CLANDESTINE SERVICE HISTORY - THE BERLIN TUNNEL OPERATION 1952 - 1956

Created: 8/25/1967

OCR scan of the original document, errors are possible

Page

LIST Or

I.

IX.

III.

IT.

V.

VI.

nalysis of th* Reasons for tbe Discovery of the Tunnel

ecapitulation of ths Intelll-groce Derived

ypical Aaerrlcao Press Coaawnt

aat German Preaa Coaawat

-

h

PKEFACK

(the Berlin Tunnel project) came Into being

wereosition to offer valuable

advice were absent from Headquarters during tbe period the paper was being prepared and thus unavailable to assist.

When this project was first discussed with the then Director of CIA, Mr. Allen Welsh Dulles, he ordered that. In the interests of security, as little aa possible concerning the project would be reduced to writing. It Is probable that few orders have been so conscientiously obeyed, and yet there

1

reat nany cubic feat of files connected with this Those files nalnly concern technical and administrative matters. Only tbose details vfclch, ln tha opinion of the writer, are necessaryroad understanding of the manner in which the project's objectives acre accomplished have been Included la this paper. Those Interested ln additional data nay wish to consult the files.

In addition to setting forth significant developments, tho writer has attonpted to provide Insight into tho reason* for certain courses of actios. At times thispeculative approach. Tbe judgments derived from suchwere shared by all those actively concerned ln the management of the project, aad it is the writer's hope that they are accurately expressed ln tbe following paper. Any error ln this respect, however, is tbe sole responsibility of the arriter.

LIST Of ILLOSTRATIOSS

Figure ap. of Berlin

3 of Uidot* Section, Berlin

- Aerial Flee of Rudow Section, Berlin

- Dtit in ihr- Basement

- Topoe Studying the Installation

- Eaat German Fie* of tbe Compound

-^Blinds on tbe Sbleld

-^Excavating Using the Blinda

- Flee of the Completed IMnnel

Conmtruction of the Vertical Shaft

- Completed Vertical Shaft

- View of Cable* and Tape

L shift and Tunnel Entrance In Warehouse Basement

- Converted Fork Lift and Dirt Sox

- Target Cables Exposed

chematic View of Tunnel

- Initial Stage of Construction of Pre-Asp_Chamber

- Pre-Amp Chamber

- Tapping Bridle

- Lead-Aeay Lines

SISoviet Press Briefins

ill

J. INTRODUCTION

xact moment when the idea emerged oxunnel to Intercept Soviet andGerman communication- In somewhat obscure. umber of factors must be considered, among; them the following:

early. Intelligenceinterested In the benefits to be derivedSoviet and Satellite landllnescaleconsidered necessary. The loss ofduring this period created gaps In ourcoverage which were particularly unfortunateperiod of Cold *ar escalation. It becametbe tapping of certain'selected leadlines mightthe information needed toumber of theour overall Intelligence picture.

tbea ands thetbe briefings of "returnee" Germanwho were taken by the Soviets after world Warwork la Russia) and other sources, became ar.-ixe of a

C. Id to* s to* C'fle* of Communications. In to* course of Its continuing efforts to provide secure communications for the Agency, becase awarerinciple which, when applled to target communications, offered certain posslbllltl*s. Plans to oxplolt this techniqueImmediately formulated.

Thes* factors then served aa additional incentives (sbov* and beyond our normal collection requirements) to focuson Soviet landlloe targets. In ald-lORl exploratory discussions were held In Washington to plan th* mounting of as attack on Soviet laodlines in Sast Germany with specialto be placed on th* Berlin ares.

during th- latter partnd by2 all of the pertinent technical material bad been assembled and sufficient ly analyzed to permit tbe pinpointing of the most Important Soviet clrcuiti

one sampling operation was run in tbe East Zone,with negative results. Byowever, effectiveness oI-B

become suchslnuteJsample

was obtained of tho prime target circuit.

The longest continuous sample obtained wasinutes and most samples were of two to three minutesV duration. Special mention should be made of the fact tbat it was necessary tohour watchonth period on "our" end of tbe cable to record

Inspection of all sites from which It night becables

served to narrow the choices to two spots:

The site actually used was selected after careful deliberation which Included, but ess not Halted to, tbe following factors:

location of the permanent eaterla normally relatively high ln Berlin) wasto beeet below ground surface. It wasthat this fact would obviate tb* necessityuse of compressed air, watertight locks, "adconstructionorresponding reduction luengineering problems.

length of tbe tunnel was considered toimpractical although it far exceeded anythingbeen donsj

e. Land was available on which to construct an installation from which to begin thw tunnel.

d. Cospleto collateral information on the area was avail

At this point tho following major questions remained unanswered:

It Indeed possible tounnel0 feet) clandestinely,tbe fact tbat tbe border at this pointand constantly patrolled by the Easthit the targets?

tbe answer to the abovo waswas to be done with the spoil (reckonedons of sand)?

emote area (this portion of Berlin was atn "squattcrevllle" of shacks and hovelsrubble by refugees from tbe Eaat German Zone)?

