Created: 4/1/1967

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Secret '



Intelligence Mernorand um

Soviet Civil Defense: Policies and Priorities

1.1 f


Recent developments in Soviet, strategic programs and indiscussions on arms limitations suggestneedeviewurrent basisi Soviet programs and plans for civil defense in relation to overall Soviet military priorities.

This memorandum discusses (a) current civil defense programs in the USSR, (b) indications of new or impending developments, and (c) the role of civil defense in overall Soviet military doctrine.

Three appendixesrganization and Operation of Soviet Civi:Selected Soviet Statements on Civil Defense, and the Soviet Civil Defense Statutere included to provide additional detailed information on the operation and legal basis of the Soviet civil defense program.


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liicontrasttocostlyadviincvti weapons program* that are improving Soviet capabilities to respond to surprise Attack. Soviet civil defense programs continue to stress low-cos[approaches to population protection and would require up to several days ot strategic warning to assure

survival for sipti:is. Recent level political interest in civil defense preparedness seems aimed largely atpressuring local officials to implement their existing responsibilities lor traininguipping local civil defense units. The leadershipcontinues to rejecton^mic grounds the feasibilityationwide shelter progiam for the population.

Soviet leaders have not publicly expressed their view* of thebetween ballistic missile defenses and civil defenseMoscow ABM system will probably depend, at least Initially,of incoming missiles outside the earth's .umitSphere nndadd directly to the fallout levels of the defended territory.planners probably also realize thai air and misefensesnext few years will not oe sufficientlyt be extensive enough to permitSR lowhen danger of strateeit' .lUick arisi-*.

onftterre* :jons I'll lino" Ihe Ministry u: Defense ints planning andt-crcasinuly untie" "lift influence otrail Soviot ir.iiii.: ijiinkinw. im-.

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ssistuibanevacuees to relocate in ruralrovide emergency rescue and reclamation work in largetareas,aintain or reestablish government control of the rear areasuclear attack, thereby minimising the necessity to use ground troops for this purpose. Other aspects of civil defense to reassure the Sovietand to convey the image abroad of Soviet determination to risk nuclear war under some situationsre probably also present to some degree as underlying considerations in Soviet civil defense planning.

Although the USSR has not undertaken to provide shelters for the

general urban population, some special facilities have been constructed.

The degree of hardening of these shelters and their readiness in terms

of supplies and equipment are not well known. Many of these are the

World Warasement type (concentrated in urbannd mostare

not designed to protect against more than moderate blast damage. They

arc probably not adequate to provide fallout protection for more than ahout

oercent of the population. More secure and hardened quarters

for the civil defense command and control staffs and facilities havebeen provided, however.

There arearge number of postwar masonry structures in the USSRthatdonotnowcontainshelterprovisioni. Parts of these buildings are suitable for adaptation as emergency fallout shelters. It seems clear, however, that no large-scale effort has yet been undertaken to label, improve, and stock them. Shortages of available shelters are to be overcomeccording to Soviet civil defense literature through the adaptation of suitablo structures and the construction of field-typeThese improvised shelters will probably not be preparederiod of threat has been declared.

Improvement* incivil defense preparedness are being advocated bv highlevels of the party, government, and the military. There is as yet, however, little evidence (I) lhat basic concepts aremodified because of the accelerated pace of advanced eaponi development, Substantially Increased resources ate being made av. liable. Measure* taken to -lateo be directed toward instilling more vigor into implementingdirective- through increased pressures on loca. administrator*civil defense sraffs to force them u. act on thi-ir responsIbilIdas for planning shelter spaces, securing siocks ofsupplies and equipment, and toi organising and equipping-.laitii.

Much uf ihu responsibility for implementation ul civilncluding linancingon sf ruction and providing equipnnni

and survivals decentralized to the level of local gove rnment administrators and economic manage rs. Apathyart has limit ed the present effectiveness of the Soviet civil defense system.

Civil defense still encounters apathy in the USSR and probably will continue toictim of the competition for funds among various Soviet economic and military programs. Nevertheless, the unusual publicof Civil defense efforts by Brezhnev and Malinovskiy0 atj Party Congress indicates that civil defense will have some high-level support in pursuit of theas establishedi< control and communications.

Development Phases in Soviet Civil Defense

Since World War IL, Soviet civil defense has generally lagged behind the requirements posed by nuclear weapons developments, This has been in part the result of an apparent reluctance On the part of Soviet officials to disseminate information on Ihc effects of nuclear weapons to the general public. It seems also to have stemmed in part from high-level indecision over what direction to take in civil defense preparations, or evenoverigh-confidence civil defense system was economically feasible.

For example, information on atomic weapons was not incorporated into Soviet civil defense training in any measure4ine years after Hiroshima and five years after the first Soviet atomic test. Thus,ost-war lull in civil defense activities. Soviet civil defense ineriodrogram which appeared to be geared to preparationsecurrence of World War II type of aerial attack. This period was highlightedartial revival of civil defensein major plants andoderate level of training activity carried on by DOSAAF (the Soviet paramilitarynd theof basement shelters in new masonry buildings.

Following the test of US and Soviet thermonuclear weapons in thes, and the new dimension addedossible future war by the development Of missile delivery systems, the USSReriod of indecision, when civil defense shelter construction wascurtailed but training and some other activity was continued-There is evidenceigh-level controversy Over civil defense at this Lime which way Apparently settled by rejecting proposals to construct blast shelters lor the general urban population but continuing the civil defense effort that emphasizes control, an enlarged area type ofand the use of urban evacuation and improvised shelter to reduce casualties. *

ewc-rense law was adopted,l^ several iitips nave beer taken thar are aimed at achieving the operational

* The supporters oj civil defense in the USSR may come substantially fru:s! ihoho military. Historically, the following marshals at

i- KmcEither endorsed civil defense or permitted theiro Mil ii in publications under their editorship. Voroshiiuv, IWJcnny.ov. Zhukov. Vasilevskiy, Konev, Sokolovskiy. and Chuykov. Marshal Malinovskiy and Communist Party Chairman. hui unique, remarks in support of civil defense at :ho

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capability which nowtated peacetime goal. These include the extension of the civil defense system into the countryside, the increased mobility of civil defense units, and initial planning for urban evacuation (see Secrecy has been reduced and the Soviet people are better informed about nuclear effects than was the case earlier- arge, revised civil defense literature has been published, and the content of civil defense matters in paramilitary periodicals has been increased. The USSR hasetwork of civil defense schools for professional staff officers, for the civilians who have leadership or technical roles in emergency, and for public instructors- Nationwide civil defense communications support facilities have reportedly been brought into operation- Reports of civil defense drills, exercises, and competitions have also occurred with increasing frequency since

. Consequently, significant increases in the number and rank of Civil defense Staff officers have probably taken place during the past

few years.

II. Civil Defense in the Current Penod: Concepts and Plans

A. Soviet Concepts of the Threat

Soviet spokesmen have repeatedly stated that the principal threat to the USSR is presently seenossible "rocket-nuclear" war. * The Soviet leadersather clear picture of the nuclear weapons Slrike force which might be used against them and they have repestcdly stated they would expect their centers of population, industry, communications, and administration lo be attacked, ln this situation, these leaders are coming to view the rear area of the countryationwide theater of operationseed for coordinated passive defense on the part of both military and civil deiense units. rasriiiya avesda, some joint military-civil defense exercises have already taken place- 1 Civil defense has thus taken its place in military theory with such other defense measures as intelligence and warning oi atrack, active air and rocket defense, and military passivel! Ol which would contribute to the reduction of damage and casualties.

S. The System

The Soviet civil defense system emphasizes the use of existing asset*human, material, and organizational. Citizens are subject to

* Some consideration is given in civil defense equipment and training to possible chemical and biological attack, bul major attention remains centered ongainftl nuclear weapons (see Appendix li).


compulsory training and Arc obligated by law to serve in civilunits if selected for this duty. Most transport, construction, and farm equipment is State property and thus subject to mobilization foruse- Government leaders, police, firemen, medical personnel, and othersart ol the civil defense system by virtue of their civilian position.

rganization, the Soviet civil defense scheme provides for control responsibility by the civilian leaders who correspondS governors, mayors, plant managers, and the like. However, itarge, permanent corps uf specially trained military staff officers, assigned to civil defense headquarters from the national to the City level (see These officers are obviously the principal force for planning and direction. The headquarters and staffs of civii defense are now, according to Soviet sources, served bypecial, nationwide civil defense communications sy stem for warning and controi. Other communications in Ihe civilian sector would probably also be used as extensions of this system in an emergency.

