DIRECTORATE OF INTELLIGENCE
Assessment of the Soviet Program to Provide Academic Training for Students from the Less Developed Countries
Copy No. 3
Tho program of Soviet academic training of nationals from less developed countries has grown since its inception6odest effort to train an elite cadre of Coimunist sympathizersophisticated program for professional The size of the program has expanded rapidlyesult of the development of state-to-state relations between the USSR and developing countries and because of the pressures from newly emerging states for increased opportunities to train their nationals. Kremlin loaders undoubtedly view the results of the program favorably and will continue to use itermanent part of their program for penetrating less developed countries. The Soviet training effort, although modest in comparison with Western programs,atter of increasing concern to the Free World as the pool of personnelfrom Soviet training expands. This paperthe development of the program and itsto Soviet objectives. It also tries to assess the impact of the program and its future delineation.
CENTRAL INTELLIGENCE AGENCY Directorate of intelligence8
Assessment of the soviet Program to Provide Academic Training for Students from the Less Developed Countries
0 students from less developed countries have received academic training inSSRpecial program inauguratedalf of these students have come from Africa, nearly one-third from the Near East and South Asia/ and the remainder from Latin America and the Far Bast. Training has boon heavily weighted toward specialization in the fields of engineering, medicine, mathematics, the natural sciences, and law and economics* Patrice Lumumba Universityestablished0 for the express purpose of training nationals from the emergingurrently is training about one-third of00 students enrolled in the USSR. The remainder are studying atigher educational institutions throughout the Soviet Union.
The Soviet program began as an adjunct of Moscow's trade and aid offensive in the newly emerging states. The USSR recognized that many of these countries lacked trained personnel to administer the new organs of state economic and political power which were being created. Through intensive indoctrination and training of selected nationals, the USSR sought to establish in the newool of trained personnel, sympathetic to Soviet institutions and policies, from which future political leaders and administrators would bo drawn.
"ote: This memorandum was produced solely by CIA, It was prepared by the Office of Economic Research and was coordinated with the Office of Current Intelligence.
The early years of the program wereby Soviet recruitment of pro-Soviet students and by massive doses of political When these policies eventuallyviolent protests from some of the new states, the USSR began to accept students selected by their own governments, and the more obvious forms of indoctrination were brought to an end. The Soviet authorities still believe that exposure to Soviet cultural and academic life will enhance the USSR's prestige among influential groups in the new countries and that some of the trainees ultimately will assume important posts in their countries' political and economic structures.
So far, however, Moscow's academic training program hasodest impact. 'Althougheople who have already returned from Soviet trainingignificant addition to the pool of trained manpower in the developing countries, the Soviet program is overshadowed by the long-standing training provided by Western countries, whose colleges and universitiesare educating antudents from the developing countries. Nevertheless, in Moscow's view the program is succeeding, and the modest annual outlayillionillion for foreign academic training, over the long term, may produce more durable ties with some developing states than will result from the much more costly financial outflow associated with the Sovietaid program.
Development of tho Program
The Number and Origin of Students
1. Since the inception6 of the Soviot academic training program for students from less developed countries, an0 students havo gone to Soviot institutions of higher learning. As is shown in Tablehe number of studentsfor study in the OSSR averaged lessnnually; accelerated rapidly,eak of morend then declined gradually to only
Departures of Academic Students from Less Developed Countries for Training in the
and South Asia
2. The annual fluctuations in the number ofreflect the development of the program over time and relate to the number of places madefor training foreign personnel by Soviot 0 the USSR increased the facilities for training students, from devoloping countries by allotting additional places at state universities and by providinglaces at Patrice Lumumba Friendship University, which was opened0 especially to meet tho needs of students from
the developing countries. Thus the number of students departing from the less developed countries for study in the USSR rose0 by more thanercent over the cumulative total for the preceding four years.s the enrollment levels at Patrice Lumumba and other Soviet universities increased, the number of departures rose to more than twice0 level. Present capacity, estimated0robably was not reached5 and is nowcompletely utilized. Since then, new students have gone to Soviet universities to fill vacancies rather than new places, with fewer places available for new students in recent years, the number of annual departures has leveled off and7 had fallen to approximately0 level.