In retrospect the first question, "Could the tunnel be

as neverebatableconcerned more

or less decided that given sufficient money and personnel the job could be done. (This Judgment fortunately provedhe second question, "ihere do we put theaunted th* minds of project personnel for many weekareat many ingenious ideas were brought fortb and discarded for oneor another until tbe suggestion was made facetiously thst weole and put tbe dirt" This ln effect was tbe solution. At thia time no convincing

planning for tba project continued

throughout3 and In December of that year the Director of

Central Intelligence approved tbe terse of referencelsplesen-

tation of the project. eries of conferences la3 and4 led to tbe following decisions: a. . would:

lts, erect the necessary structures, anduaaeloint beneath tbe target cables;

be responsible for the recording of all signals produced|

In Washington all of tbeeaterlal received froa the

ertical shaft frost tbe tunnel's, end to tbe targets; .*

* * ia

the cable tape and deliversignal to the head of tbe tunneland

fortbe voice recordings

froa tbe site.

Activity thus proceeded on threen Berlintaken to lease "the necessary land and right-of-wayfor the siteontract ess letersvsn Tbe coepound, which was roughly tbe size or ancity block, vsa fenced with chain-type highand contained the main operations building (thewith bseeaest type warehouse previouslykitchen-dialog facilities and barracks, andwhich housed three dleael driven generators Sanitary

provisions consistedesspool. (The logical placement of the cesspool was such that It was situatedew feet from the tunnel site. It later developed when tbe tunnel was dug tbat this was quite unfortunate because working conditions in tbe sector adjacent to tbe cesspool were, to aay tbe leant, highly unpleasant.} Planning called for the completion of this work on

For assistance ln actually digging the tunnel It was decided to request help from tl and to this end tbei

were briefed on tbe project. The initial contact withmade personally by Mr Allen Dulles to Fortunatelytrained engineer, bad just been appointed from the first moment he learned of tbe operation. General Trudeau was an enthusiastic supporter of the concept. gjammaV

lab)*

*: '

tunneling) to head tbe project. This proved to be an* utstanding Job.

mid-summer4 be bad firmed up the engineering plana,rew of engineering personnel, and actuallyock-up tunnel some ISO yards long working under operational conditionsigh security base ini

Soma mention should be made of the actual method oftho tunnel. Studies of tho soil structure inigh percentage of sand. For this reason it tbat the tunnel should be lined with steel. Thmcontent contributed greatly to the danger of cave-lasface of the tuooel, and to eliminate this risk a

no arranged across its face that should eves dry aand be encountered tne danger of cave-ins mam virtually eliminated. The tunnel liner vas formed of sections of heavy' so constructed thatjwhen bolted together, five sectionsteel ring approximately six feet in diameter and IS inches long. Provision was made for. bolting these rings together toontinuous tube of solid steel. The man eorked under cover of the shield described above (whlcb vas slightly ^rger In diameter than the steel liner) and when sufficient material bad been excavated, tbe shield vaa forced foreardhydrau-

lc Jackse* section of liner eaa bolted la place. Since thisoid of approximately one and one-half inches around the liner {remembering that the diameter of ths shield was greater than that of thecree-type removable plugs were built into every third sectloo of tunnel liner. This permitted removal of the plugs and the forcing of grouting material under high pressure to fill ths void

iimnnN

z

TJ

tbe liner was in piece. It vas calculated (aadproven to be true) tbat tbla method of construction would not peralt settling of the soil and detection of the tunnel froa the aurface. (See

Ueantlaengineersp of the tunnel's teralnal end

riidlcated that the cables were burled nonenches deep along the sideeavily traveled highway. The top of the vertical shaft (seehen needed to be approximatelyonches below tbe surface of tbein order to give the tapping crew rooa to work below the celling of the shaft, aad the whole structure had to be capable of supporting the weight of heavy trucks since the tunnel aad tap chaaber lay directly beneath the highway. (See fig.) Considerable care was devoted to Insulating tbs,-

14

IISWBJMBM]

up chamber to prevent Its actinguge drum.

Considerable thought was given to the quantity and content of the Material available froa the target and tbe manner ln which it was to be proceeded. It was ln thia field, perhaps, that we experienced some of our greatest problem*. It had been decided very early ln the project's planning stages to maintain tbe strictest possible security measures. inimum precaution security checks were made on each individual who ln any way became knowledgeable of the project's mission, and tbe same standards ln force for clear-

vera

briefed personnel was maintained, special secrecy agreements were executed, and special briefings were given to allperaonnel. It was ln the assemblageroceaalng team that we experienced our greatest problem ln maintaining security atandarda. Since tbe material to be processed was largely Russian voice, It was thought that we would need linguists with near native fluency ln Russian. It is axiomatic tbat native fluency Is usually available only In natives, sod

-"in aplte of the insulation, iteird sensation to be ln tbo chamber wben an Iron-nbod horse trotted across it. lso suffered some anxious moments one foggy morning when the microphone in the tap chamber gave forth withcontinuous series of dull thuds. After the sun burned away tbe fog, visual observation showed that tbe East German police bad setemporary automobile checkpoint directly over the chamber. The "thuds" the microphone picked up were caused by the police officer ln charge stomping his feet oo the road aurfac* to keep warm.

III.

