NPIC EVALUATION OF FIRST SIX BLACK SHIELD MISSIONS

Created: 4/17/1968

OCR scan of the original document, errors are possible

BYEMAN

Txsrs EO)

7 April

MEMORANDUM FOR : Deputy Director for Seleece end Technology

valuation of Kin Six BLACK SHIELD

Ml*

memorandumor your information only.

ere copies of NPIC evaluation* of tbeBLACK SHIELD missions. You may wlih to refresh your

memory on sensor performaace during our early missions.

Acting Director, Speotal Activities

Attachments! Xeroxed copies oi:

YE-SOttl/67

APPROVED FOR RELEA DATE: 7

S(1N

Distribution:

DSfiiTDSfeT RegD/SA chronB/OSA

We via BYEMAM'

ft'W Srsfmn

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17

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MEMORANDUM FOR: Director, Office of Special Activities,TTENTION:

Evaluation of Missionf

T

l 5X 8 firBfc operational photographic mission wlthl aircraftamera system. The mission covered portions of North Vietnam, Thailand, Lace and the demilatarized zone in Vietnam. Camera serialas used. The negatives and reproductions were processed atKodak using standard operating and processing procedures established during the processing of test missions from this camera system.

2. The quality of the photography is good providing ground resolutionstet at nadir (example" r^ii^ the ground resolution ieo 2A. feet (example: franc not). During the low altitude portion of the') resolutioneet can be detected (example: he resolution of the photography acquired during turns iswith tho scale provided by the slant range (example:

aa nouring descending portions of the flight. The acquisitions during the slow ascent across Thailand are good providing some of the best resolution of the mission (example:

3-hyaical evaluation of the negative provides theinformation:

a. There are minus density lines introduced by foreign matter in the slit aperture. On the forward material these

SUBJECT: Technical Evaluation of Missionf

7

llnea00 Inches from the edge nearest the clocks (example: frame IT). On the aft material these lines5 inches from the taae edge (example: .

timing track drifts off tho clock-edge ofin the first WJ frames. The firstrases arewhich la attributed to short duration ofand tho time- required for the film to adjuotvelocity. There is minor overlapping (one inchintermittently throughout the mission.

manufacturing splice obliterated all datafor frames. Heat spliceslt where thewere cut for ease of handling during processing.

There are approximately bOO' of pre-flight material. 'The followingrofile of the mission aatorial. All frames,negatives and reproductions, titled TOP SECRET AKRA have been retitled SECRET.

o Reproduction

OP SECRETo Reproduction

outine Reproductions

OP SECREToutine Reproductions

o Reproductions

OP SECRETo Reproductions

5- During the low level portion of the mission, thein isolated areasew frames) contain double imagery. The cause of this anomaly cannot bewith vehicle vibration, roll, pitch or yaw rate, it does not appear in the entire slit aperture, nor does it appear in the same location on successive frames. The general opinion ia that

SUBJECT: Technical Evaluation of Missionf7

it may be caused byocalized temperature difference on the window in this particular areaeculiar air flow across the windowecondary refraction at the lower altitude where the air is more dense. The areas are approximately twoin diameter and have only been detected at approximatelyOO^eeT8oaa'terial at altitudes under

6. Portions of the mission were fiown withnd portions with; portions were acquired with the camera in caged vc uncaged status; no difference in resolution or acuity can be detected that can be attributed toor the caged status.

latitude and longitude, together

with the principal point of the photography ot zero scan angle, were plotted to determine variances. rom the early portion, androm the later portion of the mission were used. The direction of flight was developed byinseries of INS zero scan points. The plots are included as attachment 1.

8. Edge traces developed from4 areas attachment 2.

9- omparison was made betweenndicated by the film velocity andecorded on the INS tape. The film velocity was determinedl6-REV A) supplied by tbe manufacturer. The comparison included asas determined from the frame timing marks and the correeponiSinR record on the INS tape.

