CLANDESTINE SERVICES HISTORY: THE BERLIN TUNNEL OPERATION 1952-1956

Created: 8/25/1967

OCR scan of the original document, errors are possible

CS Historical Paper

. ;

CLANDESTINE SERVICES HISTORY

THE BERLIN TUNNEL6

rs) (C)

DATE;7

/

1

copy held by:No.

Controlled by:

Date prepared: . ugust ltfttV Date published: 8 Written by:

TABLE OF CONTENTS

Page

LIST OF

I.

II.

III.

IV.

V.

VI.

nalysis of the Reasons for the Discovery of the Tunnel

ecapitulation of theDerived

ypical American Press Comment

D

East German Press Comment

PREFACE

(the Berlin Tunnel project) came into being

sometime2 (the exact date cannot be established) and ceased as an active operation in the summer The writer served as Headquarters case officer on the project from the winterntil the summer4 and then as the field case officer until

were intimately associated with the

planning and implementation of the projoct at the policy level and very kindly offered suggestions for the preparation of this manuscript. Their comments have been incorporated and are greatly appreciated. Several other individuals, including

who wereosition to offer valuable

advice were absent from Headquarters during the period the paper was being prepared and thus unavailable to assist.

When this project was first discussed with the then Director of CIA, Mr. Allen Welsh Dulles, he ordered that, in the Interests of security, as little as possible concerning the project would be reduced to writing. It is probable that few orders have been so conscientiously obeyed, and yet there

reat many cubic feet of files connected with this These files mainly concern technical and administrative matters. Only those details which, in the opinion of the writer, are necessaryroad understanding of the manner in which the project's objectives were accomplished have been included ln this paper. Those Interested in additional data may wish to consult the files.

In addition to setting forth significant developments, the writer has attempted to provide Insight Into tbe reasons for certain courses of action. At times thispeculative approach. The judgments derived from suchwere shared by all those actively concerned in the management of the projoct, and it is the writer's hope that they are accurately expressed in the following paper. Any error ln this respect, however, is tho sole responsibility of tho writer.

LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS

Figure ap of Berlin

etail Map of Rudowerial View of Rudow Section, Berlin

irt in the- Vopos Studying the Installation

- East German View of the Compound

- Blinds on the Shield

- Excavating Using the Blinds

iew of the Completed- Construction of the Vertical Shaft

Completed Vertical Shaft

i

View of Cables and Taps

i -

- Shaft and Tunnel Entrance in Warehouse Basement

- Converted Fork Lift and Dirt Box

- Target Cables Exposed

- Schematic View of Tunnel

- Initial Stage of Construction of Pre-Amp%Chamber ' re-Arap Chamber

- Tapping Bridle

- Lead-Away Lines

- Soviet Press Briefing

ill

I. INTRODUCTION

The exact moment when the idea emerged ofunnel to Intercept Soviet and East German communications is somewhat obscure,' umber of factors must be considered, among them the following:

early. IntelligenceInterested in the benefits to be derivedSoviet and Satellite landlinescaleconsidered necessary. The loss ofduring this period created gaps in ourcoverage which were particularly unfortunateperiod of Cold War escalation. It becamethe tapping of certain selected landlines mightthe information needed toumber of theour overall intelligence picture.

thes ands thethe briefings of "returnee" Germanwho were taken by the Soviets after World Warwork in Russia) and other sources, became aware of

c. In thes the Office of Communications, in the course of its continuing efforts to provide secure communications for the Agency, became awarehich, when applied to target communications, offered certain possibilities. Plans to exploit this technique were immediately formulated.

These factors then served as additional incentives (above and beyond our normal collection requirements) to focuson Soviet landllne targets. Inxploratory discussions were held in Washington to plan the mounting of an attack on Soviet landlines in East Germany with specialto be placed on the Berlin area.

information on the

first became available |

during the latter partnd by2 all of the pertinent technical material had been assembled andanalyzed to permit the pinpointing of the most important Soviet circuits. <

i Subsequent events proved this information to be completely correct.

Various methods of tapping these circuits were explored and one sampling operation was run in the East Zone,with negative results. Byowever, the effectiveness of f

had become suchminute sample was obtained of the prime target circuit.

/ The longest continuous sample obtained wasinutes and most samples were of two to three minutes' duration. Special mention should be made of the fact that it was necessary tohour watchix-month period on "our" end of the cable to record these

samples

Meantime collateral collection effort continued on the

communications systems involved and the

At this pointe knew it could behe next step was the problem of installing a- permanent tap on the target lines.

Precisely at what point tbe ideaunnel for tbe purpose of tapping the target cables began to come into focus cannot be pinpointed.'^

J While it should perhaps be possible to credit

one individual with the initial concept, it appears toit difficult to do so. At any rats

the ideaunnel to

tap the target cables began to take definite shape.

At this point the following major quostlons remained unanswered:

lt indeed possible tounnel0 feet) clandestinely,the fact that the border at this pointand constantly patrolled by the Easthit the targets?

the answer to the abovo waswas to be done with tho spoil (reckonedons of sand)?

emote area (this portion of Berlin was ata "squattersville" of shacks and hovelsrubblo by refugees from the East German Zone)?

In rotrospect tho first question, "Could the tunnel be

as neverebatableconcerned more

or less decldod that given sufficient monoy and personnel the job could be done. (This judgment fortunately provedhe second question, "Where do we put theaunted tho minds of project personnel for many weeksreat many ingenious ideas were brought forth and discarded for oneor another until the suggestion was made facetiously that weole and put the dirt inhis in effect was the solution. At this time no convincing"

- 7

planning for .the project continued

3 and in December of that year the Director of Central Intelligence approved the terms of reference which

implomen-

of theeries of conferences in3 and4 led to the following decisions:

a. . would:

ite, erect the necessary structures, andunneloint beneath the target cables;

be responsible for the recording of all signals produced

and

rocess in Washington all of tbematerial received from the project.

b.

ertical shaft from the tunnel's

end to the targets;

effect the cable taps andsable signal to the head of the tunnel for rocording; and

provide for a

1 to process tho voico recordings

from the site.