4* beginning to take shape and tbe situationas follows:

Cerstan contractors bad completedandwere lo poascaslon.

of the baaic suppllea. equipment, and were ln Berlin ready to start construction

on the tunnel. This In Itself involvedons of steel tunnel liner from tbe ZI to Berlin. The initial shipment across th* East Zoo* to Berlin consisted of one and one-half freight trains, the loss ol anyof which could have blown the project. For Bfcarltj

1'

purposes all sensitiveuch as the tunnel liner, were double crated and banded and subjected to severe drop tests before they left the ZI. Similar items were differently packaged for deception purposes.

c. Space at Headquarters was secured and the

(hadrew and aaa well under way in fabricating tbe unique equipment

It should be noted tbat personnel and equlp-mt were prograseed Initially to exploit approximately percent of tbe anticipated take. In retrospect,tbls could be considered overly cautious. In justification of this decision it should be said that no one had evereet under clandestinewith the expectation ofarget two inches In diameter andnchesain German/Soviet highway. There were those who manifested certainon the feasibility of so doing, and it is greatly to the credit of tbose senior officials, both civilian and military, that, in spite of these reservations, tbe

project was permitted to proceed.

In lataertical shafteet In diameter

was started In the warehouse basement floor (aeend ground water was encountered ateet Instead of ateet. Such examination as could be ssfely undertaken under tbe steady observation of East German border guards and

Soviet officials indicatedlay lens existed is tbls

particular spot,perched water table" tbe magnitude

.

awn in the direction

oped down in the direction ofo-proceed

*ven* thougb'.tbe

be less than half what bad been anticipated.

* 'pyaW't*' '

vailable Information 'indicated that the

m

Careful visual observation was maintained and tunneling operations stopped each tine the German guards walked over the tunnel on their regular patrols. Pumps wore Installed to take care of tbe excess water. Observation logs wore maintained, and since the highway under observation was the nala road from East Berlin to the Soboenfeld Airport,Order of Battle information was obtained. It was also possible to estimate quite accurately the relative Importance of individuals visiting East Berlin by observing the security precautions taken by tbe East Germans and tbe Soviets.

Both sides of the tunnel were lined with sand in bagsiv as the tunnel proceeded and tbe excess spoil was bauled back to the basement of the warehouse. To facilitateooden track was laid on tbe floor of tho tunnelon-

.

verted electric fork lift was used totring .of "rubber-tired trailers back and forth ln the tunnel. (See) Cool air was supplied to the face of the tunnel throughfrom an air conditioning unit located in the warehouse. The tunnel was completed on Construction of tho tap chamber commenced5 and was completed, with the three target cables exposed, onSee

. To appreciate this accomplishment'it.iaj

wS WjI

remember that the tunneleet long (i

)

www

19

- -aeesv-

length of the Lincolnreflecting pool) end that the first half sloped down and the second half sloped up. (Sec) The lack of an adequate base line made theprobleaj especially difficult. Tbe engineers decided at one point tbat an object of known aixe ln tbe East Zone would be usefuleference point,aseball gane waswith the objective ofaseball as far into tbe Eaat Zone as possible. This schene was frustrated by the friendliness of the East Geraao guards sho kept returnlac tbe baseball. Nonetheless, the engineers expressed confidence that they knew tbslr position when the tunnel was completedoint which could be containedix-Inch cube. They

were correct.

'Memwv*,. ' -Excess huaidlty Is probably one of the greatest eneales

of electronic equipment. To guard against this problem the section of the tunnel lnmedlately adjacent to tbe tap chamber was insulated and sealed with marine-type plywood to form, inlosed room. (See figs.) Vapor barriers were erected and, lneavy "anti-personnel" door

measures which would be taken at the site. The following position was finally approved:

posture of. would be one ofof any knowledge of tbe tunnel.

tunnel was mined at the point itEast-West Zone border with demolition chargescaving in the tunnel liner should the Sovietsentry Into tbe cover installation.

door described above

equipment for isolating and pre anying the signals and passing them down the tunnel forwas in place before each tap was made so that monitoring of each pair could begin as soon as it was tapped. (See figs.) Careful check was kept of the temperature and

bis door,bore the following inscription neatly lettered in German and Cyrillic: "Entry is forbidden by order.of the CoBBanding.Genersl."It was reasoned that this sign might giveSoviet' and/or German officials.aod gainhere were' those Communist indlvlduals.yho^

mm

. 1

humidity Id the tap chamber to prevent the possibility of the introduction of moisture into the target cables thus causing faults. The moisture ln the air caused by the breathing and perspiration of the tecbniclans doing the tapping operation forced the suspension of tho operation several time* to permit the air conditioning equipment to debumldlfy'th* chamber. All the components in the electrical isolationwere individually selected and subjected to rigorous tests to insure maximum reliability, and the lead-away cables were constructed of the best available materials, sheathed ln lead, and bandied ln accordance witb the highest telephone company standards. The strictest possible visual watch was maintained with the tap ores. In shorttin this, as in all aspects of the operation, every effort was' made to guarantee success even though ln many instances it meant delay ln achieving tbe objective.

tunnel vis discovered (see1ooths sodsys of operation. emorandumonS (reproduced ln Its entirety asn detail all evidence available as of that date on the reasons for the discovery. The conclusion reachedtbat the loss of this source was purely the result of unfortunate circumstances beyond ourof tbe fact that one of tbe cables vas ln very poor physical condition (this aaa known frosi the beginning)ong period of unusually beavy rainfall. It appeared that eater entered the cable ln sufficient quantity to sake itthus necessitating digging; up sections of the cable and causing discovery of tbe tap.

d. Aprocessing unit was maintained it the Berlin site to pa rait on-tbe-apot monitoring of engineering clrcuita for tbe protection of the project indof tbe core productive clrcuita

for tbe "hot" intelligence. Dally reports of sufficient

value to warranttoproduced.

