Arab Terroffst Organizations
Special Report r
48 SC No.
SPECIAL REPORTS are supplement* to the Current Intclu-uence Weeklies nsued hy the OAkc of Currenthe Special Reports are published wparately to permit mote viomprchcmrve treatmentubject They are prepared by the Office of Current Intelligence, the Office ol heonomic Re-icerch, the Office of Strategic Research .ind the Directorate of Science .ind Technology Spccul Reports arc coordinated us appropriate among the Directorate* of CIA but. except for Ihe normal substantive exchange with other agencies at the workinn level, have not been coordinated outside CIA unlet* kpecilictilly milled led
Anti-Israeli Arab Terrorist Organizations
Incident! both within Israel and along itshave focused attention on the various Arab ter-rorui orfaRutliom Although the activities of these Kro-fi have resulted in only ilight material damage and km of life, they have caused tha Israelis to take strooj reprual action* against the baste in Jordan from which most of the terronsli operate. These counterrsldt have, in turn, brought serious internal political problems for Jordan's King Husayn
If these tcrronst organizations-which include Fatah, the Palestine Liberation Organiution, and the Popular Front for the Liberation of Palestine were ever able to unify or coordinate theu actmties as the first two seem to be rxanruag. they co-Id posstly create serious problems for Tel Aviv As it is.ihe terromti serve mainly to irritate the Uracils and to keep the Palestineontinuing one-seemingly defying totutran
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The Tradition of Terrorism
n) Terrorismay of life ^ir. Arab-Israeli relations dates back tos, when it waa the principal weapon used by both Jews and Arabs ineach other and also thomandate authorities in Pales-tinej During thearamilitary coxr.ando groups--fedayeen--were organized among the unemployed andPalestinians by the Arab governments and by thethemselves, largely as an outgrowth of frustration over the lack of aggressive action by the Arab states after the Sinai war
many of these groups tonified organisation totheir activities resulted in the Arab League's creation of thlftttalestine Liberation nroan^itJpn (PLO), irart time, hcrfWer, manybecame disillusioned by the propensity of PLO leaders to engage in polemics rather than in action, and the PLC bo-cam virtually moribund.
The war of7 smashed most of the Arab armies that had fought against Israel. behind their cease-fire lines, these battered forces began the long and laborious process of attempting to rebuild their strength and effectiveness. Meanwhile, well-educated,Arabthat there vas no other way toe facto acquiescence in Israel's retention of the West Bankto join
the various Palestiniangroups*
Frequent and well-publicised raids into tho area started in and the terrorists' audacity soon won them theof Arabs in thecountries. New volunteers swelled the ranks and additional financial support from bothand individuals becameto Fatah, tho most active of the groups. Younger officers in Jordanian military units, under orders to curtail and suppress thoof the terrorists, instead began actively to support them ae did the Iraqi Armyin Jordan. The terrorists were soon operating openlyumber of sites on the East Bank near the Jordan River.
Although these activities were causing no damage of any real consequence, the death of scno Israeli civilians settrong public outcry that soon forced Tel Avivarsh reaction. Inewly initiated policy of large-scale retaliation, the Israelis launched an attack onajor terrorist base in Jordan. Similar large-scale reprisals have followed atintervals, the mostin August against thetown of As salt.
On the Arab side, popular pressure was again calling for another consolidation of the various terrorist groupsnified political and military organization. In response,of the three major
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lid ^CJIU it for the Liberation.
"In" the summer8 and agreedan Palestine National Assembly. The PLO and its associated groups were giveneats,hend two seats were reserved for various manorEven this show of unity nay be rather short lived, however, because Fatah and the PFLP ara reportedly alreadywith their assigned role in the new organization.
but they have tried to place as many obstacles in its path as they can.
The Fatah general command reportedly consists of nino men, of whom Yosir Arafat is thecommander and official spokesman. Members of the top command were elected by the choimon of the organisation's various committees on the national branch level, and they in turn elected Arafat and bis deputy.
Little is known about Fatah's organizational structure. It
^ The most "important of the. terrorist groups at present ratitle derived from onT" AraBic acronya for the Palestine Liberation Movement. Aiao known by the name oflits military arm,
/kal-Amfah. atah has its originroup founded in, but has become prominent only since5umber of PLOproclaimed its revival.atah had spreadthe Arab world^with branchesr Mi sty existing in Jo rd an, Lebanon,uwait, dvria^ and the Gaza E
Fatsh has becone more suli-tent since the wer ofourse dictated in part by the circumstance that the Arab states most actively aiding it ara theEgypt, Iraq, and Algeria. Jordan and Lebanon are prevented bypressure from openly and actively suppressing Fatahwithin their bordurs.