Activity thus proceeded on threen Berlintakon to lease the necessary land and right-of-wayfor the siteontract was leterman The compound, which was roughly tho size of ancity block, was fenced with chain-typo highand contained the main operations building (thewith basement type warehouse previouslykitchen-dining facilities and barracks, andwhich housed three diesel driven generatorspower for all

provisions consistedesspool. (The logical placement of the cesspool was such that lt was situatedew foot from the tunnel site. It later developed when the tunnel was dug that this was quite unfortunate because working conditions ln tho sector adjacent to the cesspool were, to say the least, highly unpleasant.) Planning called for the completion of this work on

For assistance ln actually digging the tunnel it was docided to request help from the nnd to this end the

were briefed on the project. Tho Initial contact with | as made personally by Mr. Allen Dulles to

Fortunately

trained engineer, had just been appointed

From the first moment he learned of the operation, General

Trudeau was an enthusiastic supporter of the concept.

(the only available

of the

any experience in

turned in an outstanding job. By mid-summer4 he had firmed up the engineering plans,rew of engineering personnel, and actuallya mock-up tunnelards long working under operational conditionsigh security base in

Some mention should be made of the actual method ofthe tunnel. Studies of the soil structure in the Berlin areaigh percentage of sand. For this reason it was decided that the tunnel should be lined with steel. Ihe same sand content contributed greatly to the danger of cave-ins at the face of the tunnel, and to eliminate thishield was devised

with horizontal "blinds"

so arranged across its face that should even dry sand be encountered the danger of cave-ins was virtually eliminated. The tunnel liner was formed of sections of heavy steel plate so constructed that, when bolted together, five sectionsteel ring approximately six feet in diameter andnches long. Provision was made for bolting these rings together toontinuous tube of solid steel. The men worked under cover of the shield described above (which was slightly larger in diameter than the steel liner) and when sufficient material had been excavated, the shield was forced forward withjacksew section of liner was bolted in place. Since this methodoid of approximately one and one-half inches around the liner (remembering that the diameter of the shield was greater than that of thecrew-type removable plugs were built into every third section of tunnel liner. This permitted removal of the plugs and the forcing of grouting material under high pressure to fill the void

after the liner was in plnco. It was calculated (andproven to be true) that this method of construction would not permit settling of the soil and detection of the tunnel from the surface. (See

ock-

of tho tunnel's terminal ond

Available

plans Indicated that the cables were buried somenches deep along the sideeavily traveled highway. The top of the vortical shaft (seehen needed to be approximatelyonches bolow the surface of thein order to give the tapping crew room to work below the ceiling of the shaft, and tho whole structure had to be capablo of supporting the weight of heavy trucks since the tunnel and tap chamber lay directly beneath the highway. (See) Considerable care was devoted to Insulating the

tap chamber to prevent Its actinguge drum.

were utilized. ist of briofod personnel was maintained, special secrecy agreements wore executed, and special briefings wore given to allpersonnel. It was ln the assemblagerocossing team that we experienced our greatest problem ln maintaining security standards. Since the material to be processed was largely Russian voice, it was thought that we would noed linguists with near native fluency in Russian. It is axiomatic that native fluency is usually available only in natives, and

Considerable thought was given to the quantity and content of the material available from the target and the manner ln which it was to be processed. It was in this field, perhaps, that we experienced some of our greatest problems. It had been decidod vory early in the project's planning stages to maintain the strictest possible security measures. inimum precaution security checks were mado on each individual who in any way became knowledgeable of the project's mission, and tho same standards in force forfor

3/

In spite of the insulation, iteird sensation to be in the chamber when an iron-shod horse trotted across it. We also suffered some anxious moments one foggy morning when the microphone in the tap chamber gave forthontinuous series of dull thuds. After the sun burned away the fog, visual observation showed that the East German police had setemporary automobile checkpoint directly over the chamber. The "thuds" the microphone picked up were caused by the pollco officer in charge stomping his feet on the road surface to keep war*.

15

II. IMPLEMENTATION

By4 things were beginning to take shape and the situation was as follows:

German contractors had completedand we were in possession.

of the basic supplies, equipment,were in Berlin ready to start construction

on the tunnel. This in itself involvedons of steel tunnel liner from the ZI to Berlin. The initial shipment across the East Zone to Berlin consisted of one and one-half freight trains, the loss of anyof which could have blown the project. For security purposes alltems, such as the tunnel liner, were double crated and banded and subjected to severe drop tests before they left the ZI. Similar items were differently packaged for deception purposes.

at Headquarters was secured and the

hadrew and was well under way in fabricating the unique equipment necessary to process the anticipated telegraphic traffic.

personnel had been selected andprocessed

It should be noted that personnel andwere programmed initially to exploit approximately

percent of the anticipated take. In retrospect,this could be considered overly cautious. In Justification of this decision it should be said that no one had evereet under clandestinewith the expectation ofarget two inches in diameter andnchesain German/Soviet highway. There were those who manifested certainon the feasibility of so doing, and it is greatly to the credit of those senior officials, both civilian and military, that, in spite of these reservations, the project was permitted to proceed.

In lateertical shaft someeet in diameter was started in the warehouse basement floor (seend ground water was encountered ateet instead of ateet. Such examination as could be safely undertaken under the steady observation of East German border guards and Soviet officials indicatedlay lens existed in this particular spot,perched water table" the magnitude of which was unknown. Available information indicated that the clay lens possibly sloped down in the direction of the target and it was decided to proceed with the tunnel even though the top cover was to be less than half what had been anticipated.

Careful visual observation was maintained and tunneling operations stopped each time the German guards walked over the tunnel on their regular patrols. Pumps were installed to take care of the excess water. Observation logs were maintained, and since the highway under observation was the main road from East Berlin to the Schoenfeld Airport,Order of Battle information was obtained. It was also possible to estimate quite accurately the relative importance of individuals visiting East Berlin by observing the security precautions taken by tbe East Germans and the Soviets.