10. hronological sequence of events affecting the handling and exploitation of the mission at NPIC are listed in attachment k. The times ore listed in Greenwich Mean Timeastern Bay-light Saving Time (EEST) and elapsed time from the time the vehicle landed.

U. ensuration analysis is not included with this report.

mm

SUBJECT: Technical Evaluation of Missionf7

n the altitudes obtained from the INS tape modified byalues received in theere Extensive cloud cover limited the number ofnp of Vietnam 0cro used for these altitude checks. An aerial resec-areo' covered att0mpted bocause of the lack of control data of the

r

Attachments:

Plots

Edge Traces

3- Comparisonndicated by film velocityI recorded on INS tape

Chronological List of Events

v/

HftNDLso:n

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7

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MEMORANDUM FOR: Director, Office of Special Activities DDSOT ATTENTION:

Evaluation of Missionf

7

Mission BSXOO3 ie the second operational photographic mission employing theamera system. Itelatively short missionrames. Camera Serialas used. The negatives and reproductions were processed at Eastman Kodak.

The negativea are underexposedullhe quality of the photography is good providing ground resolutionseet at. nadireet ot the hlfih obliquityjmglea. There are no acquisitions duringor descending portions of the mission. The altitude ranged00 feet.

3- IjBsae Bmsaring associated with excessive vehicle roll and pitch rates ia. present .on some portions of the mission.ontain examples of this anomaly.

k. hysical evaluation of the negative provides the following Information.

density lines introduced by foreignthe silt aperture are minimal.

vjBBjEaaa 1

1via byeman

new method of indicating cameraandrovides the necessaryand does not introduce plus density lines ln

anufacturing splice in frameheat splices, where the negative was cut for easebetween.

CONTROL SYSTEM ONLY

SUBJECT: Technical Evaluation of Missionf7

Inop the

entire mission. Portions were acquired with theaged status versus uncaged; no difference in resolution or acquity can be detected that can be attributed to tbe cased status other than those mentioned in paragraph 3.

t. Awas made betweenndicated by the fil. velocity and* recorded on the IBS tape. The

l6-REV-A) supplied by the manufacturer. The comparison included oaas determined from the timing marks and the corresponding record on the IMS tape.

7- hronological sequence of events affcctinc the handling and exploitation of the miaalon at BPIC are listed in Attachment 2.

IMS and data chamber latitude andwith tho principal point of the photography atangle, wore plotted to determine variances. 9 were used. Tbe direction of flight was developed

f photographic rero acan points. The plote are included as Attachment 3.

camera manufactureristing ofnumbers that are overlapping and the amount of4able listing these overlapping frameswith frames thatortion of the datathe format.

YEMAN CONTROL SYSTEM ONLY

ht&IIJrf oni.v

SUBJECT: Technical Evaluation of Missionf7

Attachments:

ndicated by filmrecorded on tape*

List of

Table of overlapping frames and frames containing portions of Data Chamber.

Distribution:

f

HANDLE VIA BYEMAN CONTROL

OXCAFT/BLACKSHIELD REF

SUBJ: TECHNICAL EVALUATION OF MISSION

DUMBER:

NUMBER /SERIAL

TYPE OF FILM* 4

QUALITY EVALUATION!

THE NEGATIVES ON THE FIRST HALF OFARE UNDEREXPOSED, ESPECIALLY AFT CAMERA FRAMES. IS APPARENT BUT NOT SEVERE. FILL PROCESSINGFOP THE ENTIRE MISSION TO PROVIDE NEGATIVESDENSITY.

NORMAL. THE FWD AND AFT CAMERATHROUGH THE DATA BLOCK AREASNCHES

i

REPRonucnoM. ry_otj

o

TVO

SHAPESHROUGH 5BI. THIS IS THE RESULT OF IMPROPER SCAN SYNCHRONIZATION AHO MOT PETERING AS REPORTED IN PREVIOUS PRELIMINARY EVALUATIONS. SHEARED (ELONGATED) IMAGERY IN THE SCAN DIRECTION IS PRESENT ON THESEHOWEVEP, DEGRADATION IS NOT SEVERE .

