Created: 9/1/1969

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Scientific and Technical Intelligence Report

Biomedical Aspects ofoviet Manned Lunar Base



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Scientific and Technical Intelligence Report





II is anticipated that the Soviet! ultimately willanned lunarayload on the moon of00 pounds is believed to be within Soviet capabilities. Thus, the USSR is expected to have the necessary payload capability lor delivery of lunar base hardware and equipment. This paper esamines Soviet biomedicaland limitations for preparing man to exist, remain, and perform useful tasks on the moon.

This report has been prepared by the Office of Scientificand coordinated with die Directorate of Intelligence. Information as of9 has been used.










Soviet statecnents

Antarctic research

Physical environment on the moon

Meteoroid environment

Thermal environment

Reduced gravity environment

Radiation environment

Constraints during manned lunar mission*

Radiation levels acceptable to Soviets

Protective measures

Life support requirements

Atmospheric selection



Waste management system

Other factors


Soviet Ufa support system (LSS) data for manned miss*

Evaluation of status of Soviet LSS development

Hypothetical examples of Soviet LSS lunar base requirements Other factors relating to crew performance

Isolation and confinement

Orcadian rhythm

Cosmonaut training

Medical monitoring

Other humon factors problems





statement! ind work related toanned

lunar bote 4

Acute effects of radiation on human body

Soviet mission radiation dose 7

Apollo mission emergency radiation dose 8

Characteristics of possible- Soviet variants of spacecraft cabin


oviet estimates of module requirements for certain life

of life support systems as estimated by Vcrordo

and Pohvoda W

Soviet data on certain life supportM

Hypothetical lunar base modelsIB-



estimates of life support system weightf for one man

uiccion of mission duration IT

hypothetical concept of an advanced lunar base life



To evaluate Soviet biomedical research and development applicable to maintenance of manunar environment.


Given the capability to00 pounds to the surface of the moon, the Soviets possess the biomedical capability for planning andunar base for durations up tothree months Initially and, depending upon the results at that duration, thereafter they couldase for approximately sU months. The necessary Life support equipment andof cosmonaut protective measures gradually -ill be evolved from (lie operational experience gained during shorter lunar Bights

unar base can be establislied, tlie Soviets willore advanced spacesuitthan they now possessetter solid waste management system. They will also need toater regeneration link into the life support system. Tbe environmental and life support factors which should not prove to be unusual problem areas for the stated mission dura-lions are metroroids, medical monitoring, circadiannd food supply. Those factors which will require further elucidation under actual lunar conditions are some of the effects on man of iso-

normal cir<sdliti rhythmyelfc varinlww of haste phvsteJoglcfJ ande <oordl-tutted with Uw daily iltcrnatioa of davllsjbt utd darfa-m.

lation and confinement, determination of actual radial ion dose levels and protective measuresand the effect of reduced gravity onenergy expenditures during task

1 The Soviets probably would make certain changes from their present system in lhe lunar spacecraft/habitat rmironrnental control system to facilitate cosmonaut excursions on the lunar surface. These changes would include lowering thepressure and increasing the percentage of oxygen in the two-gashange inltfH gam from nitrogen to helium may occur, although il is unlikely. The pressure suit for lunar rwunioos also would operateower pressure than that used previously.

he Soviets probably Millartially closed physiochemical life support system (waterstored food, oxygen from superoxideunder lunar conditions for use inasUse of three and six months duration shortly after their initial lunar landing. Accocn-plislimrnl of the necessary medical and life support developrnent and testing couldoviet base for prolonged manned use (about one year or more) to be established on the moon by theW's.



oviet statements in the press, at certain international meetings, and by reliable cosmonauts evidence interest in and workoal ofanned base on the moon. Physiological and psychological research andunder rotations said to be similar to those on the lunar surface are carried Out at tbe Vast ok Station in the Antarctic by personnel from the key bioastronautic institute in the USSft, the Institute of Medical and Biological Problems.

The Soviets are assessing certain features of the lunar environment of concern to crew survival and performance ol tasks on lunar base missions such as the mrfeoroid and thermal environment and reduced gravity and radiation conditions. Data from lamandicated that the metcoroid Bui on the moonazard to cosmonauts. Later meteor-oid data, collectedew sensing device, give much lower values and indicate that there now is good agreement between US and Soviet elate and danger to man from meteoroieis on the lunar surface.

The wide temperature extremeso" F) between lunar day and lunar night are bring considered in Soviet studies on temperature extremes and their effect em man for prolonged periods in the Antarctic (averageof about minusF with extremes to* F) and in chamber test experiments (to

Soviet scientists havereat many investigations into the hazards of radiation related to lunar missions in the rcwiirch laboratory and during several unmanned spaceflights. The greatest radiation hazard during lunar missions is from solar fiaie proton events. The next solar maximum after the current one will be0he Whet major source of radiation on lunar missions i$ galactic cosmic rays. These are not considered hazardous lo cosmonauts because even under the worst conditions, the dose levels are not exported to exceedrad/day. On the way to tha moon, radiation acquiredne-way passage through the Van Allen Belts with minimal shielding would not exceedhe Soviets have been conservative in allowable radiation dosage levels on manned Sights. During the last several years, however, they have raised these limits and nowose ofor missions of days ot weeks andemeriodear.

Soviet protective measures against radiationavoidance, shielding, and use of chemicals or drugs. They are interested in achieving asolar flare forecasting network with improved methods of forecasting solar Bares during manned missions beyond the present maximum five-day capability. Since occurrenceolar flare proton eventunar mission would necessitatereturn to shelter, the Soviets have discussed use of lunar material (soil) as an acceptable method of cosmonaut protection during prolonged missions. More information is needed on the depth of the lunar soil before such material could be used for cosmonaut protection,oviet spacecraft with atm/cm1 shielding should protect the cosmonaut against solar particles during shorter missions or before any cumulative erflextcries of events is defected. The Soviets have no effective* antiradiation drug; any statementssuch preparations serve to propagandise the safety provided to cosmonauts and functionsychological crutch for the crew.

Lunar base life support equipment will emerge from lunar excursion technology and will become more regenerative with time. The first regenerative life support link will involve water and couldthe duration ot manned missions suchunar baseays or longer.

Recently released Soviet data arc used to assess severalunar base models varying fromays andrew range of between fourn evaluation is made on

m the arose erftc* el wfcolr body radiation ine kvrd ol upnausea, and vomiiinu;oun fornii'ii ol pvriaftnel.ads0 prroml of pcna-nrl.

m mtjmir daw ofn term* ofbloloj-kiilor rumpleem of0 rad) or BOO rm0 rad) prodoora mm tame ttfeet on die oyer

Ihn specific life support developments needed and the capability of the Soviets for attempting sucli lunar base missions lused upon this technology.