Both sides of the tunnel were lined with sand in bags as the tunnel proceeded and the excess spoil was hauled back to the basement of the warehouse. To facilitateooden track was laid on the floor of the tunnel and aelectric fork lift was used totring of rubber-tired trailers back and forth in the tunnel. (See) Cool air was supplied to the face of the tunnel throughfrom an air conditioning unit located in the warehouse. The tunnel was completed on Construction of the tap chamber commenced5 and was completed, with the tbree target cables exposed, on (See)

To appreciate this accomplishment it is necessary to romember that the tunneleet long (roughly the

S

length of the Lincoln Memorial reflecting pool) and thathalf sloped down and the second half sloped up. ) The lack of an adequate base line made theproblem especially difficult. The engineers decidedpoint that nn object of known size in the East Zoneusefuleference point,aseball game waswith the objective ofaseball as far intoZone aN possible. This scheme was frustrated byof the East German guards who kept returning Nonetheless, the engineers expressedthey knew their position when the tunnel waaa point which could be containedix-inch cube.

Excess humidity is probably one of the greatest enemies of electronic equipment. To guard against this problem the section of the tunnel immediately adjacent to the tap chamber was insulated and sealed with marine-type plywood to form, inlosed room. (See figs.nd IB.) Vapor barriers were erected and, ineavy "anti-personnel" door of steel and concrete was constructed to seal off the tunnel someards from its terminal end. From the beginning it was realized that the duration of this operation was finite. Considerable thought was given to the postureould adopt upon the tunnel's discovery and to those

Figurechematic View of Tunnel

(NOT TOERTICAL EXAGGERATED - DIMENSIONS APPROXIMATE)

SCHEMATIC VIEW

figure 16

Ki T View of Tunnel

measures which would be taken at the site. The following position was finally approved:

posture of. would be one ofof any knowledge of the tunnel.

tunnel was mined at the point itEast-West Zone border with demolition chargescaving in the tunnel liner should the Sovietsentry into the cover Installation.

"anti-PerBonnel" door described above

was agreed that the installation wouldagainst forcible entry with all means at hand.

All equipment for isolating and preampll-fylng the signals and passing them down the tunnel forwas in place before each tap was made so that monitoring of each pair could begin as soon as lt was tapped. (See figs.) Careful check was kept of the temperature and

J/This door bore the following inscription neatly lettered in German and Cyrillic: "Entry is forbidden by order of the Commanding General." It was reasoned that this sign might give pause to Soviet and/or German officials and gain time. atter of fact, there wero those Communist individuals who considered the posting of this sign as one of the mostaspects of the entire undertaking.

SI

humidity in the tap chamber to prevent the possibility of the Introduction of moisture into the target cables thus causing faults. The moisture ln the air caused by the breathing and perspiration of the technicians doing the tapping operation forced the suspension of the operation several times to permit the air conditioning equipment to dehuraidify the chamber. All the components io the electrical isolationwere individually selected and subjected to rigorous tests to insure maximum reliability, and the lead-away cables were constructed of tbe best available materials, sheathed in lead, and handled in accordance with tbe highest telephone company standards. The strictest possible visual watch was maintained with the tap crew. In short, in this, as in all aspects of the operation, every effort was made to guarantee success even though in many instances it meant delay Id achieving the objective.

IV. TERMINATION

The tunnel was discovered (see1fteronths andays ofemorandumon6 (reproduced in its entirety as

Appendix A) examines in detail all evidence available as of that date on the reasons for the discovery. The conclusion reached was that the loss of this source was purely the result of unfortunate circumstances beyond ourof the fact that one of the cables was in very poor physical condition (this was known from the beginning)ong period of unusually heavy rainfall. It appeared that water entered the cable in sufficient quantity to make itthus necessitating digging up sections of the cable and causing discovery of the tap.

A small processing unit

was maintained at the Berlin site to permit on-the-spot monitoring of engineering circuits for the protection of the project and scanning of the more productive circuits for the "hot" intelligence. Daily reports of sufficient value to warrant electrical transmission toere produced, e. Processing of the backlogged materialuntil8 [

1.

The information from this material was disseminated in

closely controlled system

B

ummary of the value of the material received

together with typical customer comments.

VI. AFTERMATH

As previously noted, considerable thought was given during the entire life of the project on the result its discovery would bring. In retrospect lt is probably correct to say that, among those most actively concerned with the project'sonsensus developed that the Soviets would probably suppress knowledge of the tunnel's existence rather than admit to the world that Free World intelligence organs had the capability of successfully mounting anof this magnitude. In other words, lt was felt that for the Soviets to admit that. had been reading their high level communications circuits would cause the Soviets to lose face. Perhaps fortunately, fate intervened, andossible consequence the Soviet course of action was exactly contrary to expectation.

The Commandant of the Soviet Berlin Garrison, who would normally have controlled the handling of the situation when the tunnel was discovered, was absent from Berlin and the Acting Commandant. Colonel Ivan A. Kotsyuba, was in charge. There is some reason to believe that he (for whatever reason) was forced toersonal decisionourse of action without benefit of advice from Moscow. At any rate his reaction was unexpected in that he invited the entire Berlin

press corpsriefing and tour of tbe tunnel and its facilities. esult the tunnel was undoubtedly the most highly publicized peacetime espionage enterprise in modern times prior to thencident." Worldwide reaction wasfavorable in terms of enhancement. prestige. Non-Soviet Bloc sentiment can be generally summarized as follows:

was universal admiration (andInformed Soviets) on the technicalthe installation and the imaginative nature of

non-Communist world reacted withunconcealed delight to this indication thatalmost universally regardedtumblingespionage matters, was capableoup againstUnion, which had long been the acknowledgedsuch matters.

with regret that the Cold Warsuch measures, thoughtful editorialthis indication that. was capableits role of Free World leadership in

ampling of. press accounts and editorial comment on the tunnel. Predictably the Communist press treated the tunnel as an outrage and an

intolerable Indecency.onsiststudy of East Gorman press reaction to the incident.

awards

57"

For their contributions to Project were made to the following individuals:

product. In all almost for the project

Distingulshed Intelligence Medal Intelligence Medal of Merit Intelligence Modal of Merit Intelligence Medal of Merit Distinguished Intelligence Medal Intelligence Medal of Merit Intelligence Medal of Merit Distinguished Intelligence Medal Intelligence Medal of Merit After the project went into the production phase it was necessary toreat many people to properly utilize

personnel were cleared

^Unfortunately the writer has been unable to locaterecord of those persons who received otherthe Agency for their participation in this projectomissions are regretted. It should also be notedparticipated wittingly or unwittingly

in this undertaking. In fact therearc very few. if any, of the elements of CIA that were not called upon for assistance, either directly or Indirectly (such as providinguring the life of the project.