Of the total number trained6pproximatelyercent have come from Africa,ercent from the Near East and South Asia,ercent from Latin America,ercent from the Far East, in addition to the record level of new enrolleeshe year alsoramatic shift to Africa as the chief area of student origin. Beginnings many African countries gained their independence and sought educational opportunities for their untrained peoples, the number of African applicants to Soviet universities swelled.2 the number of African students departing for academic training in the USSR rose, or almost five times0 level.
frican students in the Soviet Union came fromountries, compared with Although the number of departures from African countries began to declinehe reduction in the number from most other areas was proportionately greater, and African nationals have accounted foroercent of the total number of new students from less developed countries in every year The largest number of African students studying in the Soviet Union have come from Somalia, Kenya, Ghana, and Nigeria* Together they haveotal of moretudents9 .
The shiftredominantly African student body in the USSR during thes reduced the importance of the presence of Near East and South Asian students, who had accounted for about
ercent of the total With the large increase in the number of Africans the
Nearouth Asian departures were less than one-third of the total. The decline17 in the number departing from this area is accounted for largely by the reduced number fron Iraq. Departures from Iraq fell from1 to an estimated7 as the Iraqi government adopted restrictive measures to control the number departing. .Smaller declines occurred in the number of departures from Afghanistan, Syria, the UAR, and Yemen.
Students departing from Latin American countries have been increasingercentage of the total, because annual departures from Latin America have remained relatively stable,er year, while departures from other areas declined.
The importance of the Far Eastource of student trainees evaporated after5 attempted coup in Indonesia. Prior to that time, morendonesian students, or more thanercent of the total number from the Far East, had gone to the USSR for training.
Academic Facilities and Curricula
Although students from less developedare studying incademicof higher learning scattered throughout the Soviet Union, about two-thirds are in Moscow. Patrice Lumumba Friendship Universitynamed for the radical leftist Premier of Congourdered in1 is by far the most important school in the USSR for training nationals from thecountries, and7 it accommodated about one-third of the total number of these students.
Lumumba University was established0 to provide specialized facilities for educating students from the less developed countries. As part of Moscow's drive to reduce the traditional ties of the newly emerging states with the Free World, the University was set up to cope more effectively with problems peculiar to students from vastly different cultural and educational backgrounds. The University consists of one preparatory and six specialized faculties that offercademic degrees. Duringcademic year the school had anof moretudents from less developed
countries androm the USSR, who presumably keep the foreign students under surveillance*
10. Other Soviet institutions of higher learning open to foreign students include: statein Moscow, Leningrad, Irkutsk, Kiev, Odessa, Minsk, Tashkent, Kharkov, and Lvov. In addition, polytechnical, agricultural, medical, and other specialized institutes throughout the Soviet Union receive foreign students,
11* Educational policy in the USSR is subject to rigid central planning, and universities are under the direct control of the Ministry of Higher Education, The Minister of Education, who alsoember of the Central Committee, dictates policy and program content and is able to manipulate the role of ideology and academic studies in the education process*
average course of study forat Soviet universities andis five to six years, including oneyears of preparatory instruction insciences, and the humanities. training for foreign students isthrough special faculties at tenincluding Lumumba and Moscow These faculties employteachers, special textbooks, andto help supplement the secondary trainingstudents and toore uniformfor students from different educational In contrast with the educationalstandards imposed on foreign applicantsUnited Kingdom, throughevels, andStates, by its College BoardUSSR has nottandard deviceprevious education. This plus theall courses in the USSR are taught inmade preparatoryrerequisite to the
' Soviet foreign academic training program.
preparatory training,regular university faculties where theyone ofpecialties offered byeducational system. No Sovieta program in the liberal arts comparableoffered by many Western schools. For thestudents go directlypecialtynarrow courses of study that emphasize the
acquisition of technical skills* Field workof Soviet students to provideof their studies? this requirementalso to apply to students from lesscountries. Inat Patrice Lumumba were enrolled inmajor fields
Each of these general fields of study is broken down further, such as mechanical engineering which in turn includes the following specialities: agricultural machinery, machine tools, casting equipment, automobiles, tractors, and aircraft engines. Students are required to spend atours in their major field of study, which isours more than is required,uch broader study frame, by most Western schoolsaster's degree. On the successfulof requirements, which include courseiploma project, and Soviet state examinations, students areiploma, which the USSR claims is equivalentaster of Arts or Master of Science degree in Western universities. Thispecial degree awarded to students fromcountries. Master's diplomas in Russian and in Western European languages also are given on the decision of the state examination commission to foreigners graduating from Soviet universities.