Although the Soviets are involved in evaluating various methods nf treating solid wastes, they have notorkable system and do not appear to have decided upon an optimum design choice. Their eventual choice probably will be based upon some method of incineration. There is no evidence of any Soviet innovative techniques for collecting and handling solid waste material.

The Soviets have done considerable research and development related to closed life support systemspplicableunar base for prolonged use. They obtained operational data on physio-chemical systems for flight equipment design in the recent one-year chamber experiment.on biological regeneration systems may lie ready for an initial operational test under unique conditions at the Vostok Station in the Antarctic. Such life support equipment is probably not ready for packagingimited volume and will not be considered by the Soviets to be ready for spaceflight forears or more.

A key element in Soviet capability fora lunar base is spacesuit development. The extravehicular suits demonstrated on the Voskhod/ Soyuz flights appear inadequate for extended cx-tras'ehicular activity on the lunar surface. The Sovietsressure suit with improved )oint flexibilityetter method for removal of high heat loads They recentlyew and significant duration portable life support system during thextravehicular activity based upon superoxide technology. This systemapability of excursions in excess of four hoursossible maximum ofours. The Soviets probablyater-cooled suit which isresting in the laboratory, but developmentard suit or capsule withery advanced state of development beyond that demonstrated thus far in Soviet spacesuit design.

An additional problem in Soviet spacesuit design has been the high metabolic cost to the cosmonaut due in sigriificanl part to the high suit pressure used. Soviet utilizationwo-gas cabinunder one atmosphere of pressure necessitates this high suit pressure,ower suit pressure would require more deniUogenation time before extravehicular excursions. Leading Soviet scientists involved in spacecraft environment control systemand development have stated tbat work is progressing in tworetention of the same cabin environment and in changing thisin regard to the diluent gas {helium orhe percentage of oxygen, and thepressure used.

The effects of isolation and confinenwnt have been describedrominent Soviet scientist as major problem areas in the manned spaceSoviet scientists have studied the effects of isolation on man including chamber testsays and. recently,ne-year experiment. Soviet crew size requirementsunar base arebut several scientists favor an evencrew of at least four for prolonged missions. Although cireadian rhythm of man was oncetoajor spaceflight problem, the Soviets now appear cautious but optimistic in thrir assessment that it is one stress factor which can lie overcome at least for short to moderatemissions. Cosmonauts have made increased use of mission simulators in training for manned flights and reportedly are preparing for lunar rnhsioos in several types of training devicesa lunar gravityodel of the lunar landscape, and landing training In helicopters.

Lunar base missions will necessitate more self-monitoring and medical analysis by the cosmonautignificant advance in medical monitoring demonstrated during recent Bights is the useardiotachometer. This device provides data compression which reduces the need for the crew to monitor the ehf-trocardiogram constantly, permits monitoring of more than one cosmonaut, and allows for [Periodic transmission to ground stations of biomedical datauch reduced telemetry bit rale from the moon. The Soviets already have tested their hiotrlcmetry system at lunar distances during recent Zund flights.

The Soviets have been engaged actively in man-muchioe studies of some other potential problem areas affecting man's performance, includingworking capacity, task analysis, cabinand control pane! design, and reliability of man in spacecraft control systems. There is only tlieoretical evidence of work in lunar base habitat design. This human factors work is generallyar with that nf the United States.



Sovirt statcmenls

Statements have appeared in the USSR press and have been made by scientists which indicate that the Soviets arc interested in and are conducting research and development related toanned base on the moon5 interview with cosmonaut Feoktistov, Taw reported tlic cosmonaut as saying that one of the major areas where work was proceeding included study of tlie moon's surface and of the possibilities for establishing manned scientific stations there.:

he Soviet space program and budget reportedly were directed to exploit the scientific and military advantages of i) enormous earth orbiting laboratories, ii) lunar orbiting laboratories, and iti) lunar Inset* The current level of Soviet technology was said to be able to accomplish those objectives and the necessary instrumentation and equipment were then being developed.

Table 1

Soviet statements and work related toanned lunar base

IBM . Sovteti pipwntpoviibleto lunar bueinterest in key USon nammil lunar Soviet bSoMtrouutic-railed

IBaajBBHosmonaut Interview thai Soviet) am studying pouitulities of manned itatiori on moon

tudiri ion tinned

space profjnns reported to

' jde etnpluiit on lunar bue Further InoaationauUci research in Antarctic

paper Kfiedulrd: life support

lyMeo on moonSSR press that one objective of Atuarctie research was loi slay of man on tbe moon

l4 the Sovietsaper at the International AstronauticalF)in Poland outlining approaches to constructionanned base on thet thai time, the paper was considered important not because it revealed any new concepts but because it was the first discussion on lunar bases presented by Ihe Soviets in open conference. At this samethe Soviets were extremely mterefled in the irrformation and presentation of the Initial US concept study foranned base on theLunar Exploration System for Apollo programhe United States hadummary report of this concept some months prior to tbehe Soviets also have participated in the Lunar International(LIL) symposiums held during the IAF meetings, Tbe first international symposium was heldhe second dealt with the lifeand lunar medicine aspectsase on the moon* The last symposium (the fourth) was held inuring this meeting, V. V. Parin, the leading Soviet scientist in their bioastro-nautic research and development program, was scheduled toaper on life support for lunar cooditioos. but it wasThis is the first btoastronautics paper, however, that the Soviets were scheduled to give at an LIL that was related directly to the topic of life support on the moon.

An article in Prorda in8 stated that Soviet research conducted at tbe Vostok Station in ihe Antarctic was under way in order to "study the conditionstay by man in space or on the moon."T

Antarctic research

The Soviets have conducted btoastronautic-relatcd research at Vostok Station in the Antarctichis research has been conducted by personnel of the Institute of Medical-Biological Problems, the principal USSR1 The Soviets state that tbe idea of using the central part of tbe Arrtarctic as anlaboratory simulating conditions on the moon originated at the first symposium on Arctic medicine held in Moscow

carried out and underway al Vostok Station includes training men for work under extremeisolation and confinement studies, influence of monotony of tin- surrounding environment, and group psycliological investigations. Other research involved biological rhythms, influence of physical loads on the human organism, water balance studies, food rations for cosmonauts, and accumulation of physical information for medio) control of man over prolonged periods in limited quarters.studies that were involved also related to the development of protective clothing and possibly even spacesuits. It was estimated by one US visitor to the station that space related psychological and physiological researchajor reason for keeping Vostok Station in operation."'