APPENDIX A

NOTE: This assessment was prepared by thestaff

Immediately after the discovery of the tunnel ana Ta bused on pertinent information available.

6

DISCOVERY BY THE SOVIETS 07

Analysis of all availableraffic passing on the target cables, conversations recordedicrophone Installed in the tap chamber, and vital observations from thendicates that the Soviet discovery of purely fortuitous

Aof the events leading to these conclusions is contained in this paper.

Following heavy rains in the Berlinumber ofand telegraph cables were flooded and began to fault between Karlshorst and Mnhlow on the night ofhe first major fault was discovered on cable

onpril. The fault was repaired by cutting

the defective stretch of cable and0 meter lengthemporary replacement cable. Betweennd 22

WASHINGTONo

Tha Tutuiel of Love

The Cni'.eJ E',ilfj CoveruiMRl hit aa! jet made any official rep!/the Soviet and East German allocations and protest* concerningjrdl American intelligence operative* aroto have bulll underneath tltc border between Wnt aad Eatt Berlina;se purposes. Steanwiule. assuming the story to becannot help thinking the Communists hiverievous mistake to rail* to much fuw aboul Iheir discovery. Tbe/ aro even said lo have conducted special propaganda lours through Ihe tunnel and to have exhibited Ihe wiretapping and otherapparilui lhai the Americans are supposed to have Installed iniida it.

The probable result of all this has been lo give the anii-Capouniit resisuare In Eastood deal ofocouragewm. Cer-laml/ it must have served to strengthen 1I> rent on of American resourcefulness and (hereby In restore sonto rocaoure of our prestige--which apparently had been deteriorating stoee thaaltitude taken hy tho American attboriliM in the East German uprisings of June.the captive population. The reaction of their kinsmen in West Germany lercity good index lo Iheir own.

In West Gerauay the story has been accepted at race value with astonishment and delight si an evidence lhat llio tradition of Yankeeand ingenuity iayth after all. Espionage Is one game in which the Communisls were dtcraed. even by their enemies, le beexpert and our own side to be dismally Inept. Very few Germans, aa tbe Frankfurter AVue frcsse exultantly observed, even suspected that llie Americans "were capable of so muchnd it would be even more devastating to Commiicisl prcitige if it were disclosed that the espionage tunnel had been in operation for soma lima before ihe Comiuunisla became aware of it.

Indeed, if Ihe ti;nnc] episode turns out lo have been ihe product r! Yankee mgcouily. there is an Interesting parallel in American tiiMory. During the siege of Pelcrvliurg In JfUH, an 'enlcrpriting Union officer from the feninylvania coal fields conceived the idea of mining the Confederate positionsuone! uoder then. The lunnel was dug and the nines were Anally set off; and though tho operationiasco in pari because of lha failure of Union commanders lo cxccule orders, the boldness of the stroke, has compelled adralraiioaeveriir.ee.

,

TIME6 1

berlin wonderful tonnol

iafashionablyhi the trey ikimwllivni Avenue, shih- wiih atniiiii hid. -lire iiiiltfiikji under Milelo miiileii-ti: hcadqiiancrs. nnd urvly knowlle.<eues .in* up to.

wlin ihm- isnilcfl ii. iIit llii'ii".ik silu-mi- ol ihintyncr known lit llie'.'I'- a*l in the Ruv>;in /otic, juil over ihc way, ai Alt* (ilifnii'ke. Sella nl ihirkk and (liickm* stmt like commissar* iiihlvleilleilm'" only woikine niihlinill nuns ki/.iiy in ihe hivrxe. and rinse iolimitaryI'ast anil West si.inrls. nil.ir st'ii, Itenilin? ils reticular car lo lite invi.ilum- in I'jM livrlin't busy Siliuiwirld Airport. Twoul barlicd uiiu niuid tlie lundy radar poll, and

Merlin,cfufiwn. andnreamoi nt rim-sinpi-don. in Kickd>rkly roysierious house* lurk behind hicli wire fence* wig.>'f darker ami more mysterious ildit.es within. Newsmen recently coup'id jj sepjuu agcnuc> oi Wcalciuknown io be at work ia Berlin.

ellar. For many asurrounding theand nih'tkiion oi Kudim'shdd led ihe r of boredThere

how whomc: hired'rvik' the juo; he had qwr".dnpnl because ihe Maeprinls irrmrd so rraiy, "Whyellar hii cnouchrivenilhumpeand wru toldlbcr* recalled serins frwnds whom they knew lurneinrcri suddenly ap-|njno(i insignia ol.ttnai CMps. Why? Aa aramcd ikrj< nn the only umrt nun-imert-nl week iheibngc.nl they hadielterne night'clock, an angry, diuiiky avtkt uiluocl uaiiiidKeUi-ubareti conference In Em Bcr-

' lin. Purpose:rotest (be building by'cret tunnelnniiierriltiry. "ivith ihc criminal illicitftcrciihante lu we for themselves, ihc Wesicrn newsmen were takeniteards from the radar nation at Rudow.

