They stress the themes of Afro-Aslan unity, m! rovo r.

The USSR continually tries to improve the content of its broud-casts to less developed arcus and to relate them nore effectively to specific target audiences- In2 the Central Committee Of the CPSUecree urgingharp increase in the number of hours broadcast, the improvement Of content, and strict differentiation of programs for the countries Of Asia, Africa, and Latinhe decree further stated:

Permanent programs for wonen, working youths, students, and other categories of foreign radio listeners {must] be organized in conformity with their interests and requirements.

Ir. the preparation of broadcasts the wishes of foreignnd observations aixlby radio listeners [must] be attentively taken into account; wide use is to be made of letters from abroad, Df impressions of members of foreign delegations about their stay in tho Soviet Union, as well as ol iddresses if Sov el people who have visited otherjy

'The decree also sought to increase the quality of broadcastingsupplied by the Propaganda and Agitation department of the Central Ccncnittec. Cadres were to be trained On a (footnote continued on

Programs tailored for Special audiences have become widespread since> decree. Radio Moscow, for example, broadcasts special programs to Algeria in French and Arabic about life in the USSR. Other special programs Include "Sovlet-Africar. Friendship Calling the Peoples of Africa" to Africa, "The Radio Club of Soviet and Iranian Friends of Peaceful Coexistence" to Tran, and "The Soviet Committee for Afro-Asian Solidarity Speaks" to Arab listeners.

In4 the USSRew Spanish-language program especially for Latin America under the sponsorship of the Council of Soviet Societies for Friendship and Cultural Relations with Foreign Countries. The program, identified as Radio Peace and Progress, is ^on.^err.ed with general international affairs and domestic activity in the USSR. In5 the USSR added Portuguese transmissions of this program for Brazil-

Thus far, Communist China has nade little effort to tailorto specific target audiences, and infrequent attempts to localize broadcasts have, been relatively ineffective. Many Chinese broadcasts beamed, to less developed areas consist of translations of Chinese

isood and often nore audible than local radio programs, Radio Peiaing's programs have been criticized for their dull, repetitive content and their lack of subjects of interest to African audiences-

The Communist countries use various devices toreater list-cuing audience for their radio programs- listeners' clubs are

v v. ovr r. uct.ucAi'-.; in:

advertised in local newspapers, foreign language publications,program booklets and brochures. Radios Moscow, Peiping,and Bucharest carry advertisements in the annual Worldlisting the types of programs and languages broadcast and "jv

equest, and send free souvenirs, nagazines, and progran schedules on request. To encourage nore active response and regular listening, contests are often held with prizes of radios, cameras, or trips to the sponsoring countries-

The Communists also promote considerable travel of radioprovide aid for the development of cenmunications media, and sign radio and television cooperation agreements. 1 such

tion, cultural agreements concluded with the less developed countries may provide for exchanges of radio and television programs and personnel.

long-range basis at the universities while the Higher Party SchoolCPSU Central Committee in Moscow was to trainoadioeditors per year. Local Party schools were to provideeditors. Plans were also announced to enlist specialists withforeign languages for foreign broad-

A more subtle and potentially important source oi" Communistover broadcastingess developed country is through news agency agreements- By offering inexpensive and sometimes free news services, the Communists often succeed in placing items in newsof local radio stations and in this wuyarger audience than through direct broadcasts from Moscow or Peiping- Int vas estimated that Communist countries were supplyingf all radio material used by the Island of Zanzibar.

The Communist countries also have been active in the field of televlalon in the less developed countries. An early0 the USSR conducted television activities in Guinea, Lebanon, and the UAR. These Included efforts to place material on already established stations, the training of television employees, film and program exchange, and offers to help establish new television stations. Some of their moreactivities have involved Communist participation in or sponsorship of television festivals. Communist countries have participated in all annual International Television Fcstffrals held In the UAR

[1. nd Periodicals

The Communist countriesarge variety of foreign language books and periodicals, many or which are destined for readers in the less developed countries. b the USSR alone published aboutillion copies of moreooks in about UO non-Soviet languages. Of these, almostillion copies, consisting of moreitles, were published lnanguages spoken in less developed countries (see By comparison,* the USSR published fewer thanillion copiesitles ln eight languages spoken in less developed countries. Although the Communist countriesmany books abroad that are published primarily for use at home, these countries also publish books solely for readers In the less developed countries. This special publishing effort includes the publication of limited editions intended Tor distribution in only one countryor0 copiesolume of Kalian President Kcita'i speeches were published In the USSR and presented to the govern-*nt of Kali In

Distribution of books published by the Communist countriesarried out by various book export organisations; through bilateral book exchange programs with foreign libraries; and by clandestine methods. The latter Include direct mailing to Individuals, book stores, and organizations; transshipment through non-Ccnmunist publishing bouses; and dissemination by local Communist Parties, trade unions, and embassies. Written propaganda is also distributed at international book exhibits, by friendship societies and Communist fronts, and through outright gifts to libraries and organizations.