14. Foreign nationals studying atof higher learning in the USSR receive all-expense scholarships from the Soviet government.
These include stipends ofer month for students at preparatory0or post-graduates,7 for advanced trainees,* In addition, the Soviet government provides all foreign students with free tuition and medical care, transportation to the USSR and back to students* home countries at the end of their course of study, an annual book allowance of upor post-graduates and advanced trainees, and an allowance to purchase warm clothing on arrival in the USSR.
15, Scholarships are awarded by the Soviet government and directly by the Patrice Lumumba Friendship University to students who havethe following admission requirements:
For undergraduate courses at universities or technical, medical, or agriculturalapplicants must be betweenndears of age and must have completed their secondary school education;
Post-graduate courses are open to university graduates up toears of age; and
Advanced training orcourses are open to specialists and teachers who have completed their higher education. There is no age limit for this group.
16. Initially, these requirements werevery loosely, and students were accepted with little previous schooling. Patrice Lumumba originally provided for the admission of applicants who had not completed their secondary educationeans of attracting students from lower economic and social strata. The Soviets discovered, however, that the "pooror whom Patrice Lumumba University had been established, also were poorly qualified for academic study. The ratio of
* Baseduble-dollar ratio of one ruble to*
was high, andtudents were returned home7 because of academic failure. Their inability to meet minimum academic standards contributed to widespread dissatisfaction among students and was an important factor in the demonstrations of African students/in Theserovided the Soviets with an opportunityore rigid interpretation of admission standards and to impose controls over student behavior while they were in residence at Soviet universities. Soviet regulations introduced in4 restated the requirement for certificates attesting to an adequate secondary education. They also provided for the expulsion of students who did not complete individual plans of study within the established time periods or'who violated study discipline or the rules of an institution. While these regulations were probably directed at eliminating the dissidents, they also suggest the further developmentore academically oriented Soviet program. Poverty and political affiliation became less criticalof eligibility for study in the USSR, and the emphasis on academic achievement increased.
17. The USSR recruits students forraining through bilateral agreements or under the sponsorship of UN agencies, with the approval of the applicants' governments. It also recruits students through illegal channels without the knowledge of their home governments-
18. In the early years of the Soviet training program, hundreds of students from less developed countries went to the USSR illegally, through processing facilities established in neighboring countries. Specifically, Middle Eastern students from many countries and some Africans went to Cairo for passports to the USSR and travel funds; African students went to Ghana and Dar-es-Saiaam; and Latin Americans to Mexico and Cuba. Extra-legalcontinues in countries that have no bilateral agreements for student exchanges with the USSR, such as Iran and most Latin American countries. It also is prevalent in countries where the Soviet Union desires to attract more students than are provided for under bilateral accords or where it wishes to maintain good relations with leftist organizations and to train their members. In these situations, scholarships are offered directly to prospective
students by local Communist parties, left-oricnted trade unions, and Communist front organizations or by groups such as the International Union of Students, Committee of Youth Organizations of the USSR, and the Union of Soviet Societies forand Cultural Relations with Foreign Countries. The applications must then be approved by the Ministry of Higher Education or for Patrice Lumumba by its Admissions Committee. Since the student's home government is by-passed in such directmany countries do not know that their nationals are students in the USSR. For example, when the new ambassador from Cyprus arrived in Moscowe was surprised to learn that at leastypriot students were studying there.
often in recent years,been provided through official channelscultural or student exchangeunder the auspices of UN agencies. bilateral accords or under UN programsare made through the Ministries ofthe candidates' countries. Applicationsat Patrice Lumumba University areto the University or through Sovietand consulates. Many developingof the throat of illegal recruitment,direct applications to the University.
ndiaelection boardfor students applying to Patrice Lumumba, and many countries have begun to administer Soviet scholarships through special boards. Moscow also has begun to realize that political and economic convictions alone are not appropriate criteria for academic achievement and is applying stricterstandards.
