Military Forces Along the Sino-Soviet Border
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This document contain* information affecting ihe national security ul the United Stale* within the meaning of the espionage laws1. The law iwohfbilv it*iniI'l fit an unauthorized person, asllny maimer prejudicial lo the safely or interest of tin- United Stales or for the benefitnv foreignto thetin-Unilcd Sta(e>
CENTRAL INTELLIGENCE AGENCY Directorate of Intelligence0
Forces Alono th*BQrd
From the end of World War II until the middle Sixties, the Soviets did not look upon Chinaostile power. The only Soviet force of anyalong the border with Chinaow-strength army with four divisions near Vladivostok, and it was oriented primarily against US forces in Korea and Japan. owever, the ideological and territorial disputes between the Chinese and Soviet leaderships were growing increasingly bitter. At that time, the Soviets made the decision to build up their military forces significantly along the border with China.
oviet ground and air forces in regions adjacent to the Sino-Soviet border have more than doublednnw totsl en.
ground forces along the border havo been built up from someivisions intwo of which were combataivisions now.
About half of these are now combat ready. In addition, units which could form the base for as many as six more divisions have been identified along the border. 0 well-armed KGB border guards are also stationed in the area.
THUas Produced solelu bv CIA Itprepared by the Office of Strategic Research
he Soviets haveombat aircraft in the
y J On0 neM fighter regiment with aboutircraft has been added to-the Far East
ariiesC?oDlSriCV ?Cin9ingaltS -ir armiesombat aircraft.
deliver fal0^oard mobile missile system, which h eadangehas been
builduP continued9 at about the same steady rate as that which had prevailed
vidence so farK he buildup has been changedesult
of^d'rhiGh be^anh orPino:Soviet talks in Peking Although the number of new divisions theSidSrably bGlOW Chatxi?tinS divisions?he/low ofto the border as
high last year as it was6
The initial stages of the Soviet buildup were concentrated in the east on the two military districtsarea in
probably to improve Moscow's command and control of forces along the western portion of the border.
In Mongolia, one Soviet division has been stationed in Ulan Batoroviet installation in the southern part of the country now is being expanded to division strength.
construction of other facilities and the pattern of communications indicate that the Soviets arcorps or army in Mongolia, which probably will be comprised of three or four divisions.
without the use of nuclear weapons, Soviet forces presently deployed along the border will not be strong enough, even when brought up to full strength, to invade andignificant portion of China. They will be capable, however, of delivering arebuff to any Chinese attack or ofimited offensive in northern China. Beforeany larger ground operations against China, tho Soviets almost certainly would want substantially more service and combat support forces than those which now aro being deployed.
Chinese have for many yearsubstantial number of troops stationed in northern China and no large-scale buildup beyond these forces has taken place so far. Moreroops are stationed in the Shen-yang Military Region, and ground forces strength in Inner Mongolia has been increased0 men6 to0 now. 0 Chinese troops are located to the west,central Siberia. Although the Chinese have built defensive positions along likely routesdvance into the country, most Chinese garrisons are well back from the border.
es along ng the past
The limited Chinese air defense capabiliti the border have been improved somewhat durinu
and several airiielas nave been built or improved. Sinceet fighters have been deployed to those airfields from bases more remote from the border.
Peking's response to the Soviet buildup has shown an awareness of Soviet capabilities and an appreciation for the geographic and logistic factors which condition the situation. The Chinese have not redeployedunits close to the border where they would have to rely on extended supply lines and be vulnerable to sudden attack.
Buildup of Soviet Divisions Opposite China
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