C. DATA RECORDING! OPERATIONAL THROUGHOUT THE NISSION. 0. PHYSICAL DEFECTS* FOREIGN NATTER IN THE SLIT APERTURE CAUSFD HI NOR THIN DENSITY STREAKS ON THE AFT CANE PA FRANKS. OT HEP PHYSICAL DEFECTS ARE KINIPAL..

E. LEATHER t TWENTY PERCENT CLOUDv '*

EMARKS: IMAGE QUALITY ONHROUGH THE END OFNISSION IS. GOOD AND CONPARABLE OR SLIGHTLY BETTER

"igSIONS BSXfWI AND IMAGE DEGRADATION IS PRESETTHERAMES AS A. RESULT OF THEPPODLENSED IN ITEM AB NOSYSTEM (INS) DATA WAS RECEIVED FOR FRAMES79 AND1 THPOUGH DATA9NDPE INACCURATE IN THE FINAL FRAME EPHENERISINSUFFICIENTZ JUN 67

SECRET

0UE COfilTY

CAMERA SERIAL E, TYPE I, WAS USED ON MISSION BXS7BS EXPOSURE VAS GOOD. PROCESSING VAS ACCOMPLISHED AT REOTAL OFRAMES IN THE MISSION.

2. BOTH CAMERAS OPERATED SATISFACTORILY THROUGHOUT THE MISSION;

UM THE STRAIGHT AND LEVEL PORTIONS OF THE FLIGHT GROUND RJE.SPUJ-

8 INCHESARPACE) WAS OBTAINED IN THE VERTICAL

"IONS OF THE PHOTOGRAPHY. OBJECTSALL AS OtlE FOOT ARE

CTASLE. THE RESOLUTION AT OBLIQUITY ANGLES IS COMENSURATE

THE DEGREE OF OBLIQUITY;. DEGREES THE RESOLUTION

ES BETVEEN TWO AND THREJLfEET .

A GOOD CORRELATION VAS OBTAINED BETVEEN THE XNS DATA,

'HOTOGRAPHIC IMAGERY AND 'THE DATA CHAMBER RECORDINGS. THE

. IN THE DATA CHAMBER STOPPED ATOUR ANDINUTES AFTER IDE INITIATIONHE LATITUDE AND LONGITUDE FROM

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MKtODUCTIONTHER THAN THE ISSUING OfFICE IS PROIIIBJIIiD. COM Na

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THE DATA CHAMBER VAS USED FOR CORRELATION OF THE BALANCE OF THE 1ISSJON.

FRAMESERS EXPOSED ATT.'iZ EXPOSED ATECOND AND FRAMESWERE EXPOSED AT . ALL FRAMES RECEIVED FULLTHE DIFFERENCES IN EXPOSURES CANNOT BE BOTHARE ACCEPTABLE FOR THE TERRAIN REFLECTIVITY 3VER VHICHFLOVN. ONGER EXPOSURE VOULD PROVIDE MORECLOUD SHADOW AREAS BUT COULD CAUSE TOOENSITYTHE BALANCE OF THE IMAGERY. LESS THAN TVO PERCENT OF THEin CLOUD SKADOVSt THEREFORE, IT IS RECOMMENDED THAT THEBE USED AS THE STANDARD UNTIL THEREHANGE INELEVATION OR OTHER CONDITIONS THAT yILL AFFECT

PHOTOGRAPHY VAS ACQUIRED DURING THE ASCENDING ANDPORTIONS OF THE MISSION. THE ALTITUDE RANGED BETVEEN

>,flMEET. NO DATA REDUCTION PROBLEMS VERE ENCOUNTERED RING VEHICLE MANEUVERING.