Soviet Union's sophisticatedacademic training for students fromfits within the framework of overallfor penetrating the less developedof the Free world and thereby promotespolicy aims. The new program differsfrom the training of foreignersUSSH during the Lenin-Stalin era, whichthe preparation of revolutionaries whocommitted to the overthrow of The training of foreign revolutionaries
still continues in Moscow and is carried on through Higher Party Schools and other means.
shift from an ideological to anbegan afterh Party Congress inthe scope and character of Moscow'seducating personnel from developingsubstantially revised to conform to Sovietof so-called peaceful coexistence. Thetherefore, was forged in the early years"trade and aid offensive" in the lesscountries. Its creation reflected awas quickly made evident to Moscow in manynewly emergent nations of Asia andthe lack of indoctrinated or trainedwhom Moscow's representatives could workthe spread of Communist influence. early post-Stalin period,6
the USSR tried to insure the creation of cadres sympathetic to Communist philosophy by insisting that foreign students take as muchours of economic and political indoctrination, concurrent with professional course work. 0owever, the required specialized courses in Communist ideology were reduced and eventually eliminated because of objections of the students' home governments. As Moscow pushed forward its scheme for training administrators, engineers, doctors, and other professional personnel, formal indoctrination was largely confined to after-school activities, to Russian language courses, or tocourses such as economics and political science. The transitionore thoroughly academic program reflected the desires of developing nations that began to exert pressures on the Soviet Union in their state-to-state relations. Following the formalization of cultural exchanges through bilateral agreements, the less developed countries havedirectly in the selection of students for training in the USSR and have restrained tho Soviet Union in the execution of the more blatantaspects of its education program.
thes, Soviet goals inless developed countries have beena longer time frame, and programs areto accomplish Soviet objectives Because of its altered timetablerevolutions in loss developed countries,
the Soviet Union also hasong-termwith respect to its training program for foreign students. In the long run, the USSR hopes to establish Communist societies in less developed countries and expects that training foreign nationals
in academic subjects will help to accomplish that goal.
providing professional academicthe USSR isool of elitewhich developing countries may draw atof their political and economic leaders,in view of the shortage of trainedin those countries. It is hoped thatwill be favorably inclined toward thespite -of the reduced ideological content ofprogram. Although the changedfor Soviet external relationsSoviet strategy vastly in thethe USSR hopes that some traineesimportant positions in local politicaland public media on their return home
and that intercultural exchanges, increasedrelations, and military dependence will lead to increased Soviet influence and eventually to communism in the less developed countries.
in his speech at theof Patrice Lumumba University instated that the purpose of theto provide higher education and thatbe no attempt to inculcate Communistadded that, nevertheless, the Sovietnot take it amiss"tudent decidedapproved of Marxism-Leninism. By teachinglanguage, through familiarization withof Soviet institutions, and byculture available to foreignare believed to be favorable forSoviot influence to shape economicdevelopments in developing countries.
ollowing the establishment of diplomatic and economic relations with the emerging countries, the USSR recognized that the education of less developed country nationals wouldajor step forward to create and maintain satisfactorywith th* less developed countries. Byeducation for these nationals, the USSR also
expected to undermine Western prestige and influence by decreasing the latter's monopoly on higherto enhance Soviet prestige by spreading its reputation for industrial, scientific, andachievements; and to strengthen the bonds of understanding between the OSSB and the less developed countries through close cultural contacts. Training in the Russian language and familiarity with the Soviet institutional structure are intended to establish organizational and personal links between the USSR and nationals of less developed countries that might enhance tho Soviet image and produce lasting In the end, the USSR hopes that these conditions will provide the foundation forsituations.
Assessment of the Program
The Loss Developed Countries' Point of View
Bene fite from the Program
26. The less developed countries have been receptive to the programs of academic training offered by the USSR because of their expanding requirements for higher education. Confronted with an urgent need for skilled personnelime when their rapidly growing populationsthe competitionimited number of places in western institutions, the governments of developing nations have welcomed the opportunity for higher education in the USSR. The five-fold expansion07 of Sovietfor training nationals from less developed countries has provided places for00 students, most of whom otherwise would not have received advanced education. tudents from less developed countries have completed academic training in the USSR, it is estimated thatf these students were trained ass doctors,s mathematicians and scientists. For many countries, especially in Africa, theof these skills, although modest in number,ignificant addition to their reservoir of educated nationals and relieves to some extent the critical shortages of professional personnel.egrees awarded to Africans by Soviet universities37 have addedto the total number of degree holders in
many of these countries. tudents from Sub-Saharan Africa in the USSR at the end7 constituted an estimatedercent of the total number from this area that were studying abroad.hile less thanemenis had university degrees, several hundred were being trained in Soviet universities. Although many students may have preferred Western education, the lowerstandards and more generous financialin Soviet institutions have made education in the USSR more feasible for these students than in the West. In replyest Germanconcerning their reasons for going to East European countries for training, more than halfroup offrican students listed scholarships or free transportation.