In addition to donating books, the Communist countries export books and periodicals commercially. The value of Soviet exports of

printed material to less developed countries almost quadrupled5ising0 Such material,frequently is sold by the Communists at prices that do not cover the cost of publication and distribution. Terms to local distributors generally are quite favorable. Rooks are obtained at substantialwith payment frequently made in local currency to the Communist embassy or consulate, often after the shipment has been sold. The transaction tends to be profitable for the local bookseller and involves no outlay of foreign exchange. ookstore in Brazzaville, for example,rench-language books from the USSR to be sold at prices that yielded profits of as much asercent to the bookseller. for the shipment wasays after arrival, compared with theday terms of French publishing

In addition to books, the Communist countriesarge variety of periodicals. oreifferent periodicals were published inanguages for circulation outside the Communist countries (see These included pictorials and magazineswith specific subjects, such as the activities of women, youth, student, and trade union organizations. Promotion techniques for periodicals include advertising through leaflets and brochures,of language lessons, and prize competitions.

Table 4

Periodicals Distributed by Communist Countries in Foreign Countries a/









Excluding periodicals published in Communist countries byfront organizations, b. Estimated.


Onpecific event nayorrent of printed material. Chou En-Lai'e African tour early in lyfiU was accompanied by thousands of copies of Chinese propaganda booklets on the Sino-Indian border dispute and China's friendship with the African people. Moreopies of Mao Tse-tung's works reportedly were sold in more thanfrican countries In connection with Chinese participation in the Mexican Trade Pair held, the Chinese shipped tons of propaganda concerning LLfe in China to Latin America.

The Communists have always assigned an Important role toln the "anti-imperlallst struggle." hinese delegate to the Afro-Asian Literature Forum held in Peiping inU pointed out that "writers must rally their forces, merge with the people in this life-and-death struggle, and write to inspire the people to advance andew, revolutionary literature for Asia andj/ Chinese efforts to promote their own version of this thesis and the continuing expansion of Chinese pnopaganda activity in general have led to increased Sino-Soviet competition in the dissemination of printed material ln the less developed countries. For example, inr.ajor distribution center for Cojnmuniot literature throughout Latin America, the Chinese Communist Institute for Friendship with Latin America begun in* an active campaign to counter pro-Soviet propaganda, especially that published by the World Federation ofYouth and the International Union of Students. The Chineseublication entitled "Bulletin of Chinesesponsored by the All-China Youth and Student

Whereas nuny leas developed countriesarge volume of Communist literature, others forbid the Importation and dissemination of any Communist publications. Where controls exist, the Communist countries usually develop clandestine channels of distribution. India and the Latin American countries are major targets for printed In general, publications that are not blatantly propagandistlc in content have been favorably received. Literature that ie openly revolutionary and subversive, however, usually lo subject to government confiscation. The new African nations have been particularly sensitive to any literature that might encourage subversion or revolution. Earlylgeria banned the Peking Review after articles appearedguerrilla warfare and revolution, and Tanzania banned ninepublications, including the World Marxist Review.

E. Hews Agencies

Communist countries maintain press representation Id more thaness developed countries. The Soviet news agencies, TASS and Sovostl, arc represented in aboutess developed countries. New China News Agency (HCNA) personnel are active in more thanountries. The news agencies of the Eastern European Communist countries olisoforeign eorrespondonts In some of the Leas developed countries.