The Soviel civjl defense system lays great stress oi- intensive public training, and it has underrogram in both urban and rural areas toarge organization of operating units predominantly civilian in character (see Allhough lhe call for "combat readiness" has been sounded by Soviet civil defense officials, and unit drills and exercises are indicated in the press, the aims of the systemombat capability have admittedly not yet been achieved.

C, Shelter and Evacuation

It is pr obable that the OSSR has developed dispersed and secure quarters for civil defense communications and control. Aside :rom these, existing Soviet air raid shelters and adaptedrobabl sufficient to shelter only aboutoercent of the population Aexists in the USSR io copy the US example in surveying and marking fallout shelters for most of the urban population in themasonry buildings and apartment houses which have been built since World War il. For the present, most Soviet citizen* would have to rely for falluut protection on the adapted quarters Ori-'lEers which thev are taught how to prepare in emergen

in combinationimprovised fallout shelter, ihevil defense system places great reliance on dispersal or strategicof the greater part of the urban population, to be accomplishedeveloping emergency and prior to hostilities, * wouldlu-red. fed, and employed tor an indefinite period intiural areas.

With its heavy reliance on precautionary urban evacuation and fallout shelter to bc improvised in an emergency, any effective operation of the Soviet civil defense systemwould now depend on warning of atay or two- This leads lo an inference that the Soviet civil defense scenario for possible nuclear war does not give great credence to the possibility of surprise attack. Rather, the Soviet leaders appear to see an escalating situation or confrontation at some point in which they might conclude from intelligence or other information that the United States was preparing to attack and that urgent preparations should bc instituted.

D. ABM and Fallout Shelter

In the almost complete secrecy surrounding the Sovietand the scmi-sccrccy devoted to the civil defense system,not surprising that there has been no information disclosed'tv;tuii thi! r thei v. ne min shelter and active defense systems might the USSR follows US civil defense developmentsand it must be assumed thai Soviet officials haveconsidered the potential ofomplementary system. arge space potential for development of fallout shelter,far, there is no evidence of Any program to mark, improve,the quarters available in adaptable structures. There canspeculation as to what reasons have prevented them fromstep. First, they may be simply unwilling to devote l. r:. not y< '

al the stage where it could be considered reliable enough lhat contingency urban evacuation could be forgone. Third, the projected Soviet ABM system may be forew cities and thus would not be taken into account for general civil defense planning. This is not to say. of course, that the Soviet leaders, impelled by future un-Certainties over warning time and new weapons development, may not moverogram of marking and stocking fallout shelters-

E- Purposes Served by Soviet Civil Defense

ll has been stated that civil defense is now an integral part ii Soviet national defense. There- is no doubt that its directors see it first of allrudential system designed to maintain control, to save lives, and to reduce damage in the event of nuclear war. li must bc pointed out, however, that civil defense may serve other purposes- First, its existence serves to support in some measure a


Soviet image at home and abroadower ready to face the risk of nuclear war in defense of its own or Its allies' vital interests. It would be of some reenforcing valueonfrontalion because resolveituation of pussinle nuclear war may be highly suspect in the absence of some civil defense precautions. Second, the character of Soviet civil defense with its emphasis on last-mlnutc preparations might permit it to serve as one tool in confrontation. For example, if the USSR moved to evacuate cities at some point in an escalating situation, it would appearore determined opponent. tep wouldangerous one in escalation, however, ii evacuation were construed asoviet intention to attack.) Third. Soviet civil defense serves at homeropaganda vehicle pointing up the continuing antagonism of the Communist and capitalist segments of the world. Fourth and last. Soviet civil defense serves lo reassure the public to some extent that something can be done for its protection in nuclear war, and it provides direcicd activity which may allay anxiety.


UI. Trends

Civil defense still encounters apathy in the USSR and probably will continue toictim of the competition for funds among various Soviet economic and military programs. Nevertheless, the unusual public cndoricmcni of civil defense efforts by Brezhnev and Malinovskiy6 at the 2Jd Party Congress indicates that civil defense will have some high-level support ir. pursuit of the goals it hasrained citizenry: tested evacuationarge, mobi'e rescue for re; and secure control And communications.

Because of the emphasis now placed in military theory on rasr area il is expected that the USSR will move further toward ati raar areaontrol. tructure, in

d ita designnd tc achieve'.HCiri! ctmtrolitldd active ind reserver,; police find fcwurUv troops, uar-ir.iilu*ry orgar...

nd mc soviet civil ti orfianiaa^iv^.



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The USSR has the advantage of some civil defense operational experience gamed during World War II Although the system was not as severely tried as the German, the USSR cites noteworthy per forma nc by civilian defense organizations in such cities as Leningrad. Moscow, Volgograd, and Sevastopol. After the war, civil defense conceptslo stress the urban organization and durings some train ing and shelter construction in cities took place. Called Local Antiair Defensehe civil defense structure under the Ministry of Inter nai Affairs (MVD) depended on municipal servicend lactones for the nuclei of civil defense units.

threateningity civil defense units were to be mobilizedhe population preparing shelter, blackout, and (ire prevenein res Upon "air alert,"everyone in the city was to seek lhe best available shelter. After attack, City and factory units and citizen self-dclcnac groups *crc to take appropriate steps in such activities as rescue, fire lighting, and repair.

I. Com roversy

With ilie development of larger nuclear weapons and missile deliverhe World War II civil defense concept was clearly found to be outmoded in tht Civilhe USSR was alto plagued by lackigh-level support, indifference on the part of some local official" d public apathy toward tHe training programs. ignificant high- level rontroversy developed in" over .ii defense and particularly over whether or not heavy, liljst rC-Siaiani shelters should Ite provided lor the population of large Sovkm cities. t? high cost ofrogram Wmt apparently found touii

ie material and financial capabilities to construe! atomic

n? ihc entire population. "

V, medical,uni^-ations. and the


Meanwhile, he Ministry ol Internal Affairs hadand the civil defense function transferred to the Ministry(MOD), lt may be speculated that the militaryardits new responsibility andourse of action whicha new civil defense lawhe appointmentovielI. Chuykov) as Chief of Civil Defense, andeavily publicizedcongress, heldhich clearly signaled the decisiona Soviet civil defense program reorganized and altered

J- Concepts

Although giving some attention to the possibility of chemical and bacteriological attack. Soviet civil defense is now concerned primarily with the threat of nuclear attack by the United States. Soviet military theorists point to the strong attack potential in the US military posture. For example, one Soviet author7 readiness goal of the United States to be: 4 Minutemen and Titan ICBM's inolaris missiles in submarines,trategic bombers remaining in service. He saw no reason to expect any early, significant reduction in this force level. Along with this potential enemy strike force, the USSR probably finds sources of uneasiness concerning passible eventual conflict in past and present international developmentsor example, the Berlin crises, the Cuban affair, talk of the NATO multilateral force and nuclear arms for West Germany, and the continuing conllict in Vietnam.

In the world of competing political systems, heavy armaments, and periodically unsettled affairs, the Soviet leadersajor war possible,l inevitable If major war should occur, they insist that il will be rocket-nuclear war with weapons directed nut only at military targets in the USSR but also at centers of population, administration, communications and industry. Both military and civil defense spokesmen havv pointed out that active air and rocket defense may be less than perfect. Thus, huge casualties and material losses could occur. Through this line of reasoninghey art lead to the corollary that precautionary steps must be taken In the fields ol rear area defense and civil delmsr. Repeatedly, Marshal V. I Chuykov, Chief oi Civil Defense, lias staled that civil defense is an essential part of overall preparation for tho dvfense of the USSR It thuslace with strategic warning, precautionary or preemptive attack, and active air and rocket defense measures. Accordingon. the authorities have noi expressed the concept thai the deployment ot an ABM system is dependent on civil defense or shelter preparations Rather, ihey seem io findl civil defenseecessary measure in any possible nuclear war.

By Soviet definition, civil defenseystem of state measures which are being readied in peacetime for the purpose of defending the population and the economy front weapons of mass destruction and lo accomplish the preparation necessary arry oul rescue andrepair work. In general terms, the missions of civil defense are to insure the continuing functioning of the state in wartime, tothe survival of the population, to continue the operation of the economy, and to secure the possibility of mililary mobilization andsupport for the armed forces.