The.Information froa tbls material ass disseminatedclosely controlledAppendix

VI. AFTERHATH

As previously noted, considerable thought waa given during the entire life of the project on the result its discovery would bring. In retrospect it Is probably correct to say tbat, among those wont actively concerned .with the project's management,consensus developed that the Sovietsprobably suppress knowledge of tbe tunnel's existence rather than admit to th* world that Free world intelligence organs had the capability of successfully mounting anof this magnitude. In other words, it was felt that for tbe Soviets to admit that. had been reading tbelr high level communications circuits would cause the 8ovl*tm to lose face, lltrhapa fortunately, fate Intervened, andossible consequence the Soviet course of action was exactly contrary to expectation.*

The Commandant of tbe Soviet Berlin Garrison, who would normally have controlled the handlingc situation when th* tunnel was discovered, was abseot from Berlin and th* Acting Commandaot, Colonel Ivan A. Kotsyuba, was ln charge. ThereAs someto believe that he (for whatever reason) was forced toersonal decisionct without benefit of advice from Moscow. At any rate reaction was unexpected ln tbat he invited ths entire Berlin

press corpsriefing and tour of tbe tunnel and its facilities. esult tbe tunnel *ea undoubtedly tbe soat highly publicized peacetime espionage enterprise la modern tiaes prior to2 incident.*" Worldwide reaction easfavorable In terms of enhancement. prestige. Non-Soviet Bloc sentiment can be generally summarized as follows

was universal adalratlon (andInformed Soviets) on the technicalthe installation and the Imaginative nature of

non-Communist world reacted withunconcealed delight to this Indication thatalmost universally regardedtumblingespionage natters, was capable'of'cddp against Onion, which bad long been the acknowledgedsuch matters.

with regret tbat tbe Cold Warsuch measures, thoughtful editorialthis indication that. was capableIts rols of Free World leadership la...

ne^'tPf^dicUblV^ ":

ampling of . press

i'.

accounts and editorial comment on tbe tun

tbe Communist press treated the tunnel as an outrage and aa

intolerable indecency onsiststudy of Eaat German press reaction to the incident.

for their contributions to ProJ< -'tf^fttW^ awards were wade to the following- Individuals:

Distinguished Intelligencenodal ofMedal ofMedal ofIntelligenceMedal ofMedal ofIntelligenceMedal ofthe project went into the production phase Ittoreat many people to properlypersonnel were cleared

for tbe project)

fact there are very,f ,any, of the

nee,.el" during

^Unfortunately the writer has been unable to locate an exact record of those persona who received other recognition from the.Agency for their participation in tbls project and any omissionsretted. It should also be noted that approxlmatelygsjJHjpeople participated wittingly or unwittingly

lo thls^Undertal

elenVnttrbf CIA'that Were not'callod upoh'for,assistance, either directly orsocbroviding manpower))*

tbe life-of the project,

iimmiiiuniii

APPENDIX A

This assessment was prepared by the immediately after the discovery of tbe tunni oo MXtloeDt lnfornat

of all availableraffic passing on th* target cables, conversations recordedicrophone lnstalled in the tap chamber, and vital observations fromndicates that the Soviet discovery of_ purely fortuitous!

Aof tbe events leading to these conclusions is contained in this paper.

Following heavy rains In the Berlinumber ofand telegraph cables were flooded and began to fault between Earlshorst and Hah low on the night ofhe first major fault was discovered on cable

The fault wasth* defective stretch of cable and0engthemporary replacement cable. Betweenad 22

1

iimiiiiimiiin

WASHINGTONu

Tha Tunnel of Lo33

Tfc* 1'a.iel lum Gaitramaiil bai aalaaaaSdata Ua Saviai tad tin Giiauaad praicna canntalnj It* ian:wl um Awtm MafJ IpbMI aquatint uata biff bum undoiaiith im baronSin aVrSa farpiupomusm; Iba aloiy la bactnaet help ih,tilunj laabinimw aaUuL* la raua aa(ou ibool their ducoirry. Tlmy art did uld la .amjrtfuuit uauiUM riuual aaa ia am uhihiUd la*iad VMi "card-inr. tjjaniui thai laa Anwuani art aaapaard la

Tlx prabibla iciu'l or allil Win lathawatauaaa aa ttttoad dnl af imuuW andOfkbitarred ta tirAtikM laa aa>

-inr'the

aiiilsd*in bt laam Gttmttm tprimp al Jaaa. IBM aawaa laa ciauva popuUiloe. Tha nulla* titoimi ia Wni Cerauej Itreur