- IT -

Perhaps more important for the expansion of Communist influence is the conclusion of news agency agreements. Byommunist news agencies had signeduch agreements withess developed countries. These agreements provide for the exchange of news, features, and photographs; offer technical assistance for developing national news services; and often include the use of Communist news services and radio teletype equipment at minimal rates or sometimes free of charge. For example, inroposed three-year agreement between TASS andberian Information Service provided for (l) Liberia to receive and distribute to Its press and radio daily radiotcletypc news transmissions in English fron Moscowost to Liberia0iberia to accept one permanent TASS representative and to supply him with free press bulletins forto Moscow;ASS to furnish and install, free ofet of receiving equipment in Liberia for the reception of

In addition to Ita news reporting, TASS distributes information about the USSR, collects foreign news for Soviet domestic use,with foreign news agencies, subsidizes local newspapers, and provides free news services to newspapers unable to afford their own foreign correspondents. Inl, in on effort to overcome the "official character" of TASS and to compete with Western information agencies in the less developed countries, the USSR established the Novoflti nrnon agency. Hovostl is describedpublic" organisation, but Its sponsorshe Union of Journalists, the Union of Writers, the Council of Soviet Societies for Friendship und Cultural Relations with Foreign Countries, and the All-Union Society for the Dissemination of Political and Scientific Knowledgere all organs through which the Communist Party exercises control. 2 Novosti0 stories toifferent countries and claimed publicationoreign newspapers and magazines. In addition, it publishedewspapers, andulletins In overseas areas;hotographs; and publisheda-sphlets for distribution Inoreign countries. Meet material sent abroad is disseminated In the native language of the country concerned, and IliVwStl reportedlyages ofay.

Communist China conducts activities in the less developedsimilar to those of TASS through the NCSA. In recent years, Africa has received increased attention. 5 China planned to expand the facilities of the HCKA in Africa with the opening of new offices ln the Central African Republic, Mauritania, Morocco, Senegal, and lunisiu. The Chinese reportedly have divided Africa into zones under various KCNA officers in preparationropaganda campaign aimed mainly at the French-speaking countries and directed by Chinese officials In Communist China has activelylan of the Afro-Asian Journalists' Association (AAJA) to train Afro-Aalan journalists as revolutionaries, and an academy of Journalism haa beer, established by tbe AAJA In Peiping.

- -

The Communist countries frequently subsidize local newspapers to ensure favorable placement of their news items. The USSR, however, has recently decreased its emphasis on outright subsidies in favor of rewarding cooperation by purchasing advertising space. In Senegal, the Soviet, Embassy frequently purchases unattributed space in localsometimes as much as three or four pages0 per pageto present photographs of Soviet life.

Communist news agency activities in the less developedhave had varied impact. Some Comur.lst press correspondents, particularly those of the HCNA, have been accused of subversive Inenya expelled the MCHA correspondent there "ln the interests of national security." More recently the Malian Minister of Information praised the activities cf the NCIIA while criticizing the rigidity of Soviet and East European press

F. Films and

The Communist countries have madef films and exhibits in their propaganda campaigns in the less developed countries. Films generally are distributed by Communist diplomatic missions, cultural centers, and friendship societies. Admission during special film weeks and film festivals often is free, and filmside audience. The Communist countries also distribute films commercially. Film exports through normal foreign trade channels, however, account forraction of Communist film distribution in the less developed countries. Such exports from the USSR have even decLined in recent years, dropping in value from0 to slightly more0

International film festivals arc particularly Important media through which the Communist countries disseninate their propaganda and distribute their films. Communist countries generally are wellat the major festivals and frequentlyarge share of the awards. Although the films shown at festivals are usually free of overt propaganda, they present themes popular in the less developed countries and depict the achievements of Communist society. Communist filmare frequent in Algeria, Somalia, and India, and theaters ln Uruguay show many Soviet and last European films commercially. is sometimes unfavorable. For example. Communist film weeks in Algeria, where Western films are preferred, have beenn the spring5 the Ethiopian government restricted Soviet film-van operations in the country following reports that the USSR waspropaganda films and using the occasions to teach subversion. 3J/

ommunist and iess developed countries exchanged ir.orexhibits, including participation in trade fairs. Africa and Asiu each accounted for at leastxhibits. India alone hosted or sent more Exhibits often are conducted under the terms Of cultural agreements either by friendship societies or through ad hoc


arrangements between governments or nonofficial organizations. The exhibits range in size from simple photographic or handicraft displays to large-scale commercial expositions involving the construction of special exhibit halls. In4 the USSR and Communist China completed imposing pavilions in Mali and held rival trade expositions there. Such presentations serve to encourage trade with the Communist countries and to advertise the cultural and economic accomplishments of Communism.