The USSR has found the point (or city) civil defense concept to be clearly outmoded for rocket-nuclear war with the attendant conditions of heavy damage and widespread fallout. Writing Colonel General O. V. Tolstikov acknowledged this situation, as follows:

If under earlier conditions our cities, using their own resources could solve the problems of protecting the population and economic installations from enemy air attacks and of dealing with the damage caused by bombardment, contemporary .conditions will require the use of greater forces and. . That

is why local antiair defense has ceased to be local and hastate-wide system and is therefore called civil defense, since it requires the activeof every . On the collective

farms, state farms, and other agriculturalnonmilitary formations are being organized with the primary purpose of rehabilitation after enemy.

Knowledge of Soviel civil defense operational plans is not However, it is clear from statements by Soviet leadersreliance on intelligence and from civil defensei. they discount the possibility of surprise attack. Civil defense plait Avr* appear to see the scenario for nuclear war as an escalatingr confrontation with last-minute preparations possible at someperiod of threat. " Thesu preparations include the posn of civil defense units and staffs, readying communications for civ defense use, evacuation or dispersal of the greater part of the un. population lo small towns or rural areas, readying of existing shel-vr& and the construction or adaptation of additional fallout shelterfter an attack, command posts would initiate rescue and reenve rv


operations usingblr umls and able-bodied survivors from among llie civilian population. At lhe orderuperior staff, forces from neighboring cities and the surrounding rural area could be brought in lo assist operations.

At present, Soviet civil defense goals include compulsory andtraining for (he general population: largeobile, civil defense units composed of the citizenry; an effective civilianassisted by trained, military-type siaff officers; developed and tested plans for urbanecure nationwide system ofand control; and military-civil defense cooperation Inand effecting rear area defense measures. Combat readiness for operation is an expressed goal, but this has not been achieved in most areas and no set date for such an accomplishment has been seen.

*. Organization

Headquarters of civil defense exist at all levels of government in the USSR. At the nationaloviet 4 1 hai is Chief of Civil Defense. Below this level (republic, oblast, city, andhe responsible chiefs of civil defense are the civilian heads of government. Similarly, the heads of schools, hospitals, factories, farms, and housing offices arc chiefs of civil defenseesponsible for civil defense preparations in their area or installation.

However, the headquarters of civil defense from the city levelemploy military-type, civil defense staff officer specialists who arc probably the full-time operators of the civil defense system, responsible

nol only to the local civilian chief of civil defense, but also to higher civil defense headquarlcrs, and ultimately to the Ministry of Defense. Thus Ihc headquartersity of moderate size mightoull-lime staff officers plus civilian employees. The heads of variousdepartments (police, fire, medical, communications, construction, and the like) also serve on civil defense stalls where they head the analogous civil defense "services" (order, ttreftghting. rescue, medical aid. repair, and the like). Under the cily services, and at factories, forms, and other centers, "non-militarized'* operating units of civilians are organized.

Although lhe true size of Soviet operative unitsunknown, uithur as to goals or currently opt-rational units, military and civil deteine spokesmen have emphasised lhat the required number of unus il "large" and that civil defense formations require "millions" of tramod

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.persons in large states. They are probably thinking in terms ofillion or more citizens enlisted into active civil defense roles.

Since the transfer ol civil defense to the Ministry of Defense, local civil defense headquarters have probahly been made operationallyto the military district. It is also believed that all military district headquarters now include civil defense offices, and in two districts, general officers have been identified as Assistant Commanders for Civil Defense, lt thus appears that theilitary Districtof the USSK are prepared tooint military-civilresponsibility for rear area defense operations in an emergency.

5. Civil Defense Changes, Q-66

umber ol significant steps have been taken in the reorganization and development of Soviet civil defense.

The concept of civil defensen radically altered from one of point or city defense to one of area operations involving the entire country. Preparations for area defense have included the extension of the civil defense organization into the countryside, increased mobilityivil defense units for operation, and planning for precautionary urban

A new civil defense law was adopted This law defined Soviet civil defense and Us tasks and appointed Marshal Chuykov as Chief of Civil Defense. (Earlier the chief of civil defense was unidentified, but he probably was the Minister of Internal Affairs.) 1 law specifies universal civil defense training for Soviet citizens, andade service in civil defense units compulsory with few exceptionsomenond menoears of age. For civil defense training, th* lav specifies that unit participants may be excused from work upve davs per year without loss of pay. supervisors upays. The civilresponsibilities of central government ministries and other offices are spelled out in some deiail. as arc those of lower levels olOSAAF (the Soviet pa rami!ita ry society) and the Soviet Red Crci* and Red Crescent Societies were charged in; law wiih the naming of the population in civil defense and first aid, as well as propar;iiu some civilian le-iders. technicians, and "reserve" nurses. inal Atilionol the law indicated jjonerallv thai costs are to be divided anion* nir'.sirit'S, localities, and in*ial!aiior.t.

Relicoture in acquainting the Soviet population with the effect*uclear weapon* has beun substantially reduced. The Soviet citi'.en i

better informed on this subject than he was in thes. Such knowledge, of course, is basicivil defense system relyingarge measure on self-help, neighborly aid, and the post-attack use of thein civil defense tasks. Weapons information generally, however, is held to the effects of one weapon; descriptions of multiple weapon fallout patterns have not been- seen in the USSR.

arge, new revised literature on civil defense has been prepared and printed, including many popular-level pamphlets, school texts,umber of specialized and increasingly technical manuals on such subjects as decontamination, evacuation, rural civil defense, engineer rescue operations, and civil defense in industry. Themagazine Voycnnyye snaniy* wasoint civilpublicationubstantial increase in civil defense content Training dims, slides, and posters are prepared for publicity and training use.

A network of civil defense schools has been enlarged in the USSR These include "courses" for ncnfcr officers in Moscow; theschool ofear's duration for civil defense staff officers; "courses" in several large cities for civilian leaders with operational civil defense duties; and DOSAAF-operalcd civil defense schools for team leader technicians, and for the instructors who conduct civil defense training for the general public. It is possible that lower-level DOSAAF schools are being phased out while the number of higher-level civil defense schools or courses (kursi) it being increased. More and more courses employing military officers as instructors are being mentioned in civil defense literature, lt is likely that each oblast capital may soonivil defense school run by professionals. Tinsew military academy-type civil defense school will open near Moscow. Its graduates,hree-year course, will receive civil defense commissions. Specialties provided for include construction and engineering equipmenti communicatm and chemisl ry.

The Svvict aut.'o'iiies claim that uniform signals and immediate communication* tor civil defense have been established for theritory of the USSR. Other government communications are probably imerwovcn with ihc civil defense commumcations system. This is possible because the -Minister of Communications is the highem civil defense communications officer, charged by law with providing, effective civil defense communications.

Sincehe iiiilitary staffcorpsi"use uasbeen enlarged and higher ranks assigned. Now. at federal civil defense headquarters.. Chuykov is Chiel of Civil Delense. Colonel Gcnural O- V. Tolstikov is First Deputy Chiefhut uf Siafi and Licutonan:rai G. lsakov is Chief of the Combat I'l^ining


Administration. At least three of the fifteen republics have general officers serving as chief of the civil defense staffs, and at least two military districts have general officers who are Assistant Commanders for Civil Defense.

6. alni iig

It was noted earlier that public civil defense training in the USSR is compulsory in theory and law. Civil defense officials have Stated that every Soviet citizen must know the rules of behavior in response to civil defense signals, how to use the gas mask and protective clothing, how to construct [field-type] shelters, how to adapt residential quarters and other facilities for use as shelter, how to administer first aid to oneself and others, and how to function in civil defense formations. hen atomic defense was introduced into public training, four courses (fromoours in length) havebeen given for the average citizen of the USSR, The fifth, thehour course, has been concluded in most areas,hour trainirjg program for workers has been Because of apathy on the part of the public and some local officials, as well as for other reasons, the courses have met with only limited Success. Best achievement has been registered in places of employment in industry, while farm programs and those in housing areas are frequently criticized as being weak Or even non-existent. However, Soviet announcements of achievement in theseercent success and "substantial" completion in two of the five courses) and the compulsion exercised in schools and places of work combine to suggest that about one-half the Soviet citizens have been exposed to instruction: many probably have had repealed training in basic self-defense.