The studies at Vostok could provide valuable data concerning future biomedical requirementsanned base on the moon, Tbe enforcedlow atmospheric (barometric) pressure, low temperature, and required muscular movements are regarded by the Soviets as being close (except for reduced gravity) to that anticipated for life on the moon.


Soviet data from Lunandicated that the mcteoroid flux in the vicinity of the moonotential hazard to the cosmonaut walking on the surface of the moon unless protectedpacesuit possessing considerable penetrationBy contrast. US data indicated that there was no major danger to personnel wearingThe Soviet data on meteoroid flux on tbe moon were three order* of magnitude higher than die data revealed by the US lunar arbiter program. Lunanours andinutes of data samplingits; the US orbiter registered its ninth hit after nearly nine months of continuous data sampling. The Sovietsiezoelectric microphone-type Impact sensing device and the US sensors were pressure cans winchit when penetrated and relieved of their internal prcnsurc

owever, the Soviets announced theof meteoroid sampling fromndhey stated that an improvedseiising device, largely protected from the influence of noise, had been used on these flights, The data recorded by this new tensing device were said to be three orders of magnitude lower than those recorded by earlier devices. Thus the Soviets have admitted that their problem with the previous sensing device was its sensitivity to noise.If this oew sampling device were used to record lunar data, there probably would be good agreement between US and Soviet mcteoroid data in the vicinity of the moon.

Thermal environment

The moon, lacking an insulating atmospheric layer, receives unattenuated energy from the sun during the lunar day but cannot retain it through the night. This leads to extremes in temperature as the moon passes through the day-night cycle. Surface temperatures on the moon range

The Soviets recognize the problems involved in thermal control in the lunar environment and have been studying, lor example, the efleets on man while living and working in extremes of low tern-perature at Vostok Station. The lowest temperature on earth was recorded at this base ininusThe mean annual temperatureThe warmest year was1ean temperature.

The Soviets have been invesligating the adaption of man to these extremes In environment and studying the effect of this stressful environment on die respiratory, circulatory, and autonomic nervoushey have determined that the design temperatures of building in winter at Vostok must beFoobuvc theverage temperaturesthe entire period of observation in the medical or wannest building ranged. However, the Soviet* commented that analysis of the data obtained showed insufficient insulation in some of the buildings at Vostok Station and better material and testing were needed.

Soviet scientists also have investigated theof cosmonauts to possible high-temperature conditions. One series of tests reported recently was earned out withuman subjects at chamber temperaturesoasting for one hour with varying exposure periods up to two to

foursulls of these experiments coutcl behe election of cosinoruuls. Adaptation was found, however, to be of relatively short dura-


Deduced gravity environment

The cosmonaut must learn to function under the gravitation field on the moon's surface, since lunar gravity is one-tilth thatn earth. Little information and only sparse indications exist of Soviet research and development related toenergy expenditures for work during simulated lunar gravity. The Soviets have released,reat deal of information onresearchentrifuge.'* This could be applied lo the understandingrypogravic situation. The centrifuge is used to accustom sub-)ectsypergravic force so that on return to the normal gravity form they may experiencesimilar to the reduction fromo reduced gravity. The Soviets also have published numerous papers on hypodynamia and hypokinesia (diminished movement) whichrelates to understanding functioning under an altered gravity situation.91

The Soviets were reported6 tounar gravity simulator under construction. Itlo resemble the lunar surface simulator at langley Research Center. Virginia (built some two yearshe subject is suspended by wires while he attempts to walklane inclinedto the vertical. Thisseful to train subjectsariety of body maneuvers under simulated conditions of the moon-Several other statements are made la the Soviet literature concerning the need for research and training for man under the reduced gravityon tbe moon. Cosmonaut Gagarin stated that with special training the cosmonaut will develop new motor coordination and adapt to conditioiu of lowered gravity on theaper presented at tbe IAF meeting in Warsawsakov stated that it was "extremely(to study the effects of gravity on bodyn preparation for prolongedin view of the peculiarities of the gravitation field on the moon's surface." 8 Parin stated that studies were underway on the energy loss during movement under conditions of towoviet paper directly related to and titledHumans to Walk on the Moon" appeared inormona&tke." It is uncertain whether it discusses US or Soviet research, but the article does relate various training devices used for lunar training such as simulation using fluids, spring devices, or suspension from wires. Visual training methods using lunar surface features are discussed also.

Radiation environment

Dt'RIKf. I l'.

The particulate radiation flux upon the lunarcomes from two major sources: galactic cosmic particles and solar flare protons. Galactic cosmic rays, however, are notazard toose rates from tbe galactic field even under worst conditions should not greatly exceedours.11

Solar cosmic rays (high-energy protons and alpha particles) electedolar flare pioton event are, however, the greatest radiation hazard to man inunar base. Periods of solar Hare maximum occur in Il-ycarnext solar maximum after the currentill behe total dose from anproton event varies from insignificant dosesractionud to dosesad. The acute effects of radiation on man are shown in tablectual Soviet models forof solar cosmic ray events are unknown since most of their literature references US source material.alculationsto use solar flare ratios composedercent protonsercent alphaIn the last few years, it hasli?ed (by the United States) that alpha particles as well as protons are given off in quantity by large solaror the larger of these so-called "protonhe ratio of alpha particles to protons Is,

omprehensive book on radiation safetyspaceflight, several Soviet scientists concludedhat "existing data on lhe frequency and duration of different types of solar flares as well as the intensity and spectral-angular protonare completely inadequate for an accurate determination of radialion danger and, of tbeshielding thicknesses for inhabitedol spacecraft, which will be undertaking

Tabic 2

Acute effects of radiation on human body

Acute whole-body

effect o( absorbed


observable effect*.

blood changes, no discomfort.

and vomiting for iJxhii 1

Of personnel. No

nausea and vomiting. Will

occurour* in

of personnel

vomitingf person-

along, with other sign* of

sickness. Death* of

Of personnel


nd up...

high thai deaths will

of porsOncel.

example of variation* whichb* considered l<iven -if.'. eg.ay0 percent probability of oceorrepee foUoatnt; aa eipovir*ad-deliwrtdn. (doMhOrroduce the aame probability of mponn- if ihf doie were prou-actedays (dose rateo AO rudi/day).

Doaeat thendercent response level* may be in error byW peroral or anore. Tbe reapoawe lev eta liven are eoerpatibar aritb clinicalpace radiation raponve prediction* may tiehe uncertain phyviolonical impact of olher physical stresses avoeUtcd with

longuture studies in this area were said to be necessary as well as development of reliable methods for long-range forecasts of solar flares, radiation warning, and dosimetry.