G. Exchange Programs

The Communist countries promote extensively the exchange of delegations, performing groups, and sports teams in order to establish personal contacts with selected groups in the less developed countries. Because these contacts are easily adapted to all fields, they afford opportunities to establish friendly relations and gain influence. The annual cost of all Chinese and Soviet exchange programs is estimated as high0 million, with the less developed countries accountingarge share of tlie total-

ommunist and less developed countriesarge number of delegations representing the fields of art, music, science, education, writing, and journalism and representing trade unions, youth organizations, and student organizations. Atelegations (compared withanging in size from one or two members to large groups ofraveled betweenand less developed countries during the year. India andwere the major less developed country participants, exchangingelegations, respectively. Among other importantGhana and Algeria each accountedelegations, Mali

ommunist China and tne less developedelegations, nearly half with African nations. These figures reflect ar. impressive growth in Peiping's use cfotalelegations traveled in both directions- During April andhina exchanged more thanelegations with African countries as partassive effort to win support for the abortive Afro-Asian Conference originaLly scheduled for5 In Algiers. Peiping reportedly paid all the expenses of the

Visitors to Communist countries from Africa, Asia,tln America generally receive red carpet treatment. The programs are well organized and often elicit favorable comment. Some visitors, however, have returned homeistaste for conditions under the Communist system. Forormer official at the Ghanaian Phibassy in Moscow remarked that not one prominent Ohanaian visitor to the USSR during his two-year tour in Moscow was favorably

Delegations to the USSR usually tour Moscow, Leningrad, and one or more cities of the Central Asian Republics. Kiev or the Caucasus region are sometimes included. Visitors are almost never taken to Moldavia, the Baltic States, and Karelia. During these tours, Soviet officials emphasize the theme of peaceful coexistence, present the USSRodel society, express admiration for the national cultures and achievements of the visitors' countries, and seek to demonstrate the rapid advances of the Soviet Asiatic Republics under Communism.

Visitors to Communist China may visit nine "open" cities: Canton, Peiping, Tientsin, Wu-han, Ranking, Wu-hsi, Soochow, Hangchow, and Shanghai. In contrast to the Soviet theme of peaceful coexistence, the Chinese underscore the themes of militant friendship and common struggle against imperialism and neocolonialism. The Chinese generallyore emotional appeal to visitors than do the Soviet officials by their enthusiastic welcoming of guests from less developed countries. EVeri visitors who arew*ranklng may be greeted by crowds of thousands and be received by top Chinese leaders.

eiping was involved in numeroushree-month tour offricansian nations by Premier Chou En-lai and Foreign Minister Chen Yi and visits to China by Indonesian President Sukarno, Princes Souvanna Phouna and Souphanouvong Of Laos, Prince Sihanouk of Cambodia, King Zanir Of Afghanistan, Kenya's Oginga Odinga, Sudan's General Abbud, Vice President Kawawa of Tanzania, Prince Abdallah of Morocco, President Massaroba-Debat of CongoMalian President Modibo Keita, and President al-Sallal of Yemen.

Aterforming groups (compared withl) were exelianged between Communist and less developed countriesbout half involving African countries. The USSR accounted for more thanercent of all such exchanges and Communist China for aboutercent- Although many of the less developed countries have called for more balanced cultural exchange programs, less than one-fifth of the performing groups were visitors to Communist countries.

As might be expected of any program, performances by Communist entertainment troupes in the less developed countries have had varied success. oviet dunce troupe in Jordan, the first Soviet cultural attraction to appear in that country, was unimpressive. Attendance for two performances In Amman totaled, but only, after the Soviet finbassyarge number of complimentaryoviet cultural group in Dahomey was termedoviet vaudeville troupe that performed at Hodeida, San'a, and Ta'izz in Yemen was not too successful. The troupe suffered even more in comparison with the success Of the Chinese Communist Shenyang Acrobatic Troupe performing in Yemen. The Chinese performances were timed to coincide with the anniversary of the Yemen revolution and the announcement of new Chinese economic aid tohinese acrobatic team that performed in Dahomey in5 was

a rousing ouccess, but ono Dahomean newspaper criticized Communist China for attempting to uoo Dahoineans with entertainment rather than technical/

The dearth of cultural attractions in many leas developedcakes Ccamunist pre sen tat ions welcome. The holding of suchonly in the major cities, however, has severely limited their impact on the general population.