Fewer students from developing countries have sought Soviet academic training because of ideological persuasion; their motivations haveesire for professional training in the face of limited alternatives. For the most part, these students now go with the approval of theirand their applications are processed through the legal apparatus established by their governments. Probably no more thanrercent of those studying in the USSR7 hod come without the sanction of their own governments;0 thewas an estimatedercent.
In spite of the problems that they have had in adjusting to Soviet social and institutional patterns, after an initial period most students have adjusted because they are not willing to sacrifice what might be their only opportunity to receive an education. By the endttudents had left the USSR before completing their educational programs, but up toercent of these probably departed because the academic work was too difficult.
In addition to student dissatisfaction that stems from the lack of ability to satisfy scholastic requirements, frictions have occurred because many students have found it difficult to conform to the conditionsighly conservative educational establishment, students originating from countries that are undergoing rapid political, social, and economic change have found racialcurtailed personal freedom, andsurveillance upsetting and inconsistent with
Soviet propaganda about the USSR- Nevertheless,7 therepplications forlaces at Patrice Lumumba University.
Evaluation of Training
the most part, less developedare satisfied with the quality andSoviet training. Afghanistan, the UAR,Somalia, and Uganda, among others, havesatisfaction with the quality ofreceived by their students in theLeone reportedly considers some aspectstechnology as more advanced than thatWest and urges its students to seekthe USSR. The emphasis of Soviet educationspecialties may serve the immediateof some less developed countries morethan the broader liberal arts programsWest. Several graduates of Patricehave been awarded advanced degreesUnited States, and Western businessmenworked with African graduates of Sovietcommented favorably on theirgraduates from Soviet institutionsare not as well trained as those educatod
in the West, the disparity isunction of the difference in preparatory education and the
lower level of skills that the foreign students in the USSR bring to their advanced studies. To help overcome this problem, many less developed countries including Mali, Congoomalia, and the Sudan are permitting the Soviets to teach Russian in their countries, and4 the USSR has been more careful in screening candidates for.
the governments ofAmorican countries, and of Ghana, Iraq,have been critical of the qualityeducation and in some cases haveSoviet degrees until additionalwas completed. In Chile, as in mostAmerican countries, academic credentialsfrom the USSR are not recognized,are unable to work in theircountries, notably Lebanon and Ghana,stringent testing requirements onfrom foreign universities, adirected againstand some countries are negotiating
diploma equivalence agreements with the USSR. By and large, in spite of some deficiencies of their education, Soviet-trained students have had few difficulties in finding jobs on their return.
Rick of Political Indoctrination
many less developedin Africa, were permissive intoward student training abroadtheir urgent need to replace trainedwithdrawn by former metropoleare increasingly aware of the neededucation directly to theirand also are awakening to the dangerseducating their students in the USSR, conformity as endemic to Sovietless developed countrieseven thoseeconomic and political ties with theas the UARare imposing restraints onof students for training in the USSRtried to control their activities in theis being done largely through bilateralthat provide developing countries withand control of their nationals. Thefor example, recently has considered signing
a cultural agreement with the USSR in order tothe students that had gone to the Soviet Union without its sanction and to establish machinery to reduce the number of illegal departures in the future.
facilitate and to monitor themost of these governments haveto screen applicants for theirreliability. They have tried to sendcan differentiate between fact and ideology.