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ih believed to be net up on pyramidal lines, with theunitell of three seekers. Cells ere ccsabinedgroups, which in turn are formed into national branchaa. Patah's membership is reported to rangeaw hundred to several thousand, but is probably. It is not clear how al Asifah, the military arm, fits into Patah's structure.
Operating from forward bases in Jordan at Karana, Ass Salt, and Kuxaymah, Fatah sends out snail groups of lass than ten can, one of whom isocal inhabitant, topecific target. The group carries its own eq ul patent, and because of the risk ofon tha villages, no attempt is made to get logistical support from the Arabs living in the occupied aroa.
There ara some reports that Fatah is an instrument of the Syrian Government In the same way that the PLO is controlled by Cairo. Damascus has been abla to channel Patah'ssomewhat by providing the organization with training bases, logistical support, and anfor propaganda. Moreover, to ward off possible IsraeliSyria has apparently been able to atop Fatah fromout raids into the Golan Heights area and has seen to it that forward operating bases are in Jordanian territory, not Syrian. Recentas Egypt's granting radio timeairo-based "Voice ofheof some Fatah politicalto Cairo, and propagandaupon the Syrian Government-suggest however, that Fatah may be ending ita relationship with Damascus andew
arrangement with Cairo.
Financial support for Fatah cooesumber of sources, but the greatest amount flows in from rich Palestinians living in Kuwait and Saudi Arabia. ara also sought from wealthy non-Palestinians In the surrounding Arab countries. Saudi Arabia and Kuwait have official policies of financial support for Patah and the otherorganisations. To raise these funds, the Saudisive percent income tax on all Palestinians employed by the government) the Kuwaitiswo percont tax on gasoline sales and theater tickets.
Military support from within the Arab bloc has consisted of training facilities in Syria at Hornsiles north ofarasta (on the outskirts ofnd at various army bases. Recant reports suggest that Fatah may ba phasing out its use of these facilities and moving all of its training down to Az Zarqa and Uvea Gays in Jordan. Through its military units in Jordan, especially those stationed at As zarqa, Iraq has provided vehicles, coBanunioatlons equipment, medical supplies, arms, money, and military training by Iraqi Army units. onsiderable amount of small arms has bean shipped from Algeria to Syria for use by Fatah. It is not clear,whether this material has been donated by the Algerians or whether they are merely acting
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Among tha Communist countries China reportedly haa shippedarms and munitions to Syria for Fatah's use, and Peking could be the source of thethat have been shipped from Algeria. An unknown number of Fatah members as well as men from the other terrorist groups have gone to China for training. Some Fatah members havo been trained by Chines* instructors at sitae within Syria. eptember, Damascus announcedelegation of Fatah lead-era was visiting Peking. Aof Fatah members, including Supreme Commander Arafat,received training in North Vietnam.
During the summerrafat and other Fatah political
leaders were reported to be negotiating with Soviet leaders in Moscow. Tha USSR is not known
to have aided Fatah so for,assistance mightesult of these
The i'apula- Liberation Force
The parent group of the
ration force ia the destine Liberation Organna-tion hich was formed after Arab leaders at the Arab League's summit conference in4 agreed to foster the formation of on official group representative of thepeople. Shortly after the conference, delegates met in Jerusalem to establish theand to draw up awhich, among other provisions, allowed for the creation of an army.
This new army was called the .alestinu Liberation Army (PLA) and Was to be organ'. zaffascommando force recruited from Palestinian refugees living in Egypt, Syria, Kuwait, and Iraq. Funds to set up its army and operate it cameil-lion grant by the various members of the Arab League. he PLA0 men, and units were organized in the Gaza Strip (administered byyria,
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and Iraq. Theee units did not form the independent commando force originally envisioned,but were integral military units of the armies of thehost countries.
The loss of the war7harp drop in its prestige. Following this debacle, tho PLC? evontually established the terrorist group now referred to as the Popular (or People's) Liberation Force (PLF). The PLF, however, now operates independently of both the PLO and PLA comnanda. It presentlyen who are apparently non-political and seem to ooncen-trato tiolaly on terrorist Reportedly operating from forward bases at Jarash, Irbid, and Umm Qays in Jordan, the PLF'a activities have tended to center in the northernValley. The group's tactics probably parallel those of Fatah, with which it has beenits activities, onerger of the PLF and Patah was announced, but how this will be implemented remains to be seen.