A Lol of Money. Trutklnads of Red army troopsquad cars crowded wiih

Velltfo/izriliy. MfdiSci.i.

i'hnn!iii( ihr

iwiomonhrihm in Ihr RTMHhL aihei in 'ttmi mil"inl init all. Ten feci Wttm. it*ill infhc Ru^inv bv iW Iu-uh'Iaai-iica luhr aluut hi ilumrt -ltl yjnh mwg.

ic.iiiiiird with ck'ilrupjc rfjuijifiimi fi-

j* ri'ctirilrfi. veniilatini:ntns nnd puiii)nhiilli Krilinli and Ainvrlisn male. AlM (innin end. uhk* kd Mil nf ifacrty nl ihc iui.nr( lucre Imktd iouiid a

1 used hy he

American end* Tin- newsmen were nm" knnw,ihey crawled win-

: nwjlliun lurrirrhe ml itsJ^h'A analairmlrnrac ihc AbRM

m( itn- Russian tiafft,ote nt jiliMir^limi. "was hullt in lavsny resixui-ilile niusi hairry."

wj.VwIaKMI.t HqudmrM.Cenlral iAeoicy. wa> rety*

int .ini-lolly wiih ihe news, one Iter lin. i'liiial:un'l knnw wheilirrr due llulluswel or noi.whorvrr il waa. let ancunk it waa UM bad i; waa (vund. It's the best publicity. has had la Beriinong lime."

tint til Oilier

rua P.

Soviet charges that American intelligencea tunnel In Berlin,elephone cable,recorded conversations over the Red communicationwhich the Reds, made wilh considerableandonducted tour of Ihe spy tunr-cl forrespondents, gives us some faint

wt didn't'know that American Intelligence! iacjcnla were that smart, In fact, wo wero beginning to Ithink thate Central Injolljjjcncc Agency needed

;veas'a'on the fundamental* of espionage^

socct cd Russian agent. Bntlino.iv_wccjcTif the'Soviet charges are true, Americanagentle' Hopo that American intelligence agents,tho Soviet department of foreignwestern sympathizers in the heart of theandtream of microfilmedimportant Sovietgggdj " .all this because that is preciselyspy network did and is probably doing righttht United States. This Is not Just tit fornecessity In the woridof cynicalpower

pecial committee, appointed' by tho President, did nako'a survey o: tho agency's activitiessatisfied that It was efficient. Soro tne activities of this -group that oven tho amount of money it spends is unknown. Ac--eounums have estimated that there Is roughlyillion In budgetsther departments which Is diverted to tho CIA.

Naturally enough, Congress worries from Lime to time that this money may not be well spent. List week some news came oul ot Berlin which should jcalm such, fears.

The Russians discovered that their 'three main telephone cables from 'East Berlinoints east were tapped.

a

A tunnel from tho western zone,with the tapped lines and wires, led to sandbags at the zone boundary. The Russians were greatly disturbed. They claim that allfor several years havo beenThoy biamo this violation of privacy on American Intelligence.

Our officials have expressed horror at the charge. Theyhey say. tho slightest idea 'of whore the lines lead or by whom they were laid. The .'lussians arc Just old mcanics to claim wt wire-upped.

West Berllncra aro laughing. Good' for American Intelligence, theyhey hope, and so do we, that tho Russians havo onlyovered ono of several taps. At least, the expose shows that some of the moneyby CIA may havo been very well spent j

CIA MAI HAVE ORDEIED WIRETAP TUNNELDREIER

Alox Droior. ovor NMU) (Chicago) andadio Network!

"And now undor tha heading, special roport, part one.

'spy" who turrvod "out to bo notiiincjss^iili3-sccrc^ivcrioco-haa. We have atunnel wo dug undor tho cowminint sector of Borlln ard which tho rods exposed to tho light of day, as you probablyhort whilo ajo. Well, our NEC correspondent, good friend and colleaguo, Frank Burkhol^or, has invostigAted tha atorythe wiretap tunnol ond he oays there's just one conclusionit's our3. Wo dug it, wo equipped it with electronic equipment to liston in on comrainiot East German conversationshole year boforo they found us out.

wo should bo enbarrassod but nobody in Berlin is. In fact, theroint of American and Wost German pride inthat wa pullod off an ospionaga trick on tho Rodshange. Of COBVM| the East Germans araood thing of it bytours through tho tunnel to irspreos their people with tho dastardlinea3 of the American spies, but that may backfire on thorn because tha East Germans are not beyonduiet chuckle at this outwitting of their cceramist rulers.

"Surkholzor tolls uo that the United States is stampod all ovor tho listening post tunnel. Now, tho tunnel is on tho outskirts of town with our end being locatedo-called experimental radar stationarbago dump. It runs straightlowed field that has white border marking posts above it. Tho Russians have nado throa openings for tho tourists, ono is near tho wiretap, anotherointards out in the field. When anyeno asks an Anorican why thoro isn't any radar at tho experimental radar station, the usual answer, according to Burkholzor, is, wo said it was Gxparlraontal, didn't wo? Want to mako something of it?"

"Naturally the arsy and the government in Washington aren't going to admit anything unices they havo to. No one tells who ordered tho eavesdropping tunnel built or who paid for it or who did tbe listeningo digging. Perhaps it wasworkocal 3erlin outfit,urious bunch of boys. Or perhaps it was done secretly on ordors direct from tho Pentagon or the CENTRAL INTELLIGENCE AGENCY. Anyway, it was bono well because it wasn't discoveredear and new tho Russians nay bo wondering hew much we learned froa recording all the phono talks, possibly Includin, ovorythlng that want through tho switchboard of tho nearby Soviet airfield. So thanks for the information, Frank Burkholaor, and now wouestion for you. Why donH woourist entranco at our end of the tunnel one cash in on tho publicity? Stop up, ono and all. uartor. See modarn ofipionago in eloctrcnio form and all underground, and who knows? Porbopo you will moot an occasional cocrainlot tourist.*

NSWLD TRIBUNE

Bsrik Keds Flock'to.im TisunseF

Darrleade

"We have no faultJuid with iMill antJVoin lliealk westwardjnQ yards past thetho tunnel cio-iwseeior border. Thenbarricade Isn voice calls out "hilt**

, Ilclear lhat It Ihe visitor, could continue westward pact llie ban leaould emerge, soonow but

Ry Cnston Co bien'jWirelcntothellcraldTrlbuneleraldTrtbunclnc. "UKUUtt, May ot thesirJita of <hc colli |U'.irig "American spyt" now on exhibition, ascrhn.