In Wnilaer. att Ml aWooutwral iadn 'naraca ihil thtuaur latria ifiar aa. Etpinaa'a ii ea* jama la wla-ch tha Coaimunlw vararra ay Ifcc in* mi. la ka .liralirJT eiparl aad our aaa alia laouBy Inapt Veiy fan Gtnstaa, ii DM Fnaa.'aiKr

imcrkint "wart opt bit or aa diikWasld ha area aaaca deiatUtatf it OjaaaaataUdoiH Uu aafkt Ibm Mar* laa dnanlw bwtna inn

laeVad. tha isumI ipiiidi karat aa* la km 'l-io Ihr predail al YankMpin lid la Aairriraa bolarf.aafre ti Pdt/iW- la IBM. aaofficir (roa iha Pianajliam'atha Idea ef aalaaaguaael under iheaL Tht<u[ lad Iha BWc* asrahaaidi laa aperallaaa Auea la pariUa niloraunala'

adMlriuoa

timee

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TV* Kg CiCar. Far dm lie tanu-wracy mimdOji on ms-

linn hit) let litnl aiw-

to iht arn+aul rtly. Tltc

aka. at

i owmpOhin millol utiai (ncnila aaam

IVWul Caw.Aa unwpl in aai ib* wtlj manh* Poa-

t.aacrr,

;anuakaulihk"teem

wain tut laiaua' hatai oliuinl a

ct laaiMi itmws ft. ike H'rwmulaaiu mm joe ranat Ira tat adit uua at (aJn. _

(a

rmm- Tat ti aaia "an

Bu( lutim idim tor

i aal 'm

riiaa iW iW

ata'af iaaiqua."aW lay- Tin -ii,a

ia>nu.<mi pp-|ir iks lha anad

(unul or nat. lai -hannna, W

aa taa

Il'a lU bturr UaVrfaaai Irsa* .

C-3

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*"Wt Sop* that Amenran imeiricener (genu have ;lixUir*UaSoviet derarU-seril of forGrnlantad weKcrnayrr.pithlieri in trat heart of Iha Sov<ttj .fjitaueraey andirom ot'riienaumea copier

'.at io-orU.it

Soviet ipy newotk didia tba United SUM. Thli la notit foriKaTkntceni'y In tha world

V -:

C-b

ADVOCAT

Dale:

or

jo: tho aecocy'i actinuei arm

up Uut nw Wo amount oney it ipene* aKxoim eoununie haiw animated that Joiner Cii-if.Tiiii wblchlTtrted llo IAo CIA,

I XalsriDjostfeia worrlei [frenne that thia monaynot ba well ipenc Laat wee It aomt ,nowa camevriin wnfehum aueh lean.

Tht Bru Jni clMaveied thai Uvclrire mun telephone cable*erlin to polnu cut were lipped, inael ,'roca Iht westeroe,Hats .add

Cli XIIOU-SED WIRETAP TAKE-

3REI2!

Alex Droior. ovor WXAQ (Chicago) endC Radio network!.

now undor tho heading, special roport, pari one.

outnotannnii-dnm. Wo hav* atunnel vo dug undor the ccaananist sector of Berlin and which thaexposed tohtday, as you probably know, avtdla Well, our WC correspondent, good frlond and colleague, Frank DurkholEor, has investigated the story af ths wiretap tunnel and As aaya there's Just oneurs. He dug it, woItac Ironic equiosatt to llsWn in on ccrainist East Garsun conversationshole year before* thay found as oat

"Praaurubly we should be eabarraiaed but nobody in Da rile La. In fact, thereint of ixartcan and Vest Gamin pride inthat wa pulled off antrick on tha Red*hange,

Cf course, tho Bast Germas areood thing of it byucting tears through tha tunnelpreoa thtlr peopla ulth tha cUstardllneas of the American sptas, but that may baokfir* on thsa bocauaa tho Eaat Germans are not beyonduiet chuckle at thia outwitting of tholr cent-sunlst rulers.

Burkholsor tells us that the United States Is stanpod all ovor the lis tc nine post tunnel. Row, tha tunnel is on the outskirts of town with our end being locatedo-called expcrirrental radar stationarbage durp. It runs straightlow field that has white border narking posts above it. The Russians hare iiads three openings for the tourists. Cos Is near tho idrolap, anotherointards out in the fisld. Whensks an Anerican why there Isn't any radar at ths experinnntal rsdai station, tha usual answer, according to Burkholser, la, we said it was experimental, didn't wa? Want to maks something of It?"

"Haturally tha amy and tho sorarniLont ln Washingtonto adnit anything unless they hevo to. Mo one tellsthe eavesdropping tunnel built or who paid for it orlistening and the digging. Perhaps it was the work ofn outfit,arious bunch ofr perhaps"accro tly on orders direct Ironeat agon.t 'was donaear and now tha Russians nay be wonderingwe' learned from recording all tba phone talks, possiblythat wont through the owttchboard of the nearby So thanks for tho Information, Frank Burfcholzer, andwauestion for yon. Why don't vaouristand of tho tunnel and cash in on tho publicity? Step"end all.uarter . Sea scdora oepionage lnand all undor-ground, and who knowa! Porbapo you will.

kaadhir nirrtota

' by canon

mat

mumj

"bertlrn. maruu raiitrn uio etcitot itt.liu o: theit ih*anya :wy.rd>al- no* onla sui

i

tsa tm-yotd tunnel repil- w- unmda 11 <"

eniutt ol riuoorniniit, ^xt olli ouinutl et0(nbao.

runt ara moot uk vor lhaln "ww

1st did! ani j, o

sue briewiii'lnm <oauaac

t* umum i

-.1 11 .

him ii .b

t* hut boplnc miti nan

on

and in* dooreetboounel

rl to nalbiiln oiuw

t loapeniwra andtho comaranlilioir* cinn--

m.