TINE HISTORY OF EVENTS AFFECTING THE EXPLOITATION OFAT SPECTRE BASED ON ELAPSED TIMEOUCHOOVN

E:

r ime

-30 RECEIPT OF IMS TRANSMISSION

RECEIPTALUES

39 MATERIAL ARRIVED AT KVBAIL

30 RECEIPT OF UNTITLED REPRODUCTIONS.AT SPECTRE

IN - PAGE 3

FINAL ERAHE EPHEHERIS COMPLETED INITIAL READ OUT COMPLETED IPiR SENT FROM SPECIRE 7. ERE ACQUIRED WITH, THE BALANCE OF 7IE MATERIAL WAS ACQUIRED WITH PROGRAMMED NO DIFFERENCE COULD DE DETECTED IN THE IMAGERY. THE CAMERA SYSTEM CAGEDIMES INCLUDING THE CAGING THAT IS NORMALLY EXPECTED IN TURNS. THE CAGING INDICATOR IN THE DATA CHAMBER DOES NOT CORRELATE EXACTLY WITH THE CAGING INDICATIONS ON THE INS TAPE BUT THIS IS ATTRIBUTED TO MICROSECOND DELAYS IN TIC TWO SYSTEMS.

P. THERE IS NO INS DATA AVAILABLE' FOR7HESE FRAMES WERE ACQUIRED DURING CAKERA RUN-DOWNAMERA OFF AND ARE CONSIDERED BONUS FRANES.

S. THE FILM METERED PROPERLY THROUGHOUT THE MISSION WITH THE ONLY OVERLAP OCCURRING AT CAKERA 0FFA1NS. MINUS DENSITY STREAKS, CAUSED BY FOREIGN MATTER IN THE SLIT APERTURE, ARE MINIMAL.

IA. CLOUDS OBSCUREDERCENT OF THE PHOTOGRAPHY, GROUND HAZE IN THE VALLEYS AND ALONG THE COAST REDUCED THE ACUITY OF THE IMAGERY IN THOSE AREAS.

IZ JUL 67

PRIORITY OXCART

SUBJECT! EVALUATION Of BLACK SHIELD MISSION

SERIAL F, TYPE I, WAS USED ON MISSIONAS GOOD, PROCESSING WAS ACCOMPLISHED AT KW8AIL.FEET OF FILM WAS USED ON THIS MISSION, HEAVY CLOUDALLRAMES. THE ONLY FRAMES REPRODUCED. THESE FRAMES PROVIDED GOOD RELATIVELYCOVERAGE IN THE MAIN AREAS OF INTEREST.

CAMERAS OPERATED SATISFACTORILY THROUGHOUT THETHE STRAIGHT AND LEVEL PORTIONS CF THEO JH. INCHES (I BARPACE) WERETHE VERTICAL PORTIONS OF THE PHOTOGRAPHY. OBJECTS AS SMALL AS

-PETECTABLE* THET OBLIQUITY ANGLES IS COMMENSURATE WITH THE DEGREE OF OBLIQUITY; ATEGREES THE RESOLUTION RANGES BETWEEN TWO AKD THREE FEET.

GOOD CORRELATION WAS OBTAINED BETWEEN THE INS DATA, THE

iiou iui*-

REPRODUCTION BY OTHER THAN THE ISSUING OffiCE IS PROIIWTTO. eorr MX

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PHOTOGRAPHIC IMAGERY AKD THE DATA.CHAMBER RECORDINGS.

ERE EXPOSEDECOND; FRAMESVBftE EXPOSEDECOND. THE ENTIRE MISSION^DEVELOPMENT AND THE DIFFERENCE IN EXPOSURE CANNOTTHE EXPOSURES ARE ACCEPTABLE AND THE OMLY LOSS OFIN SHADOW AREAS. IT IS RECOMMENDED THAT THE PRESENT EXPOSURES

BE USED UNTIL SOLA* ELEVATIONS OR OTHER CONDITIONS AFFECTINGNECESSITATE A

PHOTOGRAPHY WAS NOT ACQUIRED DURING THE ASCENOING AND DESCENDING PORTIONS OF THE MISSION. THE ALTITUDE RANGEDlHA FEET. NO DATA REDUCTION PROBLEMS WERE ENCOUNTERED DURING VEHICLE

A TINE HISTORY OF EVENTS AFFECTING THE EXPLOITATION OF THE MATERIAL ATBASED ON ELAPSED TIMEOUCHDOWN ARE: TIME EVENT

HR-MIN

OF INS TRANSMISSION .