.capacity lor dailnc underlakims.

Tlie SCO-yard tunnela vcnluie o( extraordlnaryitiUT ot which thriller runts nrc made. It itdue by American Iiuelli-pencetMt Is Hip scaeral IS

xample of Prlcnn btuldlnc

ere difficult opera lion

equipment on Die loot. Thei

.orz.ini. -and

Seldom ho* an. J

wine nnd guarded constantly by, American toMlm. Sinna In CerJ

ComplrxBeyond IMompart-saven feet lour housinc-eerlnlnj

rsnuiift urrounded by barbed]

that accomplished by tlie

s dinners: ihe tapplna ollforbiddenCommunistlldy of to

telephone lines lUnnmffther linnH'pnwnl wground in Berlin. TM line,(JE! Tho ruWWl Hill m

to Soviet satellite iUU Inwas necessary to piorattl

*rc Euiope, aa writ asllanled Away [delicate equipment inoiner-

(6

men who dear thend cold tunnel

- ,; " Vrbftouily Iswxed wnder twd mally. tnen ta tM haasdieaps. They had teluppuxreert-

' Tbeeowrd by thetwy sOeaCy to are*Sntisna month aeo and. lection, and iMy Had to hajiTms Incauoes elcht racksthe main slcMjre*nc at-iway secretly tM thousands oto cany iM tsppedin Berlin,ttcd loeu ol clay they due nut fine* venation bad tos of earth near the ere tor eivd of tM tunnel and alsofrom the center of Hetlin border would hare alerted Ui* help prevent detection oflive southeast corner of the

cliy, Apparently the CJicovntrd- There nre three power-contra'.

rqulp.-nent InlO which

A mohLtebar It liaulcd nwny in closrditmiu near two lone racks of

same CominunMt line! lead from

ihren main cables. Ilcie" art'.iuir the opposlief IM tunnelou- of benches with fluorescent HchUne over-llie compailment Issttleshlp gray. Considered Great Evpcrtt At theend of the eastern eompnttmrm thrvc Is another) steel door. On ihet nt ttls oik- ni-'iv iniimmjH to-itl

ii iliiivinir bntlncss near thc'tnieks broucnt Into tbe radarend of the tunnel. cftlcriita"ldtne. Possibly tho

'line to Eail^ Cermanotiaht in the sections ofbrourht to see the '

Americwinlter Inspecting the tunnel. Ulie racwiy woikers record the

eorru^ated lion tubing which hue llio Uiiinel. The Utmost secrecy must have bren ur,caavoid stiffLne Up localisitors*ommunists estin.te lhat Tlie boo* conlnins tlie,wl "fnor* UoKuircs of forcicncrs on bolhwnibs. of tM iron Cunnm. Even o' w'm tunnel completed Sudanese oilielal Is luted,Mnlc1 'nwallineM tunnel, six feet inonne enuipinent, Ap-

tne

slan aeeior. The westernmtnt

.Mi ia alocality called fludow.

two

at!

: m

Ihrou-h the tunnel X. 0C vllrwoa d'

,MV=te^^ .J

C^

nhveler nHfl with its ioofthis Iiad to be done feet below the surface, was dun"lhplmc%ards in.-adcjf?!lId be tapped, hecatiscof' nn ulira-sensitlMho American soeior ofequipment had tM PnmaiyVhich wouldwUerlln. Jt runs eastwardJ p. even line detectionhVcnn^unists point 3C0 yards inside thefOMTho snaa erf lne pomftCc Sm.mL

experts In theemerknDly tidy,

Only .M'externpen'^lZS.

exutnment z,^

^.myifuTlMayTSfSS^fSSm taravaMltatOTrenU, ocw-naie*

JskOl| of lheiPJOjeci'a_bullcieraI,

ussiane.aleforem man: -EntryMro la nothe."HlCSUsffW MJMS

i-j* driven'out lo ti>c' Vby Robertcia

.ATWT

flunk You Our answer, in hailingexplained lhat owner-ship of Iho tunnel has not, citabllihcd. bul lhalimehe righl-ness or wrongflcts depended upon.ihe side of the fence from wh.ch tiic operation was viewed.

lie showedook in which tunnel visitors were, asked to Jnseiibo their opin-J

site ureau chief. Barbed wire surrounded thetation and lis uildings. '

'. i Watched by Yanks

. S.VS '} Tour Eerie Bore

', Wo could sec knots ofround mounds of earth exca*atcd to reveal two sections ol BY JOHN* II. TlKMlfSON the tunnel.

merican newsmen, today stoodeet underground in ihomerican spy

7GHflC DTRF 'Mi American soldiers in'sentry' iQIUZwatrtcd us. thru field' glasses as wo saunteredward the clcarJy marked com-din

urrowed 3CC yards under Berlin's little Jron Cur* lain, and peered into the

' to tour the tunucl afterdommunist movie ofdjdiieovery. The commander

irectlydW 8how paved road leading from Ber- -unncX tin to the Russian air base at

iCerman comraurmte wish, to thank

. gunners.

: Ccn^nJ* commander.;

who declined to giva his.

'Vopos.'* or Volkspolijei.

:

milled western reporters since hrc0.ffi1. Hinting

Our host In as eerie aas'was ever devisedr mystery* writer,ooted officer of tho East

'h

Chicago Tri bonoay 55

here announced discovery of minatcd Vswtlchbo-,rd, banks the tunnel and cf|uipmcnt it Bt current boosters, arapll-said was USCd for wire lap-^fiers, and cables, -AUJaariicJ

; German worker delegations, .'theaid. ; Gcrm-iu Admire Feat

Situated In liai wilh an ex-pen meat il American army radar station [theay itumrnyi owner-ship of iho tunnel has net .been officially admittedhe American commandr in Washington.