A spacesuit (shieldingffers little if any protection for the cosmonaut on the lunar surface during solar flaree couldoseolar flare proton event upadethal dose) if not warned to lakehin walled vehicle such as the US lunar1lso would provide little protection againsthielding levels of Soviet spacecraft aie unknown, but probably are at least at heavy as the US Apollo commandhe heavier shielded spacecraft would offer the crew protectionroton event under most circumstances.

An additional source of radiation on the way to the moon are the trapped radiation belts around the earth. Calculations show thatne-way passage through tho radiation beltsunar trajectoryhieldingm/cm* of aluminum, the dosage would be abouthis yield is due mainly to trapped electrons.

The Soviets have been intensely concerned about radiation hazards during'4 They have conducted numerous experiments in the laboratory and in space on understanding the radiationin the earth's magnetic field including the Van Allen Beltsroton flights.n the way to the moonnd on the lunar surface


Soviets traditionally have been conservative on allowable radiation dosages for cosmonauts" During the Vostok flights, the level of risk assumed officially by the Soviets wasem* per year.5 the Soviets (Grigoryev et al) raised the allowed dosage toem for orbital andecent Soviet reports emphasize that tltese values are not applicable

estimated thatercent cf Ine combined ApoDe itasvnand module and service nvodaathieWine. denaryrn/cm* or mn"


Tableor al most (he longest useful estimate I*

Apollo mission emergency dosetouJd provide brne for


lunar base to return to shelter, but would neces-

Mxiimumprotection being piovided on the lunar sur-

SiiiEli', Acute

Soviets recentlytudy "On

* ?BR " Possibility of Building Radiation Shelters with

SUn of whole bodr

Use of Lunar Materia. Data are given that

Feet, roof made up of lunar material is similar In


feet thick wouldercent probability

to the total dose roceivod during prolonged stuv for man on the moon for two

flights of month, or years as long as8 feet thick was said bv the

were chronic orose level otet saie wolking .nd Uving (or

these araimstflncesem per yearVPaf)


- 1 .use of lunar material is an adaptable method

A series olere earned out in... , , ,.

on moreogs which modeledn from the liazards of radutloneffects of prolonged spaceflight"ncdthis series of experiments indicated thatsuch shelter forin doses ofetns per yearMore knowledge aboutlunaressential disruption* in the vital activityishe depth of lunarorganism or the functioning of the mainmaterial that Is available for possibleand most importanthis

data supports lhe current Soviet tliiukinc about _ n , ,

_ a - Sov-.i'ts have ronsislrntly published renorts

rjtung close limits for prolonged

and indicated that the cosmonauts are provided

pstoiwmvErisk of one orimtiradiationhere is no evidence,

major solar flare events in any given timethat the Soviets have or will have dc-

solar maximum) will be aboutm (riC foreseeable future any effective

times the riskomparable intervalchemical compound for protection against

solar* The risk of high

flare activity could bo avoided completely if an

accurate forecast for the duration ofbcmosthe made just prior lo launch or ifby the Soviet, includetime were available lo return theawl mexamine withto safety before the arrival of ,compaaoOs -re not new andbeenflare proton event. The Soviets are quitefor action in theinorld-wide solar oti,eTTbcrenoand in improving methods for3 flareowever, at tbe present although they have carrel themSoviets can only claim an accuracy eit "f percent for preoptions two to threeoncerning theseservo lo propagandize lhe safety eonsidera-

bare haxutbbe hp**ed even duringgiven Soviet cosmonauts andsy-

minlaium; Urge events da not neoMtarily OOQgiMltlcrutch for the cosmonauts during flight.

Jno effective chemicalrbmar"noeixteetcdly

alu* the Kunspnt minimum ofspaecflight exists.

life support requirements Introduction

An essentia! element inanned lunar base is developmentore advanced hfe support system than that already demonstrated during spaceflight. An advanced concept of life supportompletely closed system withof oxygen, water, and food. The techniques for regeneration can be bioregenerative and/ort is likely that the Soviets will gradually close the loop (partially closed life supporthe Soviets have stated that in order to achieve minimal life support weight,energy expenditures, and high spacecraft reliability for long flights, regeneration of water will be provided first, then oxygen, and finally food."

Soviet scientists have conducted much research On developmentioregenerative life support system.ecent IAFitelzon presented some practical resultshlorella-Ittsed system which waselatively advanced stage of experimentation. The Soviets admitted that the system was rather bulky but replied that it would soon bo compact enough to be placedealed. C.eading biomedical scientist, stated however that it would not be ready for spaceflight forears or more. Initclzon Is scheduled to goix-month expedition to what is probably the Vostok Station in the Antarctic. He may well be going to participate in the early developmental phasesorkable closed biological life supportfor use in an eventual Soviet lunar base.50

Although there has not been as much published by the Soviets on physicochemical regenerative systems, it appears likely that this approach will be used relatively soon to extend the duration of Soviet space missions. The recent Soviet test carried out with three menealed chamber for one year provided experimental data on the operationhyskrxneirucal system for water and oxygenhe most advanced Soviet versions of regenerative life support systems for the future probably will incorporate bothand physlcochemical tochniques forof water, oxygen, and food.1*

In analyzing life support requirements for aof manned rnuaious. the Soviets appear toan evolutionary coocept of, various life support modules representingare added for increased durationhis addition permits mm ion growth-Selection of an acceptable atmosphericand pressure has an important effect on the operationanned lunar base. Cntical aspects in determining this environment involveof the need for frequent extraas supplies needed for deprcssuriza-tion and repressurirarion procedures. (One of the advantageseduced pressure environment is that it permits lower spacesiiit pressures andincreases cosmonaut mobility without the risk of decompression and extended airlock de-rutrogcriizarionther considerations are the hazards of fire, aeroembolism, hypoxia, and oxygen toxicity. In addition to physiological considerations, atmosphere selection aSects the engineering design of the lunareight savings, trade-oils for operation of the system, shelter structure weight, and pumping power required for atmosphericand processing.**