ALUES

ARRIVED

RECEIPT OF UNTITLED REPRODUCTIONS AT SPECTRE

FINAL FRAME EPHEMERIS COMPLETED

INITIAL READ-OUT COMPLETED.

IPIR SENT FROM

<l> THESE TIMES REFLECT THE DELAY IN THE RECEIPT OF THE MATERIAL AT

7. THE ENTIRE MISSION WAS ACQUIRED- 1MTH" PROGRAMMED (CLOUD)

-

E CAMERA SYSTEMINES INCLUDING THE CAGING THAT IS NORMALLY EXPECTED IN VEHICLE TURNS. THE CAGING INDICATOR IN THE DATA CHAMBER DOES NOT CORRELATE EXACTLY WITH THE CAGING INDICATIONS

S TAPE/ PERSONNEL FROM

INVESTIGATING THE REASON

THIS

THERE IS NO INS DATA AVAILABLE FOR. THESE FRAMES WERE ACQUIRED DURING CAMERA tUN-DOWNAMERA OFF AND ARE CONSIDERED SONUS FRAMES. ' .

THE FILM METERED PROPERLY THROUGHOUT THE MISSION WITH OVERLAP OCCURRING ONLY AT THE CAMERA OFF/ONS. MINUS DENSITY STREAKS, CAUSED BY FOREIGN MATTER IN THE SLIT APERTURE, ARE MINIMAL.

THEREERIES OF HIGH DENSITY AREAS, VARYING IN SIZE AND

SHAPE, BUT NEVER LARGERQUARE CENTIMETERS. THESE AREAS

APPEAR TOEFLECTION AND ASSOCIATED WITHEADING RELATIVE

TO THE SOLAR AZIMUTH. THEY APPEAR ON THE" FORWARD FRAMES ONLY AND

ARE RANDOMLY LOCATED- INCHES FROM THE CENTER OF

THE CLOCK ANDNCHES- FROM THE TIME TRACK

NEAREST TO THE CLOCK. THEY CAN ONLY* BE DETECTED IN FORTY-ONE

FRAMES WHILE THE VEHICLEROUND TRACK AZIMUTH

EGREESEET PLUS ANDINUTES. THEY DO NOT

APPEAR IN ALL FRAMES WHEN THE VEHICLE MAINTAINS THIS GROUND

TRACK AZIMUTH. THE PATTERN OF THE FLARE VARIES FROM LINEAR

i

<ALONG TRACK) TO ELLIPTICAL (CROSS TRACK) AND IN SOME INSTANCES

THEYMALL GROUP OF DOTS. THEY ARE OF SUFFICIENT DENSITY TO

OOSC'JRE- .

OBSCUREERCENT OF THE-IMAGERY. HOWEVER, THEOF INTEREST ARE LESS THANERCENT CLOUD COVERED.

tUfl ST TORt UG 67

PRIORITY OXCART

9JBJ: EVALUATION Of QLACK SHIELD MISSION

AS USED ON MISSIONROCESSING WAS ACCOMPLISHED ATHE MISSION0 TITLED FRAMES.

BOTH CAMERAS OPERATED SATISFACTORILY THROUGHOUT THE MISSION. DURING STRAIGHT AND LEVEL FLIGHT, GROUND RESOLUTION (ONE BAR PLUS ONE SPACE) OFNCHES WAS OBTAINED ON IMAGERY NEAR THE VERTICAL. FOR ANALYTICAL PURPOSES, STRAIGHT AND LEVEL FLIGHT IS CONSIDERED