West Berliner* are eon-

P'sir.ce then the "spyn the equipmentlabeled by ihe Russians and in English. Some HemsGermans, has been vis. the labels of Britlsh.orby more0 East

,'vincod ihe Americans built their gunsowerful-the tunnel equipped it with-acarchligW. aimed up Ihoapparatus, andnd" lne American sec*1

Oulilde om-

in on Red armyince]

' Itcds Man Guos] Pumps senl hot and cold! water to an airnll. Olhor long .pipes held! oil or air. The tunnel was' made of bolted sections nfu'tatcd si cel. lined onides wilh sandbags.Walkingards, we-reached the east-westherc'bcbind sandbags two-young Vopos crouched wilh'

llsiencd

T" No oneighthe tunnel loday when War-

CBET

APPENDIX D

This analysis was prepared by the staff as part of the wrap-up of the oper

ROUND-UP OF EAST GERMAN PRESS REACTION TO THE DISCOVERY OF THE WIRETAP TUNNEL AT THE BERLIN SECTOR BORDER

(Sources as Indicated)

The following is an analysis of the Bast German press reaction to the discovery of the wiretap tunnel at the sector border between West and East Berlin. During the period under4 tootal ofailies per day and four weeklies were available for scrutiny; however, only the dailies reported and commented on the incident.

Mostly concerned with reporting and commenting on the incident were the East Berlin papers which, in some instances, devoted full pages of their local sections to reports andon the tunnel in addition to their front-page or second-page accounts of developments. The* provincial press gavetreatment to the matter only in few Instances, generally refrained from large articles or commentaries, and often carried pictorial material with only brief explanations. The least coverage was noted in the provincial press of other

than SED (Sozialistische Einheitspartei Deutschlands -Communist Party Germany) affiliation; none of these papers published any commentary, or any cartoon of their own, on the subject up topril, in fact.

Describing the tunnel as inspected by the journalists after the Soviet press conference, the papers pointed out that the installation was well designed and constructed, that the installation was costly and equivalentodern teler phone exchange, and that thef Britishsed in the installation was of such quality as to guarantee long service.

The East Berlin papers, which were leading in the reports on the issue, treated the matterbitterly seriouswhich represents an "international scandal"breach of the norms of international law." The papers, in their commentaries, addressed the West Berlin Senat,an all-Berlin understanding and stressing the necessity for united action, and insinuated that Berlin is being kept divided merely for the purpose of providing the espionage centers in West Berlinase for launching provocations against the GDR. Other commentaries by central and provincial papers contained calls for vigilance and for defense Only one paper printed an editorial on the incident. In commenting on the incident the press did notine

between the different developments, such as the pressthe Soviet protest, the GDR Government protest,ut,ule, the commentaries dealt with the incidenthole. Later, when tho first reaction of the West Berlin press was available, the central press swooped down upon the West Berlin press for attempting to belittle the incident and to divert attention from the "seriousness of the matter."

The few caricatures published by the papers were designed to slander the Americans.

Day by Day Reaction

6

On6 six East Berlin papers printed the ADN (Allegemeines Deutsches Nachrichteneneral German News Office) release of individual reports on the Soviet press conference, reported on the inspection of the tunnel by the journalists, and carried excerpts from General Zarenko's letter of. DER MORGEN and BERLINER ZKITUNGndrinted only the abbreviated version of the ADN release. Six provincial SED papersarried announcements of the discovery, brief reports on the press conference, and merely an announcement to the effectetter of protest has been sent to the American Chief of Staff. Only NEUER TAG, Frankfurt/Oder, printed the long version of the ADN

Provincial papers of other party affiliations carried no

reports.

6

Onprilrovincial papers came out with the ADN version of the report on the discovery of the; the six provincial SED papers which hadriefthe day before followed up their reports by more extensive accounts of the press conference, the letter of protest, and the inspection of the. Papers of other party affiliations joined in the reporting campaign on this day. Only MAERKISCHE VOLKSSTIMME, of all provincial papers, published an "eye-witness" reportescription of the tunnel and quoting Individuals who had voiced their "outrage athing" which produces new material for conflicts In foreign' SCHWERINER VOLKSZEITUNG, which printed the long version of the ADN release, reproduced the first picture of the

Meanwhile the central press, In addition to supplementary reports on the discovery of the tunnel, descriptions of the tunnel, and pictorial material showing sections of the tunnel such as the amplifier station,ame out with the first commentaries. otal of five commentaries appeared on this day. The press treated the matterbitterly serious affair" which represents an "international scandal" and a

"breach of the norms of international law," pointing out that the United States violated the Buenos Aires Treaty onon the one hand and the GDR'a sovereignty on the other hand . NEUESew, hitherto unsurpassed "gangster act" of. secretATIONAL ZE1TUNG termed the incidentsensational internationalEUE ZEIT stressed that there is no word "strong enough to brand suchnd JUNGE WELT declared that "this had to happen Just to those who always babble about Communist infiltration but can never prove All commentaries were addressed to the West Berlin Senat, demanding an all-Berlin understanding for the purpose of discontinuing the "stubborn adherence to NATOchieving the withdrawal of the "cold war experts of allissolving the espionage centers in the "frontierndnormalization in the situation in Berlin." Three papers reportedeeting held by the National Front at Alt-Glieaicke, at which the populationesolution protesting against this "provocation." Franz Fischer. First Secretary of the Kreis Treptow SED Executive Board, was reported to have said at the mooting that the people of West Germany and West Berlin have to pay for this installation through the occupation costs and to have termed the tunnel as "an appendix of the cold.