The Soviets originallywo-gasat one atmosphere of prcssuie for use in their manned spacecraft. They have not deviated from this composition except when the cabinwas lowered during Leonov's extravehicular activity (EVA) onX" however. there is evidence that the Soviets were rethinking their choice of gas atmosphere and cabin pressure for future more prolonged mannedazenko staled that just because they hadconservative position" byixture ufercent nitrogen andercent oxygen to duplicate earth alrnosphere on all of their pastt did not mean thoy wouldto do so He added that for future flights, their other more progressive school of thought was lo searchew gas environment and that their tests on helium oxygen mixture had beenResearch was said to be proceeding along both lines of thought- Some soentists in the USSR were wry much interested in the use of reduced pressureseliumazenko said that if he had touess, he felt that some new gas mixture very possihly involving helium


probably find in- on lung-range

This same opinion was expressed the next year by Cenin. the leading scientist involved in Soviet tie support development. He stated when queried about what kind of atrno*phere hehree-month space mission that beaercenttmosphereressuretmosphere using either helium or nitrogen as the secondo rejected useercent oxygen atmosphereission of that lengthof the file ha/aid. Tho atmosphere for use on future spacecraft apparenlly had not been selected6oviet scientist stated then that the biologistsower atmospheric pressure than the full pressure currently in use, but they hadetermined resistance from the hardwarebecause of the necessityompleteIt was felt that ultimately the Soviets would goowered atmospheric pressure system, but it would be several years before this systemoperational.

The Soviets appear to be doing extensive research on various artificial atmospheres for maintaining life in space. Some of the principal work has been conducted by A. G. Dlauov and A. C.'ummarizes the atmospheres investigated by Kurnctsov. He indicates selections.ive promise of further study. Certain of these atmospheres have been studiednday chamber tests with human subjects."'" The percentage of Hej was iiisrrascd toercent

in another series of experiments, and theitrogen-oxygen two-gas atmosphere experiment increasedercent-

ounds pressureday"

Table 5

Characteristics of possible Soviet variants of spacecraft cabin atmotpliere

No. I No 3 No. 3 No. 4 No. S-

is no firm information on whether an actual change in atmospheres has been incorporated in Soviet design studiesunart isthat the Soviets mayowerenvironment andwo-gasperhaps with befaim as the diluent gas. The Soviets are aware of the uncertainties and trade-offs involved in the selectionew atmosphere and probably will increase their research andrelated to understanding Ihe effects of various atmospheric composition on man.


Water managementey problem area in lunar base environmental control design because of large material requirements for hfe support in food preparation, drinking water, sanitation, cooling of suit and roving vehicles, and atmospheric supply.1*

The Soviets recognize the necessity of providing for an Increased water supply during longer flights and stute that in considering the reserves of water needed with dehydrated food (generally more than half total weight ofhe problem ofand chemical regeneration of water must be solved first ofata are given indicatingater regeneration system is essential even in connecti.withoay or longer* Since this conclusion appears to be baud on US data, it is uncertain if the Soviets have an identical criteria for the break-even pointegenerative system as compared with an open-supply system. These same data are quoted by Yu. Yu. Senyak, S. V, Chl/.hov, and V. I. Yazdovskly, who have been leaders in various phases of Soviel lifesystem development. Other Soviet dataday crossover pointegenerative HjO system as comparedtored water supply"

The Soviets have investigated various phynco-cbemical methods of water regeneration which tliey consider the best developed and roost leliable. They are vacuum distillation in conjunct km with soibents, lyuphili/ation, and catalytic oxidation.*"


21 VZ

Normal atmosphere In which nitrogen i* replaced with helium.

'The US Initial Study) baseunllg) oxygon -nitrogen atmosphere6 mmHg) oxygen aunospiiere was proposed for the lunar shelta wiih Ihe stipulation that if fulure pliyMolo^ical ounsideratiims show an atmoipberic diluent lo be essential oi highly desirable, use oi helium-oaygen was recummended.*'


Such ifjraich was probably well underway4 when Yardovskiy indlcaled some of the pros and cons of research on various water regenerative jyj-tems.'* The method of choice for drinking water appears to be catalytic oxidation. The catalytic method is based on the oxidation of rnoiHtniehuman products such a*he recon-deiiied water is said to exceed Soviet public health standards for purity. Water regenerated by this method was fed to humans lot periods of one yearhamber testn addition during this experiment, water for personal hygiene and sanitation purposes including water for washing and showering was regenerated. Moisture from the atmosphere was regenerated by an oxidation-absorption method involving filtering, exposure to ultraviolet light, and finally filteringxchange resins.

Physleochcmica! techniques will probably ho cm-ployed relatively soon during Soviet manned flight for reclamation of water from urine and theThe Soviets also are working on biological means of water regeneration.ltelrnn ct al. reported an expenmentuman involving continuous cultivation of microalgae withdayhe waterby this systemday period) was said to be suitable for human consumption.


" ii iiemitted by tbe Sovietsmple, highly product!'* method wbkli rbnJaiitt tbe need tor low tetnomfwv and on-boatd vacuum It aboei-

of ftNtrtcal energy -fcmenergy afor

the vaporuer and

In the foreseeable future, the diet of Sovieton the moon will lie based on sloied food in dehydrated form. During the past several Soviet manned Sights, the cosmonauts have eatendehydrated food, but as yet no hot food has beennly cold water has beenfor adding to the foodhe dehydrated foods have been described as quite similar to US preparations in packaging anduring the Vostok flights, tbe Soviets used mainly pureed food in tubes and food prepared in bite-siredhe Soviets reportedly have been experimenting also with irradiated meat products evidently tothe food pa la lability to the cosmonaut."

Calculations based on gravity conditions have been made by tbe Soviets on energy requirements for man and animal on the moon Parin states thatalories' will be needed; such figures appear lo be lowith increased energyespecially during extravehicular activity on the lunar surface, minimum figures wouldbe more inalorte range. (The caloric content of the food for the onehe daily ration of the Vostok cosmonauts variesalories, this ration was increased0 forortored food requirements arc estimated by the Soviets to weigh approximately one and one-half pounds per man0

The diet of men in stressful environments lias been studied as part of the biomedical research program at the Vostok Station in the Antarctic. This program should provide some insight into nutrition and rations of cosmonauts for other unusualsuch as the moon.10

The Soviets have done considerable work on bio-regenerative life support systems based an algae, primarily chlorella. and higher plants. An integral part of this system would be tbe ability to produce an edible biomass for useietary supplement or as the sole source of lood."ft However at the prevent time, the food aspect of the process does not appear to be of paramount importance to thene Soviet scientist remarked recently that closure of tbe food link would only result In0 percent weight saving.