ti an rxeeukdds-aod

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xii.iraku'jmiii m>

s. luiwttjkm eij*

1 finitir. men ti uican or btlliih anniitaelarel lotunri runto cirry uwaeb to rba we

_ bilft'wa wirn; -xcliidkoen: lb* upninsl> of tba ai ulisi'ocia linn ramninj mAef.oa poaitubv otbet pound la berlin, tlie unei in- in, radari_*nlly ttidoded tome ivnn-ner-mwni ruf efa flatlet .atouia tuie in _ iuiu^tit *eriet

cutujiln gcrmmy." !

at thrlvft

to ma

n* hw urt-rvi:i. af iv1

; hr tunnel.by tbe-' wcu.an* ihey

tirnl

[nelsoniln.o*

at* biayef.

in. aeuthcit* cerate afaralbm

din rtovd'biuu twir ma looe iioi* :nu wa radar.(cutprnml "

a ilinrtna 6uwt

at lb*

iliinnc op loeai mk. iwai #im>

tinmmaio it-it|ht.id. ibe lununitmfnt oart of lb* aoikuohiiniw fiay.

gawmtrrd ctral eo"""

attbtv-rtendoflha

a

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oraat buuclnc

-nor thia hi* to **

toccroiin ettranilonic.erhi ueiery "oruttuuon* ittio tool (oouim hie *h*

olittiol la titled.

tunnel air (rtl in

and -tinoot

Otv int aairlici. v

maldl iha'aairritsn-teeur of beroa.ll rnna rasvastd t*

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tutor, la* -ulner.be>

ll'.wi at lotnsi'-*'*

im cunnkn. evao

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i atare?moe( TDbnr* tar-,

at

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it wbkl

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1wnl:- peowti petlca and

i tmlimi hptu at* ou i.

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,'j.ot. on im dow-<oir ojg-taudb numwnda, ostralf*

nttcatlt

ant -dorr lort^asta ortfttm la no

; coimr^irllnamjl,)

V

Auo-

oemotnUe republlcl b

wire iu

jK pcrftucnl

ae -Oar laracr. mCc

an, npUlael lr.it oaw

iliip al ibe tunnel rti n< been eiubluhed. bv jiicj ai we uawcend to-f, ^ma ti-uuukx"nT-Vwiedlbi eleaily mirtedron-nm depandc : paa Ibe ltd* af the (eat torn wtoch lie.

back

I' rnitem CatS-cd we

-.1 Watched by Vuli

( ume ale n

.t7^'rffl

V t * Vapoa'

5 Tour Eerie Bore .u

v.ied la icveiltwoM "

:ha -JlewdcRftel" bimmed KO yifdi under Betlia'* liuid Iron Cut* uln. ind peered r the Arr.fi

i-locm e* tbeleelor lover theGerman

jjincik -

Our beat Weerie

'Una ai-wii ever oeviaca

Juit to beep ton two

iljeawry. na

Icuaincd our si itiemp* nd led uiUlc.1Brnuol dirt Win lew. ihac wiita U> thank

I and con-very much I

voi^patiiei very ranch,itind <soughibow

(ha un-iel*

r-.

e

of th*ThaGctrnina dva hi*.

1 our tour wai ih* th.rd per- J* &lQ big CiWu mi

'm oi April Sij-jkcbi lidrtiat-jUib.

cS'^-nlnatedulo lunnel and^jr.current ,ikl wutat wire

^ie-j

tin

VCO0 Fj* Cetniin werker. ; Geiaoaa' AdrMr* Teat Slfuited Ioh in Aae.'ieaa

ridir lUtldn. (in*

unjnyl aw-aer*'n abip a( tbaai not jbeen othdally idmilled bjr 'iba Aseraaer*i

r yooaf Vopolh.

Weal. Ber^riitoapj ainced iht^,WJrch;ief,p lb*

Chicago trlbiras , Hbjr 55

Qd

aphofl* eenvcriJUwi.

.aphoM Uked ua what

o im'rcieliono Ihem.nanior Xti-tag felt. whloh'MiCreiuyt^^ Qrort. tlKa aay

V "under

'ehhiseed Amerteao preiUDbboldaea of th* PumiaJ-techaieal accom^Uihmcni.eiptorod ibe

;of.mmy

-T" No on* cipected 1manil

APPENDIX D

NOTE: This analysis was prepared by the -ajsaawa

s part Df the wrap-up of the operation/

ROUND-DP OF EAST GERMAN PRESS REACTION' TO THE DISCOVERY OF THE KIHETAP TUNNEL AT THE BERLIN SECTOR BORDER

(Sources as Indicated)

The following is an analysis of tho East German press reaction to the discovery of the wiretap tunnel at tho sector border between scut and East Berlin. During tbe period underootal ofallies per day and four weeklies were available forhe dailies reported and commented on the incident,

coverage *as noted in the

Mostly concerned with reporting and consenting on the incident acre the East Berlin papers which) ln some Instances, devoted full pages of thoir local sections to reports andon the tunnel ln addition to their front-page or second-page accounts of developments. The" provincial press gavetreatment to the natter only in fr, refrained from large articles" carried pictorial material with t

than SEO (Sozlal1stische Einheitspartel Deutschlanda -Communist Party Germany) affiliation; none of these papers published any conncntary, or any cartoon of. on the subject up topril, ln fact.