Military support for the PLF commando group has comu from tha PLA units attached to the Iraqi Army detachments at Jarash and Irbid and probably involves the same type of aid that Fatah has been receiving. The only known aid from the Comaunist countries is that Pa-king hasumber of PLF members in China, but the number of men involved and the location or type of training are not known.
As for the PLO, it has served over the years as little moreropaganda vehicle for its various leaders. initially free fromin inter-Arab squabbles, Cairo's financial and logistical support soon turned it into an Egyptian instrument. Having been on terms of mutual distrust with King Husayn from thethe PLO through its Cairo-based "voice of Palestine" radio program echoed Egyptian propaganda attacks on Jordan and, later, on Saudi Arabia. Other Arab states, while notto the same verbal abuse, nevertheless probablyhreat to their regimes and stayed on cool terns with the PLO. The organization is now rent by conflict between itsand military leadership, and it is unlikely that the Arab states, aside from Egypt, will consider it very important in the near future.
Popular Pront for the Liberation of Palestine
The Popular Front for the Liberation of Palestine (PFLP) is the terrorist arm of the Arab Nationalist Movementadical Arab politicalwith adherents in most of the eastern Arab world.
Many of the leaders of the ANM are themselves Palestinian refugees and, after the founding of Israel, they had led one or another of the multitude oforganizations that came into existence. These various terrorist groups were loft in
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edly Genera! Operating A
ra' tbl Uj*
shambles by tha war ofnd the anm Supreme Command in Beirut, therefore, decided in7 toan group that came to be known aa the PPLP. Thebetween the ann and pplp commands is not known,George Mabbash, the leader of the anh, and other swmbers of the anm Supreme Command have been reportad as the political leaders of the PrLP.
The PPLP terrorists report* trained with Fatah members
tee of PFLP
MCRIT "iO toatiOH CtSHM
at Harasta in Syria untilhen George Habbash and other pflp/ANM loaders wore arrested by the Syrianon charges of plotting to overthrow the regime. Since then, training haa been moved to Fatah sites in Jordan.
Operatlona arc still being mounted from Syria, however,o-man's-land areathe Israeli-occupied Golan Heights and the Syrian Armylines. The Syrians are increasingly uneasy that these activities may provoke Israeleprisal attack.
Within th* Israeli-occupied west flank area, reports indicate that pflp groups ar* operating from Nablus. Th* pflp also claimed credit for hijacking the El-Al Israel aircraft inn indication of the group'i willingness to engage in all types of clandestine activities.
For most of its existence, the ANM has been considered an instrument of Egyptianmost of th* group's leaders In Syria, Jordan, and Lebanon were paid agents of Cairo, for example. Th* ties between theame strained in. the wake of th* June war,and it is not yet clear whether they have been renewed. In any event, th* ANM haabeen supporting the pflp by itself, soliciting funds from ANM members in Lebanon and Kuwait, tho major centers ol Palestinian refugees.
Military aid from theworld has reportedly come
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from two sources; Czechoslovakia and China. Prague has supposedly supplied the PFLP vith itsweapons, while Peking has provided military training in China.
The Syrian Government,to subvert Fatah for use
olitical weapon, recentlyroup known as the
nasmuch as the prune
purpose of the Vanguard is to penetrate and seek control of the various other terrorist groups, it can be assumed that its training, logistical support, and financing will come from
About ISO men of thehave been sent to Jordan, where they reportedly share the bases used by Fatah and the PFLP. Unlike the other organizations, the Vanguard has not shied away from open confrontations with tha Jordanian Government. In lateor example,members attacked the main police station in Amman which was rumored to be holding aof the group, killing aof officers.
There are at least three other terrorist groups, butis known of them other than theiren of the United
ttf tolfifltlflfl* reputed to rating in Gaza and Sinaij of the Returni and the Fedayeon Liberation Or-
If the purpose of thehad aver bean to drive Israel from the territory it occupies or to inflictdamage upon it, there could be no question but that they have failed. The damage inflicted by the raids has been relatively minor, and the Israelis will certainly not withdrawof the raids. Moreover, Tel Aviv now has established an anti-infiltrationmines, infrared and sonicand land and airthat not onlyarge-scale penetration of Israel or Israeli-controlled territory but will make even minor forays increasingly difficult.
what seems more likely, however, is that tho terrorists' purpose has been to irritate the Israelis and to keep alive the issue of the Israeli In this, the terrorists have succeeded, and the raids will therefore probably continue as long as the terrorists are able to mount them. (SECRET NO FOREIGN DISSEM)
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