AS ANY AREA WHERE THE CAMERA IS UNCAGED AND THE VEHICLE IS WITHIN THE CAMERA STABILIZATION LIMITS IN ROLL AND PITCH. THISERCENT OF THE MISSION. IN AREAS OF- COORD INATED TURNS AND VEHICLE MANEUVERING, THE IMAGE QUALITY REMAINS GOOD WITH MINIMAL SMEAR DUE TO VEHICLE MOIION. HOWEVER, URN, APPROXIMATELYEGREES OF SCAN OF ONE CAMERA IS GENERALLY UNUSABLE DUE TO IMAGING OF THE HORIZON. THE RESOLUTION (ONE BAR PLUS ONE SPACE) AT OBLIQUITY

(

IKtVII) MMi khiuiji

V

BY OIHffi THAN THE ISSUING OAKS IS PROMOTED. CCPY*0.

C-

a AVJ.ES rO_T0B <AUTICAL_WIL.ES LATERAL. DISTANCE)V MftTCn TO BE TWO,IREE FEET. AT THE KlGiffST OBLIQUITY ANGLES CF y. TO li?OAUTICAL MILES LATERALESOLUTION IS ESTIMATED TO ItE THREE TO FIVE FEET.

3. RE EXPOSEDECOND;2 ARE EXPOSEDNDRE EXPOSEDECOND. ALL FRAMES RECEIVED MAXIMUM DEVELOPMENT A'H> THE DIFFERENCE IN EXPOSURE CANNOT BE DETECTED. ALL EXPOSURES APPEAR ACCEPTABLE FOR THE EXISTING CONDITIONS (SUN AHGLE, RKFLECTIVITY,NDER WHICH THE MISSION WAS FLOWN. IN COMPARING GROUND AREAS EXPOSED IN THE FORWARD AND AFT CAMERAS AT THE SAME TIME, THE AFT FRAMES CONSISTENTLY HAVE HEAVIER DENSITY. -

NO PHOTOGRAPHY IS ACQUIRED DURING THE ASCENDING AND DESCENDING PORTIONS OF THE MISSION. THE UNCORRECTED BAROMETRIC ALTITUDE RANGESNDFFET. NO DATA REDUCTION PROBLEMS HAVE BEEN ENCOUNTERED DURING VEHICLE MANEUVERING.

LONGITUDINAL MINUS DENSITY STREAKS ARE VISIBLE ON SOME FRAMES THROUGHOUT THE MISSION, BUT THEY ARE MINIMAL AND NO DEGRADATION IS APPARENT. PLUS DENSITY ijPOTS AND ASSOCIATED STREAKS ARE PRESENT INTERMITTENTLY THROUGHOUT THE MISSION. IN EVERY INSTANCE, THE AREA AFFECTED DOES NOT5 SQUARE INCH AND APPEARS TO

BE AN EXPOSUREOREIGN SUBSTANCE. FOR EXAMPLE, SEEAND

OVERLAP OF CONSECUTIVE FORWnRD/AFT FRAMES ISSIX TIMES DURING VEHICLE MANEUVERING. THENOTNCHES AND IN ONLYCASEDEGRADATION IS APPARENT

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eicnpie seeo lUi/UM. the

C'( KXCnOACHKG rHTO yjik aft formatmalllKCROACHKEIfT does hotnch.

hore used on thisimage quality umder both conditions is satisfactory. theafvD film DATA block indicates that the mission was flown

m uncaged condition untilnly five forward frames are caged5 and the end of the mission,

the correlation of the ins tape, -film data block amd imagery is satisfactorylapsed time. the ins tape records one minute higher than the film data block for both latitude amd longitude. ins tape data is not available for, , . these frames are from camera rundown after turnoff and are considered bonus frames.

a tike history of events affecting the exploitation of the material based on elapsed timeouchdown are!

/

116666

of ins transmission at receiptalues at

material arrived at

final frame ephemeris completed at initial readout of material complete ipir sent from

(

CLOUDS OBSCUREERCENT OF THE PHOTOGRAPHY. GROUND HAZEJD TH CLOUD FREEHOTOGRAPHY .IS'iWtOUGHOur .IKE MISSION.

TORI UG S7 -

Original document.

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