Describing the tunnel as Inspected by tbe Journalists after the Soviet preBS conference, the papers pointed out that tbe installation >as sell designed and constructed, that the installationcostly and equivalentodern teler phone exchange, and that thef Orltlsb and *se>ri-cansed ln tbe installation was of such quality as to guarantee long service.

The East Berlin papers, ahlch sere leading in tbe reports on the issue, treated the matterbitterly seriousrepresents; an* "breach of the norms of international law." The papers, lm their comawntarlen, addressed tbe feat Berlin Senat,an all-Berlin understanding and stressing the necessity

for united action, and insinuated tbat Berlin Is being kept

divided merely for tbe purpose of providing tbe espionage

centers in West Berlinase for launching provocations

beluecn th? different developments, such aa the pressthe Soviet protest, the CDR Government protest,ut,ule, tbe commentaries dealt with the Incidenthole. Later,tbe first reaction of tbe Vest Uerlln press was available, the central press saoopodpon the West Berlin press for attempting to belittle the incident and to divert attention froa the "seriousness of the natter."

The few caricatures published by the papers were designed to slander tbe Aaerlcans.

Dajr by Day Reaction

6

been sent to the amcricai Frankfurt/Odor* ^priS'te'd the* lo*og*yenilon of the ads

On6 six Hast Berlin papers printed the ADN (Allegenelnos Deutsches Nachrlch teneneral German News Ofrice) release of lndlvidual'reports os the Soviet press conference, reported on tbe inspection of the tunnel by the Journalists, and carried escerptn froa General Zarenxo's letter Of protest (1 DER HOHGEN and DERLIKER ZE1TUN0 ndrinted only tho abbreviated version of the ADM release. Six provincial SED papersarried announcements of the discovery, brief"reporta on the press conference, and werely an announcement to.tbe effectetter of protest has

Provincial papers of other party affiliations carried no

re porta.

pril8

Onpril rovincial papers case out vita the ADK version of the report on the discovery of the; the six provincial SED paper* which badrief announce-atQt the day before folio-wed up their reports by more extensive accounts of the press conference, the letter of protest, and the Inspection of the. Papers of other party affiliations Joined in the' reporting campaign on this day. Only -UOUISCHE VOUCSSTIKME. of all provincialpublished aa "eye-witness" reportescription of ihe tunnel and quoting Individuals who had voiced their "outrage atth>ng^ whlchprc^cea.ncw. material for coat, foreign' KSZE1TUNG, which printed the long version ofelease, reproduced the first picture of the

Meanwhile the central press, In addition to supplementary reports on the discovery of tbe tuopel, descriptions, of tbe tunnel, and pictorial material showing elections of the tunnel suche ampl if irritation,ams out with the first

m

"breach of tho norns of International lw," pointing out that the United State* violated the Buenos Aires Treaty onon the one band and the GDR's sovereignty on the other hand . NEUE3 DrUTSCULAND epokeear, hitherto unsurpassed "gangster act" of. secret KATIOHA1 ZEITUXG terned the incident as^'sensational InternationalEUB ZEIT stressed that there Is no word "strong enough to brand sucbnd JUNGE WELT declared that "tbls had to happen Just to thosealways babble about ConuLunlftt infiltration but can never prove All eoeawentarlcs were addressed to the West Berlin Senat. demanding an all-Berlin understanding for the purpose of discontinuing the "stubborn adherence to NATO

allissolving the espionage centers ln the "frontierndnormalizatlon ln the situation ln Berlin." Throe paper* reportedeeling held by the Rational Front at Alt-Gllenlcke, at ablch the populationesolution protesting against this "provocation." Franz Fischer, First Secretary of the Xxel* Treptos SED Executive Board.,was reported to have said at tbe awotlng that the

appendix of the cold.

tribuese, sort-over, referredeport by the HAaDL'kgeh anzsiger to underscore the fact that tbe Installations in the tunnel were not of provisional nature but designed for long deb morgen, describing the tunnel. added that feat German correspondents who inspected tbe tunnel noted satisfaction the declaration ot tho Soviet Lieutenant Colonel that "quite obviously. German quarters have no part Inhile NATIONAL ZEITVNG briefly referred to anmade at tbe Alt-Gllcnlcke meeting to the effect tbat the tunnel was open for public

NETJES DEUTSCHLJWD reproduced the first caricature on the Issue. The cartoonarden which La divided into two parts ,byna ,sign ^indicating the "Democraticull of flowertP"and the ^oppositearren piece of landolehill toppedlag with the dollar sign. trong arm Is pulling outole Lo the Democraticole wearingarked earphones, some sort of Army trousers with plugs and pliers showing from tbe pocket,. Army cap bearing tbw legend "Espionage." The cartoon Is'Do Not Burrow in Other People's

printed the text of, or large excerpts from, tho press release on the GDR Government Six papers reported on the Inspection of the tunnel by the population, tho press, and representatives of the diplomatic. Four papers referredeport carried by the West Berlin TAGESSPIEGEI. according to which Western Journalists were prohibited froa inspecting tbe mouth of the tunnel on the Western. and four papers referred to FRANKFURTER ALLGEHEINE which had spoken of an "eloquent alienee" about the affair on tho part of tbe. otal of four papers reported on the Alt-Gllooicke. NEUES DEUTSCHLAND gave excerpts froa Fisher's speech, quoting blm to the effecthe people of West Berlin, in particular the SPD members, will bo invited to inspect the Three, six papers, and one paper came out with an Three East Berlin papers, through their commentaries, swooped dowo upon the West Berlin press for its attitude toward the incident. NEUES DEUTSOILAND

the West Berlin papers of attempting to belittle the'.