Soviet scientists arc continuing research related to utilizing chlorellaood supplement for man on prolonged space missions.hey firstresults of feeding,rams daily of dry biomass algae which waswith other palatable food such as sugar, raisins, and gelatin for periods up today experiment on the suitability and effect* uf chlorella consumption by humans was reported. Experimentally, the chlorella diet 1ms been tolerable but unacceptable to most subjects for prolonged periods.1*

f the terra means luge ot meat calotte ri pfennig enemy-producing value of food andtbe same ai the term UocadOfJa.


major experimrnts were carried outregeneration of potable water from human excreta in closed or partially closed systems using chlorella in Ihe presence of bacteria. Thewater obtained in the five-month experiment, however, was not considered suitable for drinking without further purification by the use of physico-chemical methods.*8

There is almost no information about Soviettechniques for collecting and handling solid wastes, although this is considered anproblem requiring solution for extended missions. The Soviet one-year experiment, which tested regenerative techniques for useartially closed Ufe support system, appears to have ignored the solid waste management problem. Solid wastes were not regenerated ot utilized but were removed from the chamber.*0

Waste management system

The Soviets have been evaluating variousof treatment of solidheyhave not decided upon an optimum choice for inclusionossible lunar base design.esign choice would probably be based upon new methods related to larger crew sire and longer periods of occupancyinimum ofand low power requirements. Yazdovskly et al. discuss several methods which the Soviets have beenhey conclude that tbe thermal method (temperatures range from* F) is technically simple, but they imply thereigh power requirement. One of the most promising is said to be the thermal catalytic method (initial temperatures on the orderhis method would be included for use in partially closed life support systems. There Is somein understanding Soviet terminology for tbe various methods of waste treatment described, but it appears they have attempted the knownto tbe problem. The eventual systemprobably will be based upon incineration. Eventually the processing of human waste products would be an important advantage inompletely closed life suppoit system.

The Soviets probably intend to recover water from liquid wastes or urineunar base mission. In the one-year experiment, the Sovietsdrinking water from urine by theoxidation method; they regenerated drinking water from urine during the entire duration of the experiment

Other factors

Soviet scientists also have considered otherproblem areas involved inanned base on the moon. Such investigationsstudying the effects on man of: i) possible transfer of tnicroorgaiusms between crew members,ong-term toxicity of trace contaminants: iij)sickness; and iv) optimumrious pressures. Evaluation of theconcerning these effects indicates interest and concern by the Soviets in studying and resolving these factors, but few innovative steps or detailed results are

Spaces uit development

Soviet spacesuit development is one of the key elements involved in Ihcirunar base, eg. the performance capability of theajor consideration in conducting extensive lunar operations. This capability is greatly affected by tbe rest net ions imposed by the spacesuit worn by the cosmonaut for EVA.*


The Soviets have not demonstrated, asiquid cooled suit during flight.his type suit appeared to be in an early stage ofRecently, however, Oazenko commented that the Soviets hadater-cooled space-sult.,ou

The earlier Soviet extra vehicular suit wasin joint flexibility and inadequate for extendedny movement required considerable effort which consequently increased the metabolic cost to the cosmonaut. The Soviet suit was pressurizedtmosphere while the US suit was pressurizedower pressure allows the man better mobility. Tho last demonstrated Soviet extravehicular suit) appeared to have similaronsiderable elect waswhich necessitated deliberate and measured movements outside thehe design pressure of the spacesuit can be directly related to the choice of cabin atmosphere and pressure.

In general, the time required for oVnitrogenatioti liefore going EVA safely is dependent upon the pressure differential between die cabin and thehe Soviets in their twogas environment and one atmosphere of cabin pressure require more denitrogenation time touit pressure5 and thus have used an extravehicular suit pressure. This pressure requiresinimum period of denitrogenation but necessitates anmetabolic work load on the cosmonaut. The Soviets couldonstant volume joint (one that does not change its volume with motion! which would be relatively independent of suitThere is no evidence of such an advanced joint development, however.

There is little information related tohard" suit other than several years ago Cazenko stated that they shoulduit implying that they were not doing so at thathey have talked openly about enclosing manmall capsule with mechanical appendages for location and manipulation IMevelopment wouldonsiderable advance of the demonstrated Soviete-art in suitAt an8 UN Conference on Outer Space, cosmonaut Leonovroup of Soviet scientists displayed specific and strongin and thoroughly examined the flexibility of the joints of the USince the suit examined by the Soviets was an Apollo soft suit, it may indicate that the Soviets, for at least the near term, are interested in soft suit development rather thanigid anthropomorphic shell (hard suit) orapsule with mechanical appendages

Preliminary analysis of thepacesuit indicates tliat tbe Soviets haveew portable life support system (PI-SS) for use duringhis PI-SS probablyuperoxide which releases oxygen and removes carbon dioxide for life support of the cosmonaut. The Sovietsto have developed this technology originally for an operational diving unit. US analysts of the diving unit indicates Ituperiorich Is light In weightife supportin excess of fouroviet cosmonaut recently stated privately that their PLSS duration isoviet engineer Involved In space-suit development) had describedife support system under development. lie staled thai its regenerative oxygen supply was to lasteriod of four

The Soviets apparently have been involvedin determining the physiological conditions that may be encountered hy the cosmonaut when walking on the lunar surface.pace technology and science meeting. I. T. Akulimchev. an 1m-


JLi.nL i

Soviet scientist involved in the design ofas especially interested In the stability of the body in traversing rough terrain underonditions as well as in data about one sixth gravity as it would be experienced on thehe actual metabolic rates anticipated by the Soviets on the moon are unknown. However, tabulation of energy expenditures under various terrestrial conditionsay chamber tests)oviet manual on space biology and medicine indicates relatively high energy levels werecal/day with an averageas'yan et aL recently published resultseries of experiments involving calculations of energy expenditures of human subjects under various conditions (bed rest, short-term weightlessness, and therbitalnergy expenditures were said to be very high during orbital Sight (especially during Leo-hoy's EVA) in comparison with other simulated conditions. Such studies are related directly to the design of spacesuits and cosmonaut procedures for ability to conduct work outside thehere is some evidence that the Soviets havrdata on energy expenditures in the Antarctic which may be related to subsequent more advanced spacesuit development11

Soviet life support system (LSS) data for manned missions

A recent publication on "Life Support ofCrews' by C.oronin and A. I. Polivoda, Soviet authorities on life support development, has provided some detailed information on trade-offs involved In various methods of lifehese data are presented here because they are believediw best available bases for predicting future Soviet life support approaches. Previous intelligence estimates on the weight and power penaltieswith Vostok/Voskhod superoxidecontrol system were verified as exact by the data in this publication."

llustrates Soviet estimates of modulefor specific LSS.dentifies the characteristics of certain LSS. Data on the flight duration and weight characteristics of the various LSS are given In tablehe weight penalties for electrical power assume solar cells with secondaiy batteries. Values for the photosynthetic systems assume that sunlight is debvered directly to the plant rather than indirectly via electricity andillumination. In Systems C6. the0 kg) of power systems and temperature control systems arc not taken into consideration; system CT0 does not induce the0 kg) of power systems for heat control. Data on lifesystem weightsunction of missionarc given in figure 1.