It has already been noted that the USSRomplex of schools and courses for civil defense staff officers, for public instructors, and for those citizens with operational unit tasks to be performed in an emergency.

ivil defense exercises have been steadily reported from various areas of the USSR. ew small-scale activities haw hv>?i? seen by travelers, and it is probable thatort is made no:exercises in the presence of foreign nationals. Accounts ofand civil defense competitions appear frequently in Soviet paramilitary publications, however. ecent article in Krasnaeoted thai joint military-civil defense exercises haduccessful inc*3Ci-and the author advocated that more be held. xerciseshave been limited thus far in area and scope. Among rhenii:o be most common are unit and factory exercises and 'Vnratio;

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or "test cxcrcuci performed with the goal of instructing sn audience Of civil defense workers. However, civil defense officials have followed the lead of military theoreticians in calling for "combatnd this should presage more and larger civil defense drills and tests during Ihe next several years (see

7. Evacuation*

A discussion of Soviet preparations for urban evacuation must bc prefaced by two reservations. First, the USSR is notactical evacuation of urban residents after receiving tactical warning of attack. Rather it is preparing what might be called strategicor the thinning out of the urban populationeriod of threat. Thus, the program resembles the dispersal uf some urban residents of European cities in World War II (for example, school children from London). Second, Soviet evacuation is not seenubstitute for fallout shelter; rather the civil defense scheme in the USSR combines urban evacuation with the use of improvised or best available fallout shelter for everyone, wherever located.

Evacuation was first mentioned in the USSRhen it was noted that some civil devense operating units should leave the city in anin order to preserve their operational capability, oviet civil defense farm manual noted briefly that the larms should be prepared to receive urban evacuees. The general scheme of evacuation0 manual. With adequate warning time, evacuation was tononworkers, particularly students and older people,who would be resettled for some time in small towns or rural villages, tcr literature indicates that some institutions. Such as schools and hospitals, and even some industry might be relocated. If time permitted, full evacuation would leave only essential workers on shift remaining in Soviet cities. 4 the Chief of Civil Defense wrote, "The basic method of protecting the population is dispersal or evacuation Irom large citieii winch are probably

' Kvaculation is not peculiar to Soviet civil delense thinking, hierman Kahnombination of shcltrr and urban ivacuaiion for the United States, Sweden, traditionally aconnc iOUS ieade! tn civil defense preparations, movedolicy combining urbanand sheller prior More recently, several US Itudtai liave reexamined urban evacuation and the use ol improvised or best available shelter.

Evacuation planning is being accomplished both for civil defense um: and for the general population. There is no evidence .hat such plans have been widely tested, although they have reportedly been tried for partity in one or Iwo instances.

8. Shelter

A universal need for fallout shelter protection is seen in the> both urban and rural areas. However, the USSR lacks formal shelter facilities for moreraction of the population and for the most pan is relying at present on shelters to be prepared by local efforthreatened emergency.

Durings the USSR was engaged in constructing seve.aid shelters (see Most of this construction was in the Torm oi special basements included in new masonry buildings andhouses when they were built. Characteristically, the design include several personnel compartments, an air lock with double protective door,hamber for the installationilter vanlilalion unit. The shelter was allegedly designed to withstand collapse of the building In some cases, shelters were separately built in courtyards or in other open Spaces. Construction was reported at subway entrances starting, and it is generally accepted that blast doors were installed in many Soviet deep-level subway stations starting at about that time.



A probable controversy developed& over civil defense and the building of blast-resistant shelters in the USSR. This controversy

m to curtail shelter construction. Sine? iiction have fallen off sharply, although cent literature siaies that shelters are etime. It is possible that mostpecial purposesommunications.

& coniinucn- However, in n?n A

i*ive or wi,

Another is scheduled io open in Uakii underharkov. It is believed

have deep-level lines and slaiions protected by'yrj, heavy shelters

Inni ot nuclear war rhu grtfti ntaiority oiwould be obliged for the present lo rely for protection lidd-typO

shelters or fallout shelters adapted in suitable structures (see Figurerdinary basements, interior areas of large buildings, utility tunnels, mines, and the like. Soviet citizens are being instructed in how to adapt and use such space for fallout shelter.

Should Ihe USSR decideolicy ol shelter in place, perhaps related to an ABM system, officials would be able to select and prepare fallout Shelters in existing buildings for most o( the urban population. Thepost-war housing program has emphasized mullistory masonry apartment houses rather than frame dwellings. In these apartmentalone, there may be adaptable basement space forillion to SO million persons. Added to this are spaces which might be found in public buildings, hospitals, schools, factories, mines, tunnels, and the tike.

There is no evidenceurrent program to mark, improve, or Stock such adaptable shelter areas. However, the USSR follows US civil defense closely and is certainly aware of the concept and the US Should the Soviet authorities decide to adoptrogram, the standardized buildings and locally available plans would permit rapid estimation of shelter capacity and selection of adaptable spaces.

In rural areas, adaptable quarters for fallout protection would include improved family root cellars, root storage buildings on collective farms, silage pits, and the like. reat deal of coverage is given in Soviet civil defense publications to instructions in how to build field-type, underground shelters in the form of hillside galleries or covered earth trenches which are lined with lumber, poles, concrete slabs, or any suitable building material at hand (sec

Adapted or locally constructed shelters are not reported as being generally prepared at this time. Their preparation would be initiated on order from the central government or civil defense authoritieseveloping emergency.



Representative views on civil defense, quoted or excerpted from Soviet statements and publications, are presented below. ontains excerpts from2 book Military Strategy, prepared by IS loading Soviet military theoreticians under the editorship of Marshal V. D. Sokolovskiy, formerly Chief of Staff. USSR, andember of the Inspector General Group, ontains recent) on the current importance of civil defense development in the USSR. Finally.utlines the role and place of civil defense as presented6 Soviet civil defense textbook.

I. Civil Defense in Military Strategy

The following are summary translations of selected excerpts, from the book Military Strategy, edited by Marshal V. D. Sokolovskiy and published in Moscow,

from the chapter "Methods of Waging War"

The principal means of protecting the zone of the interior and the armed forces against nuclear attacks of the enemy are air defense, antirocket defense forces, and civil defense facilities.

Their task is lo create an invincible defense system for the whole country, except lhat zone near the front line, and to take measures for prompt neutralization of the aftereffects of nuclear biows delivered by the enemy. isi be prepared in advance during peacetime and must always be kept in combat readiness.

However, no matter how efficient the air defense and anti-rocket defense, civil defense forces and means are necessary for quickly eliminating the aftereffects of nuclear blows, for evacuation of the population from exposed areas, organizing urgent medical aid, extinguishing fires, restoring order, and carrying out other emergency measures. Special civil defense units must be trained to accomplish all these tasks. Furthermore, the proper training of the wholefor action during an enemy nuclear attack is necessary.

from the chapter "The Character of Modern War"

a future war/ not only field forces and strategic reserves will suffer heavy losses from the effects of mass destruction weapons, but also the civilian population in the interior. Therefore, large numbers of medical personnel will be required, as well as specialists for organizing prophylactic measures and the neutralization of the alter elfccts of nuclear, chemical, and bacteriological attacks.

( Exci-rpts from chapter "Previa rations of the Country For

Repelling Aggression"

There are three basic aspects in the peacetime training of the population for war emergencies. Tho first pertains tooral and political conduct, the second is defense training against mass destruction means and the neutralization ni the after effects of an

altack. usually called civil defense training, and the third pertains to military training. All these aspects of preparation are closely related and supplement each other.

Training lhe population in moral and political conduct is of decisive significance under modern conditions, as the application of mass destructionar will make great, unprecedented demands on the political and moral state of the nation.

Training the population for war emergencies affecting moral and political behavior Is conducted under the guidance of the Communist Party and the Soviet government by all state and public organizations and by the entire educational system. All propaganda means andmethods are at the disposal of the Parly, namely, the press media, science, literature, motion pictures, the theatre, etc.

Preparatory measures established for the defense of the population against means of mass destruction consist basicallyimely announcement of the threatening danger, partial evacuation of inhabitants, construction of covers, and providing individual means of protection, as well as water and food; also appropriate training of the population and the organization of services to preserve order are precautions against panic. Since the military air defense command has the best knowledge of an attackarge objective, it must inform the corresponding civil defense organs, which, in turn, inform the people.

Great importance is attached to measure* for evacuation of the population from large cities and Irom border zoneseriod of threat and during the first daysar.

Due to inevitable contamination oi water nnd provisions by enemy nuclear and bacterial attack* preservation measures are very important.

City water (tjpuly linesvulnerable to attack and are no: always equipped '. rli'y water vs.Mminated by radioactive substances and infectious bait In thel nuclear altack. many water decontamination will have to be taken

Effort toil. .copulation wtll -leocnd largelv on -how wel: puolicis maimaiiuv and panic prevented. An un. controlled ftovv fujtircI could disrupt the mobilisation and deployment

of Ihe armed forces. The militia and, in urgent cases, the army should be made responsible for the preservation of order.