Incident and "bi-laudlnir the efficiency dfjlthe" Amertcan^goblins adding that .the Jfest Berlin press is thua^mak^^lng^valc^aj to divert attention from the seriousness .of tbe

7

on our

JUNGS WELT lashed out at the Vest Berlin DER TAG, saying that, by its opinion, the 'est Berlin paper manifests its total loss of any sense of decency. Besides, DER TAG is not in the least disturbed about the violation also Of Vest Berlin's RATIONALUNG held that DER TAG now admitted what It has been denying at all tines, namely that Vest Berline facto part of NATO, adding that DER TAG now regards aa "customary" the military espionage of tbe United States on GDR territory in addition to the "customary frontier-cityhe "customary" partition, and tbeiversionlst activities of the KGU and other underworld organizations. The paper stressed that all Berliners fully agree with the FRANKFURTER ALLGEMEINE which said that the people must demand the."such; NEUE ZE1T, carrying the only editorial, said that theposteature of "est Berlin's misuseATO base. The paper emphasized that GDR policy will continue to serve all-German understanding and relaxation of international tensions. "But it must be kept in rind tbat the success of this policy will not only depend on the volume of the appeal but also

gcrs resulting fro

rontier c

.

need are contact point* above tbe ground and in full light, namely all-German talks, and not underground trenches In the cold

The firstcarried by provincial papers dealtitb the Incident as an cxasple of proof for East German press reports on hostile espionage. VOUCSSTIsXS,ad t, pointed out that the tunnel representsocument" which is quite apt to dispel all doubts of those who have hitherto been inclined to regard East Geraun press reports about tho

underground activities of Western HAERKISCRE VOlJSSTIaalE quoted several workers abo voiced their Indignation overllcness" which makes German unity more difficult to dempnatra_ts_jhat the'"westerns'^uWt as "quiet "about"unp affair" as the population Is outraged. And LEIPZIGEB VOLKSZB1TUNG atrcssed tbat anyone reading about the discovery of tho tunnel will inevitably weigh the Soviet attempts at

' ' t -

' -i"

maintaining peace against the effort* made byervice, adding that this "breach of International .law" also places the seat Berlin

light." Tbe paper romlndcd, its rendei

irittcwhichformerly marched on Pruawlan 1

MUfJii: "Bilk-li;.cu:i: .ct.il. uvvrftiroJvlvvr rhvduMitr. thwukhifully ej tan-din* oonoU.tiaelephone rttllMf on lisaltingign "Mel-warns that "spivs arc newanger." Theaptioned, "The Underaorld thatheouc-noted, "Dmacd, vc did not put up that WOT shoved rati wearing . Arcy caps aWanf disturbed b/ ft TUjitiUn coldier In the operation of what looki;onwunlcatlono ratsshowli facing thv soldierin surprise, another staniUnc with am* raised, and still another eseapioi; through ar. openms in the wall. The

caricature Is entitled, "Unpleasantnd footnoted.

(Durrowlog)

'

SOUR CI .S

I.

3.

5.

6,

7.

I.

DEUTSCHLAKJ KEUE ZKIT TBIBUE-Vt NATIONAL ZEITUNG DER MORGEN BERLINER ZE1TUNG FREJHEIT

5AECHSISCHK ZEITUrtG TOLKSSTIKKK. Karl-Marx-Stadt

KIJiCHE VOLKSSTIMKE LEIPZIGER VOLKSZEITUNG NEULR TAG

missiT

SAECBSISCHK ZEITONG VOLKSSTIKMB.- . adt UAPRKISCHE VOI.XSSTIKME LEIPZIGER VOLKSZEITUNG NEUER TAG

LAUSITZER RUNDSCHAU VOLXSSTIUCE, NagdvbarcErfurA^.,

FRKIEKRDK'

OSTSEE ZEITONG VOLKSHACHT FREIES *ORT SAECHSICHES TAGEHLATT DIE UNION

NO R. DD EVTSCI IE NEUESTEUNION. NECESTEKEUE

LIBERAL- i:

4

prprpr Apr Aprprprprprprpr

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ZEITUNG SAECHSISCHB ZEITUNG DAS VOLK, Briurt NEUER TAG FREIHEIT DER UORGEN TR1BUENE BAUERN ECHO DER NEUE WIG NEUES DECTSCBLAND JUNGE WELT

MAERKISCHE VOLKSSTIMMK LEIPZICER VOLKSZEITONG NEUE 2EIT EREIES WORT

VOLKSSTIKME, Karl-Marx-Stadt NATIONAL ZEITUNG VOLKSSTIMME, Magdeburg

EIPZI VOLKSWACBT

SAECHSISCHES TAGRBLATT OSTSEE ZEITUNG LAUSITZER RUNDSCHAU DIE UNION

SCOrlERINER VOLKSZSITUNG

6

prprprprprprprprprprprprprprprprprprprprprprprpr Apr Apr

,.V.

12

" .

Original document.

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