Figures concerning the cost of Communist entertainment troupes are not available. Some idea of the magnitude of such costs, however, may De obtained from outlays connected with US cultural presentations in less developed countries. U3 the cost of such undertakings to tbe Department of State ranged0 for single entertainers to as highor orchestras and groups. Although the Communist countries have sponsored many presentations in the less developed countries free of charge or for nominal admission, they have also tried to conduct presentations strictly onbusiness basis. The Soviet Armenian folk dance group that performed In Lebanon late In I'X'-'iixed sum from tho Lebanese booking firm as well asLodging, and an allowance per diemor each member ofman group. During the first half5 the Colombia Artist Management,efused toour by the Soviet Ofllpova Balalaika Orchestra because Soviet terms vith overhead and other charges0 per performance would not make therofitable venture.

4 the Communist and less developed countries exchanged atthletic teams or training groups, LO percent of whichAfrican countries. Sports exchange programs may be quite sizable. For4 sports exchange agreement between Indonesia andChina provided for eight Indonesian teems to travel to China (these Included vaterpolo, badminton, table tennis, archery, gymnastics, fencing, and wrestling) and eight similar Chinese teams to Indonesia. In addition, nine coaches froa Communist countries were in Indonesia during the year to instruct in various sports.

H. Hconomic and Technical Assistance for Local Communications Media

As part of their cultural and propaganda activities in the less developed countries, the CosKunlst countries have extended economic and technical assistanceumber of countries for the development of local Information and cultural media. . and the endommunist economic credits and grunts for broadcasting and printing facilities, for news agency services, and for the construction of theaters, conference hails, and uporto stadiums totaled moreuch uid represents lessercent of ulL Communist assistance

ompilation of the types of aid provided, sec Table 9.


extended to the lees developed countries. Included in this assistance is the provision of material and equipment for project construction, the servicer, of Communist technicians to supervise construction, and the training of native technicians to operate the completed facilities.

Communist assistance also consists of scholarships forcourses in Communist countries, suchix-month television production seminar, anprinting course,ournalism program of five years. ln Czechoslovakia, East Germany, and the USSR havelargest shore of such trainees. As vith all training lnpeople fron the less developed countries who arcln communications media are often subjected to ideological Some of these trainees have cone under Communist Such Individuals arcnique position to spread theline, particularly in countries where they are the onlyln their

In addition to econoaic aid for local media, the Communisthave donated printing and broadcasting equipment, newsprint, films and projectors, and sports equipment to cultural and information ministries, educational institutions, and private cultural and political groups in the less developed countries. Such gifts, however, may come with conditions. There lo an unconfirmed report that Soviet printing machinery Intended for the publication of two dally newspapers by the Pan African Press which arrived in Kenya in Lhe summer5 was kept on the docks pending Kenyan acceptance of the condition that the Press would not accept any Chinese Communist material.

Ill. Cost of Communist Programs

- ii of^ i i.'. esor :'oreU;r. cultural and propaganda operations are not known. The costs of such activities are not indicated in the budgets of these countries but are probably subsumed under the large sraounts allocated for social,and educational programs. U, tbe USSRillion for social-cultural measures.) Communist expenditures for some activities in individual countries have been reported. These costs, however, represent only snail items in the total cultural and propaganda pro-ams of the Communist countries.

Worldwide Communist cultural and propaganda activities involve outlays as high asillion annually sndalf million people. In contrast, the authorized expenditures of USIA for fiscalh totaled lessillion, and the number of people employed by USIA during the year was less In the less developed areas the volume of Commijni st activities far surpassesUSIA activities. It would*oal the United Statinimum of0 million to duplicate the cultural and propaganda activities carried cut by the Communist countries in the less developed countries during Of this total, the USSR accounts for about one-hall', the East European countries for aboutua.rter, and Communist China for the bulk of the remainder.

IV. Prospects

In general. Communist propaganda and Cultural programs have been successful in enhancing the Communist image in the less developedand probably will continue to expand in the next few years. aximize the impact of these program are likely to include attempts to generate more audience interest, to introduce more subtlety inthemes, and to tailor such programs toward specific targetor groups within countries, in certain countriesor example, in India, Mali, and Ghanathe volume and variety of activities already is considerable. In these countries, continuing successes will depend largely upon further refinement of existing programs.

Activities will probably expand most rapidly in Africa, withemphasis on person-to-persor exchanges and activities in the field of local communications media. Activities in Asia and the Middle East will expand more gradually. In Latin America, written propaganda, trade fairs, and commercially profitable performances and film showings will remain important. Communist efforts to conclude cultural agreements with Latin American countries, however, will remain largely unfulfilled. India will continue to be the primary Soviet target, and Communist China will continue its attempts to increase its prestige among its less developed Asian neighbors. Sino-Soviet competition will continue to influence heavily the volume and content of Communist cultural andactivities in all less developed countries.