Evaluation of status of Soviet LSS development

Soviet data indicate that storednd food will continue to be tbe basic system of choice for many future manned missions. The additionater reclamation system would greatly extend the usefulness of the system fordurations upays or longer with re-suppryhytic reduction of carbonwill have limited applicability and may neverystem of choice within the nextears. Uioeegenerative systems will probably not be chosenrimary system until the most advanced lunar base is established.

Lunar base life support equipment probably will evolve from lunar excursion technology and the life support systems will liecome more and morewith time. If an advanced Soviet lunar base develops to the point where itarge clet4rica! power supply available (presumablyuclearomplex LSS should beThe Soviets could gradually develop highly regenerative equipment with lessstandby systems available in case of failure. The ultimate ecological system probably wouldomplete "farm" similar to systemuch an elaborate complexariety of higher plants and food animals could use reactor power toartificial light, at least during the period of lunar night, and could use lunar materialeat sinkrge cooling system. Advanced Soviet closed LSS probably will Includn both physico-chenncal and biological techniques for regeneration of water, oxygen, and evcntualy food.

Hypothetical examples of Soviet LSS lunar base requirements

If several lunar base models are hypothesized (see tablet is possible to make some rough estimates In genera) terms of Soviet hie support requirements and capabilities for carrying outunar mission.

Table 6

Soviet estimates of module requirements for certain life support systems n


Nameuffber of Module CIO CU

Osygeu itorage |

Drinking water dotage 1

Food aloragc 1 1

Food _ .

Carbon Ao-nde chen-iea! at-aorption nnlt 1

LiquidcoLecllon | I

Solid want"unit.. I 4

Condciwale collection 1

Unit for emergency oiygen tit-cage tor I 4

Eraeraency water sssMp 4

F-aaerganay food itarap I 4

Ml for procewing of condensate to drinking water . 19

Unit for pbyrleochcmical regeneration of 1

Own- water .teriliiallon 1

Phyasrocbe-akal regeneraiioD of osyg-n 1

CaiUn deride atoorptw.-dcaorpikir. 1

FWuolyile deeonpoaitMn unit, 1

Reaerve Inatrument lool 1

Tool 1

Da* eomhlnlng eolWllon of liquid aod solid was I

erDisalloo 1

Sa'peaaiowatiawftfawtteja- unit 1

Uquid aute pbyueoehemleal miortallaalioc. |

Solid waate physeocbrmioal mineralisation 1

Single-felled pholouuwttoph cultivation 1

BUmaw preliminary proceeding unii 1

Broraax final preparation unit (food 1

M 1

Unit, atoriag i and It

Vitamin reaerve 1

Unit fur preparing nutrient media for higher and lower planta.. 1

rt'itprnilon aeparalion 1

eiserf? lalroduetlon 10


Vivarium for higher

Lower animal

Food microorganism

Unitbionuwa of higher

Coo-Woe < for proce-Wai

Unitag liquidaoEd .win of higher

Aquarium for fiah and

Uall iiroeeaaing feed fnr fUh and

Uniteparing ford for higher

Unit for preparing fnod for lowvr

Unit biototpeal tniaerallsatlon ofolid. human, aa>mal


Emergency oaygen .torage unit for

Emergency water rnaerve Tor


Solar *wray dJ-lrtbution

Using Soviet data, it is estimated that the life support/ECS system weight for Baseould be on the order0his figure is in close agreement with US estimates for the same durationhe life supportfor Lunarould use stored food and oxygenater reclamation system is required, however.

BaseSS/ECS weight estimate0hisis similar to US weight calculationsesupply mission using the Apollo systemmall nuclear reactor forhis life support system would require storedhysicochem-Ical system for regeneration of water, and the addition of atartial system of regeneration of oxygen.

Lunar BaseSS/ECS weight value0his estimate is probably unrealistic as the Soviets provide an actual estimate of the current operation ofystem aboutrders of magnitude higher than these figures indicate. The LSS/ECS system requiredingle algae bioregencra-tivc system for oxygen and food. It alsoystem for regeneration of water and an advanced system (or waste management. Even the low weight estimate figures indicateission couldvery advanced technology (with an increased power supply available) andesupply capability.

A Soviet representation of an advanced lunar base is shown in figurehis concept includes the use of lunar materials to supply some of the lifesubstances for the base.*7

for production of water, oxygon, nitrogen and otherfrom lunar materials

tor oiosynthesis ot lood materials


Lunar materials

Transparent cuptfa

Water vapor condensate

OxyRen collector

Water and chlorella elgae

oviet hypothetical <onotpt ol on odvoocod lunor* support


Isolation and confinement

u. Ve.rominent Soviet biomedical scientist, stitted that one of the major problems In the Soviet manned space programs was in the field of isolation and its psychologicalhe Soviets have recognized the lmpor-tance of research on psychological factors such as isolation and confinement in spaceflight since the early Vostok flights. Vostok cosmonauts were studied under conditions of isolationeriodoubsequently, Soviet scicntisls have investigated the effects of isolation and confinement on human subjects for periods upays and recentlyeriod of one year."1

A principal Soviet Investigator is F. D. Corbov whoection on group psychology at the Institute of Aviation and Cosmic Medicine inAnother section at tbe institute is involved with studies on sensory deprivation environments. Cmbov states that the two main lines of hisare study of the psychological aspects ofbetween operators during Interdependent activity and study of the psychological aspects of living together under the complea conditions of prulonged groupn addition, more realistic operational data and experience onand confinement under simulated lunar base conditions have been underway at Vostok Station in diehe Soviets have stated thisrimary purpose of their investigation at Vostok.

A. D. Agadzhanyan.) indicated an impairment of the mental abilitiesthe prolonged stay of subjectsoundproof chamber. P. D. Corbov, V. I. Myasnikov, and) found, however, that psycbopathological phenomena in Soviet cosmonauts during testsoundproof chamber werenderof isolation, some investigators stated that fatigue develop. Other Soviet scientists havethat the influence of Isolation and sensory deprivation on the human organism is very serious. Further study of this problem and the developmenthole system of measures and procedures were considered necessary.

Soviet data on actual crew size requirements arc sparse. They have slated, however, thatsychological point of view, spaceflights with two-man crews were notikewise, some Soviet scientistsrew of three unstable because of the possibillly of two memberstbe third Consequently, the Soviets probably will use on even-numhered covmonaut crew formissions suchunar base.

