SOVIET INVOLVEMENT WITH THE DEVELOPMENT OF PORTS ON THE MEDITERRANEAN AND RED S

Created: 6/1/1967

OCR scan of the original document, errors are possible

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SUBJECT

Herman Dvorfcln

Senior Advisor, DTAAP 3A3

Defense Intelligence Agency -

uilding, Arlington, Hell Station

TranJErfttel of JuAaaadnw on Harlot Tnvolvconnt with the .Pcrolb^n^

roneenthe--Fere ten Qolf,.Indian Ocean'Md-IOcptlg^

request readily at

ttoft-to yonr yed onlyonstraints of tic. TM *tlon haa been coordinated, urrcrthelcca, wltb all responsible area and functional specialists ln tale oTganltatlon.

2- Despite the large area Involved tn roar requlrecent,port or shipyard development was foand to be

relatively door end United prlaarilyew projects in Egypt, the Ycaea and the

FOB TEE DIBECTOH Of RESEABCH AHD BEKSTSl

Ecoacadc Beoearoh Area

Enclosure i

As stated above'.

MOIP I

Involvement of the USSK In the development of porta, shlpyarda or drydocks in the subject area under survey has concentratedon shipyard facilities, ot Alexandria, Egypt and on construction and expansion of port facilities at Berbers in the Somali Republic and Hodeida-in the Yemen. Facilities at tbese strategic locations

e> t

could be used for refuelling, maintenance and repair of Soviet naval and merchant ships, but also are consistent with each country's own requirements.

The USSR has been involvedmaller scale in the development of port facilities toishing fleet at Terns in Gliana, where Soviet influence, is now fairly well discredited. urveyhipyard at Basrah, Iraq, was also carried out sometime ago but there are no indications of further Involvement. Although the Soviets are participating in the development of. internal transportation facilities in other countrics.'including Syria and Indonesia, there is no evidence that they are or have been engaged elsewhere in the area in the development of port, shipyard or drydock facilities.

L, Bgyot

A new shipyard at Alexandria is being constructed at an ectimatcd cootillion credit has been provided by the USSR. Tbe prime contractor is an Egyptian firm but the USSR is assisting with the design and is providingengineers and moat of the Imported machinery. Construction hao

been in progress since atnd Initially was scheduled for completion The first stage was officially opened in5 with the capability of building and repairing coastal ships, tugs and pilot and fishing boats upross tons. Pour tugs and three submarine chasers were assembled At least one navel vessel of destroyer size built at Alexandria has already been launched.

Tho shipyard vill have after completion, probablyeet of fitting-out wharves and two bulldingways,eet long, capable of building cargo ships up0 dwt or tankers up0 dwt. hird buildingway will be used for the construction of smaller ships. The yard will be equipped with cranes with lifting capacitiesoons. Sovietore staffing the vocational training center which the USSRfor the shipyard. Soviet VTP interest in the project continues as evidenced by the visit of the Soviet Deputy Minister ofin6 to "coordinate cooperation for thef shipbuilding at Alexandria".

The Soviets ore involved in Egyptian ports and shippingumber of other minor ways. The USSR furnishedU for Alexin-drialoating dockona capacity built at Kherson shipyard.

There was also an agreement by the SovietsU toin the developmentishing port at Rss Uanss. An

estimated requirement ofillion was toleet ofishing boatsannery. The agreement was renewed inith stipulations for services to be rendered to Soviet fishing boats to be included in later agreements. There is no evidence ofat the port. Inoint Egyptian/Soviet merchant shipping line was establishednd Soviet technicians have participated in feasibility studiesrojected commercial port near Damietta..

To date, Soviet participation in Egyptian port and shipyard development has not resulted in any particular advantages for the USSR. Port and shipyard improvement has long been an important goal of Egyptian planning. Cairo is anxious to improve itG own growing naval end maritime capability, in order to reduce its foreignfor naval repairs and for civil shipping and marine services. Furthermore, drydock and repair facilities near the Suez Canalre seen as significant, prospective earners of hard currency. To this end, Egypt- has soughtVand received assistanceumber of non-Soviet sourcesotably West Germany and Yugoslavia. Soviet and other Communist merchant shipping, in common with all merchant shipping, has access to Soviet-built facilities and to the West-German built drydock in Alexandria, the Yugoslav -built floating drydock in that port, and the West German-built and supervised shipyard near ort Said. The Soviets are not known to have sought or received any jmrtxcular concessions for their naval vessels.

The USSR haa been involved3 with the construction of the Somali port of Berberu, strategically located on the Gulf of Aden not far from the Red Sea. The port Is expected to serveovul base an wellommercial port. 6 million were allotted to this port development project as partd.llloo line of credit extended by tho USSR Estimated total cost of construction was aboutillion.