All teams organized to maintain order and regulate traffic must in peacetime become familiar with their duties. As anmeasure, detachments for preservation of prderjdruzhiny oklirany poryadkalcan be organized al enterprises and establishments to assist the militia and the armed forces.

Military training of the population is especially significant under present day conditions. People trained in military skills can bc enlisted in an organized fight against saboteurs and spies, and against enemy small-scale airborne and naval landing operations.

The population must also be ready to participate in decisive partisan actions against separate enemy groups that have penetrated into Soviet territory.

Therefore, the people should ^ecome familiar with the use of modern infantry arms; also, with antitank and other weapons and

No matter what organizations conduct the training of thearge share of it should pertain to independent defense measures against the means of mass destruction and those connected with assistance rendered to victims.

d. Verbatim translation ui tl'^SecJ.ion. Entitled "Civil Defense" (Grashdanskaya obor_oria)_from lhe Chapter Entitled "Preparations of the Country for Repelling Aggression"

From the threat of mass destruction in modern warfare, not only to armies on the battlefield, but in the deep interior as well, hasew form of strategic protectionountry's vital activities. It is known as civil defense. In all countries much attention is now beiny paid io preparations for and organization of civil defense. In the United States and England, for instance, special civil defense administrations headed by government officials have been established. Numerous atomic alerts to train the population have been Organised under >bv direct supervision of these administrations. arge network of ar.'snuciear shelters is being built and military training of the population it conducted.

The slrategic significance of civil defense becomesimportant, because not only tbe defense of the interior zone, but also the mobilization of armed forces in lhe initial stagesar depend on it.

Basic civil defense problems boil down to one. namely, the necessity to maintain under war conditions those indispensable normal activities which direct the country and ensure the effective functioning of the national economy. This can be achieved by organizing the most efficient defense of the population against the means of mass destruction, through all possible aid to victims,peedy neutralization of the after effects of nuclear blows delivered by the enemy.

These tasks are closely interrelated and the implementation of one contributesonsiderable degree to the solution of the others. Methods used in solving problems confronting civil defensewill vary. Some civil defense measures will coincide wilh governmental directives and be countrywide in scopeartial evacuation of the population, maintenance of communications facilities, administrative leadership of the country, the activation of special civil defense troops (spctsial'nyyc voyska grazhdanskoytc. Other such measures are promulgated by individual ministries and departments, while still others are decentralized to cities, enterprises, and establishments.

Thus, civil defenseum of highly heterogeneous processes the implementation of which in any degree being theof all Party, Soviet and economic organs. All civil defense processes, are so closely interwoven lhat they cannot be separated iron-other tasks of the organizations which administer the affairs and the economy of the country.

The USSR civil defense system has been built on the principle of strictly centralized administration. An all-union stalf of the country's ovtj defense organization, serves as its guiding organ. There are republic, oblast, and city staffs consisting of representatives ol various department.*. The following special services are under their subordination, medical, subsistence, transportation, information, communications, and others. Staffs establish their own command posts.

i"ivii defense as organized does not relieve ministries, departments, services, and organizations from the responsibility for the work planned by their enterprises and establishments, for meeting the needs of lhe population, and for servicing it in the event of war.

Considering the enormous rate of devastation and casualties thai would probably result (rom enemy thermonuclear blows, many special civil defense units would have to be created to neutralize the aftereffects of the attacks in the interior. These units could be used as rescue and reconstruction detachments, for medical aid, motor convoys, etc. The detachments should be equipped to move considerable distances by organic transportation.

Civil defense troops^razhdanskoy oborony) should be so positioned adjacent to large cities and industrial objects aa to permit them to perform their tasks.

Should the enemy manage to carryuclear, chemical, or bacteriological attack, the efforts of all civil defense forces and

- -ins would be directed towards rendering medical aid to the population, extinguishing fires, organizing rescue operations, clearing away obstacles, removing victims from the area of destruction, evacuating people from the radioactive zone, and maintaining order.

Account must be taken of the Extraordinarily large scope of the operations which must be organized to render assistance, especially medical, to the population. In the majority of cases civil defense assistance must come from without, from centers not subjected to nuclear attack. Those civil defense facilities in attacked centors would sustain severe losses.

In order to render timely medical aid. al) physicians, irrespective of their special medical training, should study inthe pathology of contamination produced by nuclear, chemical Uftd bacteriological agents. This requirement obviously pertains also to medical nurses.

To combat the effects Oi an enemy bacteriological attack there should be determined inethod of rapid diagnosis of contagious diseases. Also to be determined in advance arc the conditions under which enterprises and transport areunction, and ihe details o: individual quarantine.

To summarize, it is emphasized that centralized as well as decentralized preparatory measures are very important in the'. ition of civil delense. Thel civil defenseust continuously increase and be put into practice.

2. Soviet Statements on Civil Defense

Civil defense has acquired extremely great importance in the present conditions and has become the cause of the entire Stale and all the people. Victory now can be achieved onlylose andthought out coordination of all defense measures of the state, permanent cooperation between the armed forces and civil defense, and skillful utilization of economic resources.

Marshal V.huykov, TASS broadcast,

We must perfect civil. General Secretary of the CPSU Centra! Committee, L. I. Brezhnev at the 2ird Party Congress, March-

The interestsrcngthcning the defense capability of the country demand continuous attention to the military-patriotic education of the Soviet people, especially youth,ide dissemination of military knowledge among the population of lhe country and its attraction ol active participation in perfecting the entire System of civilinister of Defense, R. Ya. Malinovsky atd Party Congress.

Maintenance of the vital activities of the stateodern war depends primarily on the level of protection afforded the population and installations of the zone of the interior against weapons of mass destruction, and on the effectiveness of the protective measure*.

Col. B. Timofeyev, Voyennaya mysl', No.

The training of the population must be organized so that every citizen of the USSR is well acquainted with the means and methods of defense against nuclear, chemical and bacteriological weapons and knows how to carry out rescue and priority repair and restoration work.

First Deputy Chief of Civil Defense USSR, Col. Gen. O. V. Tolstikov, jn V'oycnnyyeaiiiya,

nmuniSt Parly and the Soviet government areconcern about the nation's civil.s being developed inanner that each cityooirtt will be wvll prepared for defense from , task isxecuted not

only by vi) defense stan and service* but by ail state,and vcm'iomic organs Soviets of Workers' Deputies, ministries, enterprises and institutions

da edilar: <. lic-

3. The Role and Place of Civil Defense (Soviet Civil Defense

Under the blows of the national liberation movement, the colonial system of imperialism is disintegrating. The socialist camp is increasing in size and gaining in strength. Under these conditions world reactionaries, headed by the most powerful and most saber-rattling monopolistic circles of the United States, are directing all their designs and efforts towardew war in order to restore the rule of capitalism over the entire world, or at least toward curbing the development of the world socialist system.

Preparingar of aggression against the Soviet Union and the other countries of the socialist bloc, the imperialists arethe armaments race. They are making primarily nuclear weapons, intercontinental and Other missiles, for Surprise nuclear attacks on large cities and important facilities of the Soviet Union and other socialist countries, to inflict immense losses among the population and to place ourur country in an extremely difficult Situation.

The Communist Party and the Soviet Government realistically appraise the forces of imperialism and its aggressive nature. while doing everything to ease international tension and toa thermonuclear world war, they ;irc adopting effective measures to increase the defense capability of our country. The Soviet state is constantly strengthening its defensive power and is perfecting the most powerful nuclear missiles. Our Armed Forces arc always ready to repel an attack by the aggressors.

Civil Defense plays an important role in strengthening the defense i' ;t r . - 1 r t s ndustrial regions, the immense human casualties that may occuresultuclear attack urgently require the timely organization of protecting the population from weapons of mass destruction and of extending the population aiduclear attack. These are the tasks of Civil Defense, which is being organized on the entireof our country. To successfully master the many complex tasks. Civil Defense must rely on all the human resources and materia! potential of our country.

- itt -ECRET -


Civil Defense (CD)ystem of state defense measures carried out well in advance to protect the population and the national economy from weapons of mass destruction, and also to conduct rescue and restoration work in areas of attack.

One of the most important objectives of CD is lo protect the population, to rescue people and to extend medical aid to casualties in areas of attack.

The role Of CD is determined by the nature ol the tasks which it must carry outodern war. The basic tasks of CD are the following:

To carry out measures for protecting the population, primarily from nuclear weapons and also from chemical and bacteriological weapons;

To prepare economic units for reliabjy> operation under enemy attack;

To conduct rescue work and emergency restoration work in areas Of attack;

To extend medical aid to casualties and to liquidate the effects of enemy attack.