A number of countries, including Tanzania and Kenya, have established scholarship committees to process student applications. Burma, India, Indonesia, Iraq, Nepal, and Nigeria are among those that require the Minister of Education to approve all applications;ew countries have gone so far as to require examinations to test applicants' loyalty to their own government. Students from those countries that went to the USSR without permission of theiror who engaged in political activity while in the USSR face the risk of being arrested or may be denied employment on their return home. The home government also may refuse to reissue their passports or to issue entry visas to allow their return.
many cases the less developedtried toontinuing controlstudents while they are in the USSR, evenwhose departure they did not approve- UAR, and Iraq haveautiousthe Indian government has made itsin Moscow responsible for carefulgrantees. The Indian Minister of Educationthe courses of study that its studentsand several countries do not allow them
to take courses abroad that are available in thoir own country.
Tho Soviet Perspective
la the Program Achieving It* Objectives?
the Soviet point of view, theprobably achieving its goals. Theopportunities for higher education in thereducing the former almost completeon Western education; it isSoviet reputation for academic achievementless developed countries; and it isrelationships with educated nationals ofcountries. The USSR probably istios with foreign nationals who wereCommunism before going to the USSR; itwonew newew havebut the great majority probablyexperience for its educational value and indevelop professional and cultural ties Soviet recruitment enables the USSRout for training Communist sympathizersmay play leadership roles in the less
is still too early to assess theof Soviet education on personnel fromcountries and eventually on their Theationals fromthat have been graduated from Sovietof higher learning have not yet begunimportant influences on theirprograms have been of long standing, and
7 alone, more0 nationals from less developed countries were being trained in the West (excluding the United States) and an0 in the United States. ompares the Soviet program7 with those of Western.
Estimated Number of Academic Students from the Less Developed Countries Being Trained in the USSR, western Countries, and the United States, by7
including Western Europe, Australia, Canada, and Japan. Estimates for these Western countries are based4 data, the latest year available.
37. The fact that Western institutions are training more than ten times as many students from developing countries than the USSR does not dilute the impact of Soviet education by this amount. In some countries, especially in Sub-Saharan Africa, the balance is in the Soviet favor. But even in countries where Western training far outweighs the number trained in Soviet institutions, Moscow may have an advantage since there are no "programs" in the West. Students go to western schools of their own selection, without intercession of the host government; there are no national objectives; and there is no indoctrination. Moreover, for the achievement of long-run Soviet objectives, they need notajority. mall revolutionary nucleus can in certain circumstancesovernment takeover. Nor does it appear that the Soviet Union is concerned about the relative academic merits of its own program compared with those of the West. For the most part, the students being trained in the USSR could not meet Western entrancebut the USSR has been able to train these people toontribution on their return to their homelands.
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38. In Sub-Saharan Africa these countries:have become increasingly dependent on the USSR for advancedncademic year;tudents from Sub-Saharan Africa were being trained in the USSR, comparedn tho United States. In some countries such as Mali, the contrast is marked: moreere being trained .in. the .USSR andn the United States. frican students may be more vulnerable to indoctrination than students from other areas because often they are Jess sophist: -cated than students from, areas whera there has been more cultural interchange, and they react:iolently tb their environment (as is demonstrated' by tho fact that they have accounted for -most ofthe student discontent in the USSR).
Evidence of Ideologicala Result of Training
he relationship of ideological change to academic training in the USSR is difficult tomeasure, and tho results of an attempted' tion probably would be of limited validity.'. There are no firm data as to which of tho returneesympathetic to Communist philosophy or whatthey pursue on their return. To be effective; Communist supporters may lie low until opportune situations arise. The consensus has been thatindoctrination, isunction.of the selection process, and the political orientation;of most students has been altered only slightly .as 'aresult of their training.in the USSR. Out of asample oftudents, presumed to have beensympathizers on their arrival in thet least seven became.disaffected and expressed, anti-Communist views on their, return home;. f these came from African, countries and three from the Middle East. It is impossible to estimate the number that- became indoctrinatedirect result of ,their Soviet education.
Most of the developing countries that areware of the dangers of Soviet indoctrination appar-cntly have not detected major changes in the . olitical and economic views of returning students. Careful student selection and control of student activities in the USSR presumably are considered adequate safeguards, and most, countries haveated thateturnees have- been affected only
slightly* With the reduction of the number of students going to the Soviet Union through illegal recruitment channels, the number of pro-Marxist returnees should be reduced.