Circadian rhythm

The Soviets) consideredof the accustomed rhythm of life-ajor problem in spacehey have since coo-ducted numerous studies of the problem affecting tin performance and well-being of the cosmonaut. This work was summarizedoscow symposium on "Biological Rhythms and the Formation of Work and* Soviet scientists appear optimistic but cautious In their current appraisalhange In circadian rhythm is one of the few stressful factors of spaceflight which can he avoided by the

The Soviets have decided tohour circadian schedule, which they consider optimum from the standpoint of cosmonaut well-being and long-term performance. Lunar base mis-skms will involvewo weekof light and about the same interval ofTrie communications periodunar base will come at intervals ofoursinutes,for nn easy adaptation of the cosmonauts tohour daily*

Soviet cosmonaut Rykovskly and V. Lebedevthat an optimum duty watch for space crew members should not exceed fouror longer missions, the best schedule is said loour-hour period on watch followed by four hours active rest and four hours of sleep, if there were four crew members available, for example, the dairy schedule on longer missions would consistotalours ofotalours active-rest period, and one or two four-hour watch periods.

Tbe Soviets also have studied biorhythm* in the polar regions including the Vostokhe Antarctic The daily periodicity of (unctions were said not to be affected significantly by the modified light regime in the polar day and in the polar night and different Intensity in physicaluring the second Io eighth months ofover (polaricrcrevalence of

complaints of general weakness, sleep disturbance, decreased appetite, and shortage of breath at rest and att the height of polar night, thereumber of disorders involving irritabibty. fatigue, lack of balanced behavior, and anof chronic illnesses. During the advent of polar day (ninth to tbe twelfthhe numlier of complaints decreased sharply, sleep and appetite became normal, and pains and shortage of breath occurred less often.

As in the polar orpcrience, there is often anshort period of adaptationn space missions before sleep becomes normal. The Soviets have recommended and used in the Soyuza separate compartment for sleeping. Use of this separate compartment for sleeping apparently lessens tbe disturbance from noise and any activity of the other crew

Cosmonaut baining

Soviet cosmonaut training procedures base been designed around specific mission requirements,characteristics, and anticipated physiological stresses. They have differed from the United States largely in tbe emphasis on physical conditioning of the cosmonaut and in vestibular training after Titov's problems on VostokUse of various types of simulators has increased with missionand acquisition and design of equipment such as pressure chambers, centrifuges,

There rarely has been prior knowledge oftralnirig for specific mission requirements There have been reports, however, that the Sovietsimulator designed to train cosmonauts for walking on the lunarodel of the lunar landscape for training cosmonauts also has beento be located atosmonaut Betyayev has stated that one group of cosmonauts was using helicopters in the training program: this can relate to practice forehicle on the moon.'M The cosmonaut group has includedfor several years. This group may well involve physicians, engineers, geologists, and astronomers."1

Medical monitoring

Medical control of the cosmonaut during missions suchunar base will necessitate moie cm-board analysis and self-monitoring by the crew due to the longer distances and communications limitationsPower requirements will not allow Soviet ground personnel to monitor the physical condition of llie cosmonaut crew in rcal-hme continuously by the SO MHz signal which has been used duringSoviet manned flights. Consequently thereeed for acquisitioneduced amount of dataiven period ofompression of physiological data. Ihc Soviets also will ne<dsensors for greater freedom of movement and better on-site medical monitoring duringextravehicular activity on the moon."*

The Soviets have demonstrated several medical monitoring improvements and changes in their manned space program recently which wiD beIn carrying out lunar missions as well as prolonged earth-orbital flights. Inclusionardio-tachometer on board the Soyuz Bights marks aadvance in Soviet biomedical monitoringhe caidiotachorneter offers dataandreduces the requirement for constantly monitoring the electrocardiogram itself. It alto allows for periodic transmission of the datauch reduced telemetry data bit rate and would easily permit morritoring of more than one crewman The cardiotachometer data have appeared inr playback data, and thus heart rate data could be relayed to ground stations on earth duringcommunications periods.

In spite of widespread Soviet claims, there Is no cvidenco that sophisticated on-board diagnostic computers will be utilized in the nearimple devices based on tbe status (normal, low, high)mall number of bioenvironmentalmay be employed during lunar missions.

There Is no evidence thus far that the Soviets have highly innovative hardware for monitoring the cosmonaut during extravehicular activityhe cosmonauts have been monitored by hardware connections contained in the tether during the EVA on thendissions.

Riotrlcmetry initmmentation has been tested by the Soviets at lunar distances as part of the Zond flightondor example, hadhiotclemetry monitors of theelectrocardiogram, seism oca rdio gram, and rmeumogram. lhe Soviets are also expected tothe condition of the cosmonaut during specific

periods by means of voice communications and video transmissions.

Other human factors problems

Soviet research and development in humanman-machine systems appears in concept to bear with the United States. They have studied many of the known problem areas such as working capacity of the cosmonaut, task analysis, design of an informational model of cosmonaut bodyduring extravehicular activity, andof the cabin interior and controlw* During the past few years, the Soviets also have published articles relating largely to the reliability of man in spacecraft control systems apparently in preparation for the cosmonaut's manned docking of the Soyuz spacecraft.m

Information on human factors studies directlytounar base is limited; itis classified by the Soviets. The theoretical basis for the need of such work was provided In thepaper on lunar base construction which was presented at an IAF conference* It was said necessary to find the optimum utilization of space while providing for maximum comfort of the crew. An exampleunar base design waswith provision for life support, airlock, living, and laboratory quarters.

V. A. Popov Is one of the leading researchers in man-machine relationships. He stressedecent study that there was insufficient data from ground-based investigations on theosmonaut controlling the spacecraft during actualuch Soviet scientists probably recommended that the Soyux 5adapt to the spaceull dayattempting manual docking on theission,

Soviet spacecraft interiors have been of relatively simple design. The role of man in the Soviet manned space program has been largely oneassenger and experimenter ratherilot. Thishas tended to minimize the control system/ instrumentation panels In the cabin. All primaryon the Vostok and Voskhod appears to be well within the cosmonauts direct orfield ofhe panel instrumentsto be plainly marked and logicallyabin environmental parameters are registered in two adjacent instruments. The most important indices appear at the top of the dial and less critical values are displayed at the sides in accordance with good design practice. However, the pointersobscure the numbers on tbe scales. This design defect could account to some extent for inaccurate data reports transmitted to ground stations byduring several Vostok/ Voskhod flights.

Original document.

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