For the successful fulfillment of these tasks it is necessary to prepare the protection of tlie population and of economic units from weapons of mass attack, and also to train the forces and to provide the resources for rescue and emergency restoration work.

Here primary attention is concentrated on preparing theof the population from the casualty effects of nucLear weapons. At the same time it is necessary to prepare also tbe protection of the population from bacteriological and chemical weapons.

To protect people from means of mass destruction it is necessary to warn them in advance about the threat of an attack, to disperse, evacuate and shelter them, and lo provide them with

means of individual protection,

The CD staff alerts the population to the threat of an attack or Co an actual attack. Signaling and communications equipment must be provided toimelv alarm.

At economic, units local equipment must be prepared to duplicate the civil defense signals and to issue local signals.

It is important to instruct the population and the workers and employees of enterprises how to act in the case of civil defense signals, because only well-trained people can act in an organized manner under complex conditions.

In large cities, the workers and employees and the members of their families are dispersed, in order CO reduce the casualties in the case ofnemy attack. The population can disperse by leaving the City for places prepared in advance.

Such dispersion must bc planned well ahead.

The evacuation of the population from large cities is an effective measure of protection from means of mass destruction. Suchmust be planned and prepared already in peacetime. For this purpose the regions are selected to which the population can be evacuated; the evacuation routes are Selected; vehicles are allocated; and the points for gathering and boarding the vehicles are designated.

It is necessary to evacuate first of all the institutions which are in no way connected with productive activities (nurseries, schools, hospitals and Other institutions). The evacuation begins with the threat of enemy attack. The population must take their clothing, essential articlesmall amount of food and must go to the gathering points to board the vehicles which take them to the place of their temporary stay.

Cover and shelters are built to protect the people from atomic weapons. The shelters are built gradually, in peacetime. Invarious underground structures may bc used as shelters.

Simple types of cover (trenches, dugouts, tunnels) are built when the threat of enemy attack arises, by the people who will be concealed in thern in the case of attack. Existing cellars,storehouses and other underground structures may be adapted for this purpose.

The entire population must bc provided with means of individual protection. The standard means of protection are issued primarily toormations .






oscow, Kremlin


Union ol Soviet Socialist To

Deputy Minister ol Defense of the USSR, Commander-in-Chief of the Ground Forces. Marshal of the Soviet, Chuykov, as Chief of Civil Defense of the USSR.

Colonel-General of Aviation O. V. Tolatikov, as Chief of Staff of Civil Defense of the USSR.









Confirmed by resolution of the CC of the CPSU and Council of Ministers of the USSR of1

civil defense of the Union Of SSR'system ofmeasures undertaken in advance in peacetime wilh the aimthe population and the national economy fromand bacteriological weapons, and also tor carrying Outurgent emergency-reconstruction work at centers ofthe "Special Period-'.

The "Special Period" in lhe country ia proclaimed by decision of the Council of Ministers of the USSR. In the evenludden attack by the enemy, the civil defense plans are brought into effect immediately by decision of the Chiefs of Civil Defense of the Union Republics.

main tasks of civil defense are:

(a| Universal compulsory training of the population of the country in methods of defense against missile-nuclear, chemical, and bacteriological weapons, and action for Lhe elimination of ihe effects ol the enemy attack:

(b) Carrying out measures for increasing the stability of

work of industrial,ransport, and communications tern rises during thi

?c) Carrying out rest.Me andi-iim' work in centers ol devastation and assisting the affected

4 si


fd) Carrying out measures to ensure the protection of

animals, plants, provisions, unprocessed foods, water, and forage from bacteriological, radioactive, and chemical contamination, and also measures for eliminating the effects of contamination;

(e) Organizationarning and communications system;

(I) Working out plans for the evacuation from large towns Of organizations and institutions that arc not essential for existence of these towns, and for the evacuation of the population incapable of work and children during the "Specials well as carrying out other measures to ensure protection of the population;

fg) Creation and training of civil defense forces in towns, villages, and installations of the national economy.

3. The scope and time limits for carrying out civil defense measures in towns and other centers of population are determined by the Council of Ministers of the USSR and the Councils of Ministers or the Union Republics in accordance with their administrative-political, economic, and defensive significance. For this purpose largecenters and large industrial cities are divided into cities of the Special. 1st. 2nd, and 3rd groups for civil defense, and the most important installations of the national economy into installations of special importance and the 1st and 2nd category,

The placing of cities into the ahove-mcntioned groups is carried out by the Council of Ministers of the USSR on the recommendation of the Councils of Ministers of the Union Republics in coordination with the Ministry of Defense of the USSR, the Chief of Civil Defense of the USSR, and the State Planning Committee of the USSR.

The placing of installations of the national economy in categories is done by the Councils of Ministers of Union Republics, ministries and departments of the USSR in coordination with the Staff of the Civil Di'tanse of the USSR.

Organiaational Structure and Managcment of Civil Defence

4. General direction of the civil defense of the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics is exercised by the Civil Defense of the USSR, under whom theretaff of civil defense of the Union of SSR's.

The most important questions concerning civil defense are studied by the Defense Council (Soviet Oborony) of the USSR.

The Chief of Civil Defense of the USSR is responsible for

(a) Ensuring constant readiness of the forces and means of civil defense of the USSR for operations in the event of an enemy attack;

(b> Organization of control of civil defense;

Organization of execution of combat training of the personnel of staffs, engineer-antichemical units, services, non-military formations and institutions of civil defense, and also the rendering of assistance in the organization and execution of universal compulsory training of the population.

Working out plans for the civil defense of the USSR and guiding scientific-research work concerning questions of civil defense;

Circulation of information regarding civil defense experience and the publication of directives, guides, instructions, the classified journal "Civil Defense of therogiams and teaching aids.

The orders ol the Chief of Civil Defense on questions ol civil defense must be obeyed by all chiefs of civil defense, ministries,councils ol national economy and organisations.

5. The direction of civil in the union and autonomous republics, krays. oblasts. towns, and rayons is executed by thechiefs of civil defense


rhfi chiefs gl civil dcfOJlBC UZ 'lili.m ii.iC il*.ii' i . - :.

are the chairmen ol the Council of Ministers of lhe republics. The chiefs of civil defense of krays, oblasts, towns, and town and village rayons are the chai rmen of Ihe executive committees of the Councils of Workers' Deputies.

The chairmen of the councils of national economy of republics and of economic administrative rayons are the deputies of the appropriate Chiefs of civil defense for industry.

The chiefs of civil defense of enterprises, organizations, establishments, educational institutions, and railroad branches and stations are their managers; in workers settlements, village councils, as well aa in kolkhozes, sovkhozes, and other agricultural enterprises it is the chairmen of the executive committees of settlement and village councils, the chairmen of kolkhozes, the directors of sovkhozes, and of Other agricultural enterprises.

The Councils of Ministers of Union and Autonomous Republics, the management personnel of ministries, departments, councils of national economy, and organizations, the executive committees of the Councils of Workers' Deputies and the chiefs of civil defense arc responsible for carrying out measures for civil defense and lor the constant readiness of the forces and means of civil defense for operations.

Civil defense staffs are formed under the chiefs of civil


In addition to the authorized complement, workers from Party, soviet, Komsomol and other public organizations are enlisted for work in the staffs of civil defense by decisions of Party and soviet organs, without being released from their basic work.

The chiefs of civil defense of republics, krays, oblasts, towns, and rayons execute the management of civil defense directly through their civil defense staffs and services.

The chiefs of civil defense staffs arc the deputies of tlis' corresponding chiefs of civil defense. The chiefs of stalf ol civT. defense ol autonomous republics, krays, oblasts, towns, andnd village rayors are members of limited meetings (suzhennove zasedaniye) of Councils of Ministers of ASSR's and of executive committees of Councils

of Workers' Deputies.

- V, -


preparing and conducting work for the elimination ofof enemy attacks, civil defense services arc created bythe Council Of Ministers of the USSR, the Councils of Ministersand Autonomous Republics, limited meetings of executiveCouncils of Workers' Deputies and of managers of installations.

The management of the civil defense services is executed by the managers of the corresponding ministries, departments, organizations institutions, and enterprises on the basis of which these services are set up.

The missions and activities of the civil defense services arc defined in the statutes pertaining to services.

The chiefs of civil defense of all grades, the chiefs of services, the directors of ministries, departments, councils of the national economy and other organizations plan and organize preparation for civil defense in peacetime and work out plans for civil defense for the "Special Period".