Influence of Returning Students
41, The impact of Soviet academic training on the political and economic procesaos of most less developed countries has been negligible* Exceptew countries, such as Yemen and many in Sub-Saharan Africa* where the pool of educated personnel is very small, the importance of such training inadre of personnel trained in the USSR rather than in tho West also has been small, Soviet-educated students returning to the more progressive developing countries have tended to enter thoengineering, medicine, and law; those returning to other less developed countries apparently are marked for positions in the government, the military establishment, and teaching. umber of countries have sent junior government officials to the USSR for training to reduce the serious shortage of skills in the government hierarchy. The Central African Republic, Cameroon, and Siorra Leone, among others, have marked students educated abroad for positions in the government. Oftudents recently returned toountries, mostly in Sub-Saharan Africa, from training in the USSR,ere employed as teachers andere employed by their governments. Most of the government employees were in technical ministries, but four of these were placed in top-level positions. Theyarliamentary Secretary to the Ministry of Transport and Commerce, an Assistant to the Vice President,abinet-level officer in economics. oviet-trained Somalian, Hassan Hagi Omar Amei, was elected to the Somalian National Assembly4 on his return from Moscow State University where he had studied International Law. In spite of hisanti-Western attitudes, Hassan was appointed in7 to the sensitive post of Minister of Information. Later he was reassigned as Minister of State for Rural Development and Self-Help Schemes. He also is known to have supported pro-Communist groups and reportedly helped obtain generousfrom the Somali government for World Youth Fostival delegates. Information is notto judge the extent of Soviet-trained students who have turned agents, but their number is believed
to be small and undoubtedly they were recruited from students who came to the USSR with some Communist persuasions* anzanian national, whoh. D. in law at Patrice Lumumba, has prepared and is attempting tolueprint to convert Botswana eventuallyommunist
the long run, returning studentsmore important pro-Communist influenceshome countries through membership andsocial, political/ and economicfactor is especially critical for Latinwhose trainees in the USSR wereand who are presumed to be Communists.
The activities of this group, that often defymayhreat to their:.
In spite of sporadic student discontent and other related problems, Moscow is expected to continue to use academic training as an important element of its strategy for establishing Soviet influence in less developed countries. While there is no precise measurement of the program's accomplishments or of how Soviet attitudes will affect its implementation in the future, qualitative judgments pointositive Soviet assessment.
The student training programow input/ high yield effort. It involves an annual outlayillionillion whichontinuing stream of young people exposed to Soviet culture.
For most, it is the only foreign experience they will have. In the Soviet judgment, this expenditure may produce stronger ties with some less developed countries than result from0 million0 million annual net outflow from economic aid programs, some of which are fraught with difficulties and end in failure. -
the Soviet view the education ofdeveloping countries is not directlyWestern training, which will always be a Students will continue to come to thebecause of limited opportunities elsewhere,experience of recent years when applicationsin the USSR have exceeded the number of
places, at times by more than IS toay beto continue. In the future, the academic background of recruits will improve. As thenations seek new opportunities to educate their rapidly growing populations, the competition for admission to Soviet universities will become keener, stricter admission standards will be imposed, and the quality of Soviet education for nationals of the developing countries will be improved. The fragmentation of skills associated with Sovietmay be too narrow for application to Western institutional structures. Nevertheless, narrow specialization fulfills the immediate technicalof the developing nations. Although Soviet training may lack the breadth of scope to produce able administrators, from the Soviet view this is not critical, because political leaders often do not come from academic backgrounds.
46. 8 anew students from less developed countries will enroll in Soviet institutions of higher learning, reflecting places vacated by returning peak-year enrollees to their homelands. It is expected that the USSR will add facilities for educating students from thecountries in the next several years. The number added may, or possibly more,on the Soviet assessment of the return on this program and the competing requirements for new facilities by Soviet students. Even without any addition to its present facilities, however, the level of new enrollments will be somewhat higher ew years and then gradually stabilizeer year. The rapidly expanding enrollment of children in primary schools of the less developed countries06 (during which period the number doubled) will exert continuing pressures on the governments of less developed countries to provide additional opportunities for the higher education of their nationals. Because there will be an ever-increasing shortage of facilities, some countries may be willing to accept Soviet conditions for acceptance of their students. These could include the reintroduction of ideological trainingore rigid, doctrinaire program. This kind of shift in emphasis would conform to the current hard line attitude of Kremlin leaders.