Development plans include the following:

to permit entry of shipsraught of

eters;

loadingotal lengtheters;

square

meters of covered warehousing;

/square

of open storage area;

- administrativeivingcapacity of tbe port is to be 'lOO.OOO toos per year.

Initiallyoviet technicians were to be employed end the number was to increase. Howevernlyoviet technicians had been Identified as^prcsent at the port.

The total amount of equipment and material delivered tonot known. However5 the following waa delivered

1 Barge, self propelled;

2 Dredges;

1 Drilling rig;

p. Pilefloating);

1 Tugboat, kjingle screw;

ons ofeter lengths);

ons of timber;

tons of cementons of otheror all of which may have been for the port project.

ort was originally scheduled for completionowever US officials who toured the port in0 reported that tbe project wouldear or more for completion. At that time one-fourth of the dock piling waa in place. They alsothat the slow progress was evidently not duehortage of material or unusual engineering problems but rather to the failure of the -Somali government to pay local workers. The Soviet chief engineer was openly annoyed at the failure of the Somalia to. provide enough labor. eport

, inhe project .wasercentinisited the port.

3. Yemen

Soviet technicians were engaged in the construction of the

-

portde Ida.illion wasto this port constiucticnac**partine of credit from the USSR which was extended

The scope of this project included the following:

a channel nine kilometers longepth or

eet.

Oonatructioneet of docking space. uays)

Installation of three cranes each of five tons capacity.

Constructionarehouse0 square meters

of storage space.

achine shop for the'repair of small

ship ports, cranes and motor cars.

Installationresh water supply

InstallationK diesel power 'Station.

ort illumination system for night

operations.

Installation of eight vertical and five horiztonal fuel

storage tanksombined capacity ofmeters. Two of these tanks can bethe storage of bunkering

In addition there are at the port six high pressure underwaterfor the discharge'of oil cargo and for bunkering. Three axend threeiameter. An unusual aspect of the present harbor installation is the cranes which are only capable of handling five tons. All observers sgrecNhai; -the crane base is sapable of lifting much more; simply by replacing the cableortion of the arm the cranes would5 too'capacity and be capable of off-loading

heavy equipment.

oviet technicians andemeni workers were employed on the project which was completed and officially turned over to the Yemeni government in At that time aboutfoviet technicians remained on the job to train Yemeni personnel and to act as pilots for ocean ships. ozen Soviets were assigned as permanent advisors. Yemen remains dependent upon Soviet assistance if it intends to maintain the harbor in its present condition and introduce modifications from time to time. Although the port was intended to be capable of0 ton ships, western observers report that the channel ls too shallow toully0 tonner. Moreover, depth alongside the quays isoeet in some places but onlyeet at ends of quays. The port has not been dredged since completion2 and the Soviet dredge has boon removed.

k agreement, the fishing port at Hodeidao be expanded by ko percent of its present capacity. Estimated cost including the cannery,ishing boatsew power station, is aboutillion: Construction is scheduled to begin in Perhapsoviet technicians were involved in planning for this project Tbe agreement states that Yemen will provide the Soviet fishing fleet with facilities, water, fuel, supplies and repairs.

Hodeida is Yemen's only modern port and has begun handling a

significant share of Yemeni foreign trade. Most goods destined for Yemen passed through Aden prior Since that time, direct deliveries to Hodeida, almost entirely on Cornaunist and Egyptian vessels, have increased, and roughly one-quarter of Yemen'sforeign trade probably is being handled through Hodeida. In addition, all seaborne military equipment deliveries from thecountries and from Egypt-arc made to Hodeida, and Hodeida is the terminus for all Egyptian seaborne personnel movements. As presently constructed, Hodeida is notesirable port for submarines or .other naval Iraq

Although the Soviets are major participants in theof tbe standard gauge railroads to both the ports of Basrah and Urn Qasr, the only Soviet, port-related project known in Iraqow-completed surveyhipyard st Basrah. Cost of thewns> million paidoviet line of credit issued in Ko workhipyard has been detected and further details are unavailable. 5- Ghana

Bloating repair workshlploating dock to the Tema fishing portu. These facilities are not in use, however, as the repair ship has electrical and other operational difficulties and no means exist to repair the floating dock. The

Ghanion government hopes to use the repair ship at some other harbor; no plane exist for acquiring aore floating docks or for otherto Tema by the Soviets. ritish firm is nov enlarging the port.

6. Guinea

The Soviets, Poles, and West Germans have all attempted to assist the Guincon fishing industry during the past few years, but little has been accceaplished. I2 the Soviets supplied new berths and made minor repairs at Conakry ond provided lighterage equipment. Early? the USSR turned down Guineas requests for the constructionish cannery and fishing boat building facility. On7 West Germanyillion grant toocal fishing industry under close German The projecthipyard Installation with fishing boat construction facilities.

Original document.

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