Preparatory measures for the fulfillment of the plans of civil defense for the "Special Period" may be put into affect by preliminary orders of the chief of civil defense of the USSR.

The plans for civil defense are to be confirmed by the following:

union republics, by the Councils-nf Ministers OfUlHon Republics;

autonomous republics, krays. oblasts. towns, and rayons,

by limited meetings of the Councils of Ministers of Autonomous Republics and corresponding executive committees of Councils of Workers' Deputies;

ministries, departments, councils of tin: national economy and oilier organisations, and also installations ot the national economy, by their managers in collaboration with the corresponding staffs of civil defense,

Tlie plans ol civil defense services are confirmed bv the corresponding chiefs of civil defense.

civii defense force* ior the execution ol Hie tasklhe effects of enemy attacks consist of military civil defers..'


units (regular units mid units formed fornd also of the non-military formation! and institutions of civil defense.

The total number of servicemen in civil defense in peacetime and wartime is determined by the Council of Ministers of the USSR.

The organizational structure and authorized number of personnel ot civil defense staffs, command posts,nticncmi* al units, communications centers, chemical laboratories, and educational institutions partially staffed with servicemen, and also by workers and employees and supported by the budget of the Ministry of Defense of the USSR, arc determined by the chief of civii defense of the USSR within the limits of the lotal number for civil defense as determined by the Council of Ministers n( the USSR, and partially staffed with workers and employees supported by local republic budgets or departmental estimates, determined by the Councils of Ministers of union republics, the p'.omgc-mcnt personnel of executive committees, ministries, departments, and councils of the national economy.

non-military formations of civil defense are createdby the management personnel of ministries,of the national economy and organizations on the base ofestablishments, educational institutions, sovkhozes, and

USSR citizens who arc not liable for military service by mobilization or who have draft exemptions are enlisted for compulsory service in non-military formations and institutions of civil defense: women fromond men fromoears of age.

Those exempted from service in non-military formations and institutions of civil defense are: disabled workers and servicemen of the 1st and 2nd categories, pregnant women and women having childrenears of age (women with secondary and higher medical education with children upears of age).

excellent fulfillment of measures of civilof lhe Union of Soviel Socialist Republics receive ilKOAtivCgeneral basis and. in addition, are awarded the chest insignia

'Distinguished Worker of Civil Defense of the USSli jiJichntk graan-danskoy obor-jny SSSR"!.

12. The training of officer cadres for civil defense is underlaken in the educational institution* of the Ministry of Defense of tho USSR. The training of supervisory personnel for civil defense is carried out at republic, kray. oblast, town, and departmenla! courses for civil defense, organized by decisions of the Councils of Ministers of Union Republics, executive committees of Councils of Workers' Deputies, ministries, departments, und councils of the national economy in coordination with the chief of civil defense of the USSR, and also at trainingschools) of thenion Voluntary Society for Cooperation with Army, Aviation, and Navy of tlie USSR.

The training of persons who carry out supervisory duties in civil defense without release from their basic work is conducted during free time, and also by means of musters involving release from(not more thanays per annum) without loss of wages or average daily pay at their place of employment and with the payment of out-of-town per diem,

The training of personnel of non-militarized formations and civil defense institutions is carried out during free time and at short musters (totalling not moreays per annum) with release from production and without loss of wages or average pay at their place of employment and with the payment of out-of-town traveling allowances.

The training of personnel attached lo military civil defense units to be formed in wartime is carried out by summoning them lo training musters in accordance with the Law regarding universal military service.

In order to preparenits, services, and non-military formations for operations, union, republic, kray, oblast. town, rayon, and installation civil defense exercises, in which the population is aiso called to take part, are carried out.

Party-Political Work

I). Ihc direction of Party-political work in institutions and non-miiilary formations ot civil defense is carried out by the Central Committees oi Communist Parties of unionray committees,

oblastown committees and rayon committees of the Pan-,.

and in mi'itaiy civil dOtOKMy the political organs uf the Soviet Army,

The main task of Party-political work in civil defense is to ensure successful fulfillment of all civil defense plans and measures both in peace and wartime.

14. Party organs and Party organizations are responsible for checking that civil defense measures are fulfilled by ministries, departments, soviet, and economic organs, establishments, andinstitutions.

-Specialties of_epartments and Organizations in Regard to Civil Defense

15. The Ministry of Defense of the USSR:

Assists the Council of Ministers of the Union Republics, councils of the national economy, ministries, andof the USSR and public organizations in the carrying out of civil defense measures (in the center through lhe Ministry of Defense of the USSR; in the union andrepublics andhrough military districts and commanders of garrisons);

Carries out mobilization work and accomplishes the disposition of staffs and engineer-antic'nemical units ol civil defense in thePeriod";

(cl Conducts scientific-research, expe rimental -design, and testing work in the interests of creating new means and methods for protecting the population, for reducing possible iosses and devastation, and to carry out rescue wot

{dl Keeps the chiefs of civil defense of the Union of SSR1 s

republics, krays, oblasts. and towns informed about ihe fulfillment of measures connected with bringing civil defense to combat readiness;

(e) Summons the civil defense staffs to joint training exercises carried out with the -Soviet Army;

(i) Works out together with the State Planning Committee of the USSR the basic data for carrying out measures to reduce possible devastation and losses from weapons of mass destruction.


Ministry ol Communications of the USSR

(a) Develops and puts into effect measures that ensure

the dependable functioning of ibe means ofwarning, and radio broadcasting of tbe country in peacetime and during the "Special Period";

(b| Provides civil defense in peacetime and during the

"Special Period" wilh communications, and during the "Special Period" organizes centralized use of all State and departmental means of communication;

(c) Provides the organisation of warning and communication services in republics, krays. oblasts, towns and rayons, and effects the management and supervision of their activities.

Ministry of Health of the USSR

Works out and puts into effect civil defense measures for the medical care of the population of the country under conditions of the use by the enemy of missile nuclear, chemical, and bacteriological weapons; and creates reserves of medical supplies and medicines;

Gives practical assistance to the Union of Red Cross and Red Crescent Societies of the USSR in the work oftraining, and equipping of the mass non-military formations of civil defense medical services; and to ministries andt gives practical assistance in the training of medical personnel for civil defense from among persons studying trie humanities at higherinstitutions and supO'vises the execution of this work.

nionervice and checks on theamzation and readir* ss of republic, kray. oblast. town, and rayon mcdiea; services.

(d| Works out, together with interested ministries and

departments, the norms and methods for carrying out examination of foodstuffs, raw materials, and water fur contamination by toxic, radioactive and bacteriological substances in order to determine their suitability for consumption, it alsvoroposal* regardingol decontamir.auor*.


18. The Ministry uf Agriculture oi the USSR

Provides general direction of the measures carried out in the country for the protection ol agricultural animals and plants and also products of t-growing, animal husbandry, and sources of water supply in sovkhnfcs and kolkhozes from weapons of mass destruction,

nion civil defense service for the protection of animals and plants and supervises the organisation and constant readiness of such services in republics, krays, oblasts. towns, and rayons;

Creates reserves of biological preparations and the necessary materials for supplying the services, and determines the order of use of the materials and biologicalmt ions during the "Special Period";

Note. The directions (instructions) uf the Ministry of Communications of the USSR regarding measures for ensuring dependable functioning of the means of communication, of the Ministry of Health of the USSR for ensuring the medical protection of the population, and of the Ministry of Agriculture of the USSR regarding the protection of animals and plants during the "Special Period" arc compulsory for all ministries, departments, councils of the national economy and organizations.

19. The Ministry of Transportation. Ministry of the Maritime Fleet, the ministries and directorates of the river fleet and of water resources of union republics, and also ministries, departments, and councils of the national economy possessing railway and water

Work out and put into effect mt-asurcs ensuring the

reliability of the working of transport and itsduring tbe "Specialarry outfor civil defense in accordance with confirmed plans;

(b) Ensure the carrying oul Of measures for giving warning of the danger of enemy attack to directorates, branches, and installations, steamship lines and railway, river and maritime transport services, military units and

- AL -

passengers; and likewise lor Ihe protection of people, provisions, unprocessed foods, forage, and sources of water supply from effects of weapons of massand for the medical processing of people and the decontamination of rolling stock, river transport, installations, and port structures.

The Ministry of Transportationivil defense medici! service for railway transport and creates reserves of medical, sanitary-technical, and sanitary-economic goods.

State Procurement Committee of the Council ofthe USSR:

Draws up plans for and organizes the dispersal of stocks of grain products in the country;

Provides general management of the carrying out in the country of measures for protecting State resources and reserves of grain and its processed products from weapons of mass deStrucl inn;

Works out means and methods for the decontamination, degassing, and disinfection of grain and its processed products and decides on the utilization or destruction of grain products which resist decontamination.

Chief Directoratetate Material Reserves of theMinisters of the USSR, the Union of Consumer Cooperatives andof Trade work out and organise the fulfillment of measuresprotection of foodstuffs, forage, and sources of water supply at the;enterprises, bases and depots against weapons ofthey carry out the dispersed storage of State reservesand forage

Ihe Union of Consi.n and Lhe Ministries oi Trad work out and effect civil dcit:easures to food supplies, drinking water, and articles ol basic necessity to the evacuated and affected population andi"opulation brought in for the work of eliminating :hc it'.acks.

Ministry of Higher aivl Secondary Special Education olthe State Committee of ihe Council of Ministers of the USSRI-Technical Educa'i'of education of union

the Council ol Ministers of Ihr USSR for Automation and Machine -Building, tho Slate Committee of the Council of Ministers of the USSR for Radio-electronics, the State Committee of the Council of Ministers of the USSR for Electronic Technology, and the Stale Committee of the Council of Ministers of the USSR for Aviationensure that the technical requirements of civil defense arein the design of new equipment and instruments.

The State Committee of the Council of Ministers of the USSR for Chemistry works out in the interests of civil defense new means of antichemical defense and improves existing ones.

The Chief Directorate of the Civil Air Fleet of the Council of Ministers of the USSR :

(a) Ensures constant readiness of air transport for

operations under conditions where weapons of mass destruction arc used by the enemy.

(.b) Provides transport facilities and aerial reconnaissance

of centers of devastation in accordance with the confirmed plans for the civil defense.

The Chief Directorate of the Gas Industry of the Council of Ministers of the USSR ensures that the gas supply system works reliably in wartime and provides for emergency-reconstruction work on damaged gas-mains, it gives technical assistance to ministries, departments, and councils of Ihe national economy in carrying out such work on oil pipelines and branches of: of the gas-mains.

The Chief Directorate of the Hydrometcorologica) Service Ol the Council of Ministers of the USSR provides the civil defense staffs with information regarding radioactive contamination of Ihe air. wafer, and ground, and also with dala regarding Ihe meteorological iBuMittf necessary for the direction of the work ol civil defense

Ministries, directorates, and division*ihoconomy of union andhiasts. town executive committees of Councilsrfc.-r* 'nu:fe<-

fal Work out ard put into tiftttIhe urc

of water and town water supply structural fromby toxic and radioactive aubatancai and bacwri-ological agents, to increase tin:ll')iHty nf opprtuinn

- 4r> -

H hi- -

of the town water supply, power, and other networks and structures of the communal economy, and carry Out urgent emergency-reconstruction work;

<b) Work out measures for providing shelters for the

population and organize their execution, and ensure that the municipal utility enterprise, structures, and equipment are prepared and utilized for the sanitary-processing of the population and for the decontamination of the terrain, structures, transport, and clothing;

(c) Organize corresponding republic, kray, oblast, and town services for water supply, for refugee, and Shelters, gas supply, sanitary processing of the population and decontamination of clothing, terrain, and structures, direct these services, and ensure their constant readiness.

Ministries of Automobile Transport and Highwaysrepublics, and the chief directories of automobile transportof the Councils of Ministers of Union Republics:

Ensure motor vehicle transport in accordance with the confirmed civil defense plans, organize and implement measures for the protection of passengers and for the decontamination of motor vehicle transport and freight;

Work out and put into effect measures for adapting available construction and road equipment for civil defense purposes, for improving and increasing the carrying capacity of evacuation routes, and for the reconstruction of roads and ro-id structures.

The Ministries of Internal Affairs of Union Republics work out and put into effect, with tbe introduction of tbe "Specialeasures for the preservation of order and security, for The extinguishing of conflagrations and (ot keeping track oi losses amort the population; they also take part in the annihii enemy landing and diversionary groups.

The All-Union Voluntary Society forArmy, Aviation, and Navy of the USSR (DOSAAF USSR):

Carries out universal compulsory training of the population in methods of protection against modern means of mass destruction, making extensive use for this purpose of the press, radio, television, movies, cultural, educational, and other institutions;

Trains public instructors, common-supervisory and technical personnel for the non-military formations and institutions of civil defense;

Works Out and publishes training programs, training and visual aids, and literature, and also orders films and slides from the ministries of culture on the subject of training the population.

he Union of Societies of the Red Cross and Red Crescent of the USSR:

Carries out training dl the population regarding giving first aid to casualties and caring for the sick;

Organizes and carries out training of the personnel of the mass non-military medical civil defense formations;

Trains reserve nurses for civil defense purposes, and in conjunction with health organizations, also arranges for blood donors from among the population;

Provides town and rayon sanitary teams with standard items.

36. Ministries,ouncils of the national economy, and scientific institutions define and carry out scientific-research work concerning civil defense mat'.ers in coordination wi'h, and on the instructions of, the staff of civil defense of the USSR.

esearch and oxporimcntal-design uork on civil defense subjects is carried out a' The expense of the national budget based on estimates of appropriate institutions.

The coordination O: scLc-nt:-rc-Sfcarch work byesearch institutes of ministries and departmentsivil defense subjects, and supervision over the fulfillment of this wot is effected by the staff of civil defense- of the USSR.

echnical Support and Financing of Civil Defense

Councils of Ministers ol Union Republics,departments of the USSR plan the financing of civilannually, taking into account the necessary economy.

The Ministry of Finance of the USSR, in conjunction will* the staff of civil defense of the USSR, examines the financial plans and prepares decisions regarding expenditures for civil defense measures,

staff of civil defense of the USSR and its directlytraining establishments, institutions and sub-units, engineerunits, and Special military Sub-units, as well aspersonnel of all Staffs, command posts, coursesand civil defense chemical laboratories arc maintained on

the union budget based on estimates of the Ministry of Defense ol the USSR; they are provided with all types ofechnical support by the allocating organs of the Ministry of Defense of the USSR.

The civil defense staffs and command posts of union and autonomous republics, krays. oblasts. towns, and rayons; chemical laboratories, and courses (training centers) of civil defense are maintained on the appropriate republic or local budgets.

The materiel-technical supply of special stores and military equipment to civil defense in union and autonomous republics, krays. oblasts, towns, rayons, ministries, departments, councils of (be national economy, and organizations is effected through lhe Ministry of Defense of the USSR, with payment of the cost of the materiel allocated, while other types of stores and materiel resources areby Councils of Ministers of Union and Autonomous Republics, executive committees of local Councils of Workers' Deputies,

:i-i-ine nt ft, councils of the national economy, and

Funds for civil defense special stores and military equipment are allotted to the Ministry of Defense of the USSR in the established way and are distributed to the staffs of civil defense of the USSR at ihe request of union republics, ministries, and departments of the USSR-

The tasks of closing contracts with theupplie rs and the realization of funds for all types of stores are given to the supply

and collection organizations of the union ami autonomous republics, krays, oblasts, towns, ministries, and depa rlf theouncils of the national economy, and organizations.

financing of civil defense measures, including theand equipping of non-military formations and the training otis effected in the following manner:

(a) In union and autonomous republics, krays, oblasts, towns, and other populatedgainst republic or local budgets:

(bj At enterprises and in organizations which areelf-supportingrom the funds available for general plant, administrative-management, and runmni; expenses, and the distribution costs of these enterprises and organizations,

(c) In ministries, departments, councils of the national economy, and subordinate budgetary institutions andgainst the union or republic budgets.

Expenditures connected with the activation of civil defense plans are provided for in the estimates of directorates and divisions of executive committees of Councils of Workers' Deputies,ministries, departments and councils of the national economy.

Military personnel of civil defense are on active military duty as cadres of the Soviet Army and in regard to length of service, pay, and materiel support enjoy^all rights and privileges in accordance with ihe statutes and norms that are in effect in the Soviet Army.

Personnel of the civil defense militarized guard are provided with foodstuffs and clothing by the allocating organs of the Ministry of Defense of the USSR, with the payment of their cost by republic or tocai budgets, depending on the subordination of the installation beingrded.

45 The complements of staffs, command posts, educational mstitutions and chemical laborat'iric* of civil defense, asas ;he eslimates of their edminiatraucvsupply expenditures' reed notrecorded by financial organs. Expenditures for theivil defense staffs and of their subordinate sub-units are provided for

Original document.

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