TRIBUENE, moreover, referredeport by the HAMBURGER ANZEIGER to underscore the fact that the Installations in the tunnel were not of provisional nature but designed for long DER MORGEN, describing the tunnel, added that West German correspondents who inspected the tunnel noted with satisfaction the declaration of the Soviet Lieutenant Colonel that "quite obviously, German quarters have no part inhile NATIONAL ZEITUNG briefly referred to anmade at the Alt-Glienicke meeting to the effect that the tunnel was open for public

NEUES DEUTSCHLAND reproduced the first caricature on the issue. The cartoonarden which is divided into two partsign indicating the "Democraticull of flowers, and the oppositearren piece of landolehill toppedlag with the dollar sign. trong arm is pulling outole in the Democraticole wearingarked earphones, some sort of Army trousers with plugs and pliers showing from the pocket,. Army cap bearing the legend "Espionage." The cartoon is captioned, "Do Not Burrow in Other People's66

Onprilapers continued reporting on the. Innstances the reports were supplemented with pictures as outlined above. otal ofapers

7

printed the text of, or large excerpts /rum, the press release on the GDR Government. Six papers reported on the inspection of the tunnel by the population, the press, and representatives of the diplomatic. Four papers referredeport carried by the West Berlin TAGESSPIEGEL according to which Western Journalists were prohibited from inspecting the mouth of the tunnel on the Western, and four papers referred to FRANKFURTER ALLGEUEINE which had epokon of an "eloquent silence" about the affair on the part of the. otal of four papers reported on the Alt-Gllenicke. NEUES DEUTSCHLAND gave excerpts from Fisher's speech, quoting him to the effect that the people of West Berlin, in particular the SPD members, will be invited to inspect the Three, six papers, and one paper came out with an Three East Berlin papers, through their commentaries, swooped down upon the West Berlin press for its attitude toward the incident. NEUES DEUTSCHLAND accused the West Berlin papers of attempting to belittle the incident and of lauding the efficiency of the Americandding that the West Berlin press is thus making vain attempts to divert attention from the seriousness of the

a

JUNGE WELT lashed out at the West Berlin DER TAG, saying that, by its opinion, the West Berlin paper manifests its total loss of any sense of decency. Besides, DER TAG is not in the least disturbed about the violation also of Wtest Berlin's NATIONAL ZEITUNG held that DER TAG now admitted what It has been denying at all times, namely that West Berline facto part of NATO, adding that DER TAG now regards as "customary" the military espionage of the United States on GDR territory in addition to the "customary frontier-cityhe "customary" partition, and the "customary" diversionist activities of the KGU and other underworld organizations. The paper stressed that all Berliners fully agree with the FRANKFURTER ALLGEMEINE which said that the people must demand the discontinuation of "suchEUE ZEIT, carrying the only editorial, said that theposteature of West Berlin's misuseATO base. The paper emphasized that GDR policy will continue to serve all-German understanding and relaxation of international tensions. "But it must be kept in mind that the success of this policy will not only depend on the volume of the appeal for peace but also on our preparedness to defend our homeland as well as on our vigilance regarding the prevention ofresulting from the fact that one part of Berlin hasa frontier city againsthe paper added. "What

we need are contact points above the ground and In full light, namely all-German talks, and not underground trenches In the cold

The first commentaries carried by provincial papers dealt with the Incident as an example of proof for East German press reports on hostile espionage. KSST1MME, Karl-Marx-Stadt, pointed out that the tunnel representsocument" which is quite apt to dispel all doubts of those who have hitherto been inclined to regard East German press reports about tbe underground activities of Western espionage services as MAERKISCHE VOLKSSTIMME quoted several workers who voiced their indignation overileness" which makes German unity more difficult to demonstrate that the "Western side" is Just as quiet about this "unpleasant affair" as the population is And LEIPZIGER VOLKSZEITUNG stressed that anyone reading about the discovery of the tunnel will inevitably weigh the Soviet attempts at maintaining peace against the efforts made byervice, adding that this "breach of international law" also places the West Berlin administrationeculiar light." The paper reminded its readers that war preparation, which "formerly marched on Prussian Armys now marching on "American rubber soles, chewing gum, and tapping telephone

NEUESaricature ahowed an American soldierin vain toisconnected, oversizeducket marked "CIC" while another soldier is thoughtfully standing JUNGE WELT reproducedole. Army cap on its headelephone receiver on its back haltingign which warns that "spies are now facing danger." The cartoon is captioned, "The Underworld that Shuns thend"Damned, we did not put up that FREIES WORT showed rats wearing . Army caps being disturbedussian soldier in the operation of what looksommunication center. Two rats are shown facing the soldier in surprise, another standing with arms raised, and still another escaping through an opening in the wall. The caricature is entitled, "Unpleasantnd footnoted, "It is an Effrontery of the Russians to Disturb Us in Our (Burrowing)

SOURCES

NEUESApr

NEUKApr

Apr

NATIONALApr

DERApr

BERLINERApr

Apr

SAECHSISCHEApr

VOLKSSTIMME,Apr

MAERKISCHEApr

LEIPZIGERApr

NEUERApr

Apr

SAECHSISCHEApr

VOLKSSTIMME,Apr

MAERKISCHEApr

LEIPZIGERApr

NEUERApr

LAUSITZERApr

VOLKSSTIMME,Apr

DAS VOLK,Apr

SCHWERINERApr

FREIEApr

OSTSEEApr

Apr

FRKiKSApr

SAECHSICHESApr

DIEApr

NORDDEUTSCHE NEUESTEApr

MAERKISCHEApr

BRANDENBURGISCHE NEUESTEApr

BAUERNApr

DER NEUEApr

LIBERAL DEMOKRATISCHEApr

NEUESApr

NATIONALApr

BERLINERApr

NEUEApr

JUNGEApr

Apr

DERApr

RET

BERLINER ZEITUNG

SAECHSISCHE ZEITUNG

DAS VOLX, Erfurt

NEUER TAG

FREIHEIT

DER MORGEN

TRIBUENE

BAUERN ECHO

DER NEUE WEG

WELT

MAERKISCHE VOLKSSTIMME

LEIPZIGER VOLKSZEITUNG

NEUE ZEIT

FREIES WORT

VOLKSSTIMME, Karl-Marx-Stadt

NATIONAL ZEITUNG

VOLKSSTIMME, Magdeburg

MAERKISCHE UNION

FREIE ERDE

LEIPZIGER VOLKSZEITUNG

VOLKSWACHT

SAECHSISCHES TAGEBLATT

OSTSEE ZEITUNG

LAUSITZER RUNDSCHAU

DIE UNION

SCHWERINER VOLKSZEITUNG

Aprprprprprprprprprprprprprprprprprprprprprprprprprprpr

Original document.

Comment about this article or add new information about this topic:

CAPTCHA