* reakdown of these costs, see

.'j II-




; lllilll

Tabic 6

Less Developed Countries Having Friendship and Cultural Societies with Communist Countries






lent ic


e but

a/ 0











7 7


I960 C

7 7


N.A. 7 0


ill II







Table 7

Communist Broadcasting to Less Developed4




European Communist countries

Far East b/





European Ccnmunist countries

Far Last fc/





European OanmuitSt countries



European Ccsiiiuniat countries




European Connunast countries

For East






IJ, iliiniiilliafa*I

Table 9

Communist Economic Aid to Less Developed Countries for Cultural and Information Facilities


Kenya Mail


Afghanistan Indoneale Laos Iraq

Noveaber IfA11


United Arab Republic 8

hina Guinea







(Hill lor. U3 j) Status






* transmitter


picture studio






aoaltorlax station

assistance in broad-

and tolevrlton

reporta for television

and broadcasting house

tower plans

radio stations

parts plant


theater and assembly hall


conference Ball

transmitting atationa

sports centar

OTpUted ), ttartIonunder nd 'cnti ruf tinn suspended}.

Table 10

USIA and Ccr-piunist Expenditures lor Cultural and Propaganda Activities

Thousand :JS

Authorized Expenditures fcr AllL

Costs Ir. Less

Communist Activities b/ Developed Countries cf

missions Press and publications

itv; Television

Administrative and other related expenses

Research and


Administration and ataffto other

Ai-. 1


Books ond

5inational cultural


Exchange programs

Administrative andexpenses 0

Authorized expenditures for all countries, including the less developed countries.

b. In general,f Ccmmunlat activities wore estimated by (l) deriving an average cost per unit fromITS cos!hecking the validity of such costs against available information or. actual expenditures,ultiplying the average cost per unit by the total nur.ber of units. ercentage for administrativether related expenses in total expenditures, derived from USIA budget information, vas added. The subtotals and the grand total thus obtained vere checked against available rough estimates froa other sources nnd seem to be reasonably valid.

c- deluding the cost of fl) books and periodicals publishedews agency and pressarticipation in international film festivals; andgifts of broadcasting, printing, and motion picture equipment.



1. perioral

Information inas obtained from general file materials Including many FBIS Items and State airgrams, none classified higher than CONFIDENTIAL.

ndere derived from the followingUSIA publications: Twelve Years of Communist, by Simonevelopments in Communist Bloc International Broadcasting0, Developments lnBloc International Broadcasting in the First Half5, Developments in Communist Bloc International Broadcasting1, Developments In International Broadcasting by Communist Countries, Developments in International Broadcasting by Communist Countriesa,

Informatlon on VOA broadcasting inas found in Hearings of the Congress of the United States on appropriations for theof State, Justice, and Commerce; the Judiciary; and related agencies

Sources forre the following unclassified USIA publications: Researchino-Soviet Bloc Periodicals Published in Free World1ino-Soviet Bloc Periodicals Published in Free World1elected Communist Foreign Language5eriodicals Exported by Communist Countries

as derived fron the USIA publication series on Communist cultural and propaganda activities in specified less developed areas and from general file materials.

as takenoviet Book Publishing for2MCUSSIr'IED, androm, AidActivities of Communist Countries in Less Developed Areas0 SMIiEr/'"

Information On the USIA budget in Table IC was taken from USIA, ?lsl Review of1NCLASSIFIED.

s froir.ropaganda,

2. Specific

EICid arid Trade Activities of CQewunlBt Coun-

tries ln Less Developed Arj;ttti_of the Free

cs,tov 6k. CS,



ov 6k. Katmandu. ul 6k. , U.

6 Oct 6k. U.

6 U.

CIA. . C.

CS, CS, C/

Dally Report (Kiddle East, Africa aad OFF USE-


CIA. CS,ov 6l. E CIA. CS, iT



CIA. CS, <


FBIS. Guide to Languages Used in International Broadcasting,


Munich. Alrgraaencl. U.


USIA, Brazzaville. 0 OFF USE.

China Reconstructs,- U.




Review, .

33. .

, l6 Sep 6k. OFF USE.

USIA, Cuntonou. ec 6k. OFF USE.

State, Contonou. 8 0.



Original document.

Comment about this article or add new information about this topic: