SANITIZED BOSNIA: SERB ETHNIC CLEANSING

Created: 1/5/1995

OCR scan of the original document, errors are possible

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ol Ethnic Cleansing Paper

DATE:4

chopped ott on (hisan-quick turnaround)

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1. THE FOLLOWTNC INTELLIGENCE REPORTOSNIA: SER3

ethnic cleansing*

been sanitized

serb ethnic4

c/s) december

definition of ethnic cleansing

a3 report on human rights practices in bosnia-herzegovina, stated that "techniques that the [bosnian serb army itself] referred to as ethnic cleansing included: laying siege to cities and indiscriminately shelling civilian inkabitants; "strangling" cities withholding food deliveries and utilities so as to starve and freezexecuting non-combatants; establishing concentration camps where thousands of prisoners were summarily executed and tens of thousands were su3jected to torture and inhumane treatment; using prisoners as human shields; employing rapeool of war to terrorize and uproot populations; forcing large numbers of civilians to flee to other regions; razing villages to prevent the return of displaced persons; and interfering with international relief efforts, including attacks on relief personnel."

bosnia: serb ethnic cleansing i

summary

a range of reportinsp

Indicates that ethnic serb

forces have carriedeastercent of the destruction, displacement, and loss of life associated with ethnic cleansing.

--croats and muslims in bosnia have also committed atrocities and forced other ethnic groups to flee-the croat destruction of mostar is one example-but the ethnic cleansing actions of the bosnian serbs are unrivaled in scale, intensity, and ferocity. we have no evidence that croats or muslims have planned or carried out calculated, large-scale ethnic cleansing.

sustained campaigns of ethnic cleansing by bosnian serbs

2 HA1 NON-SERBS, TKl RADICAL RECAS*

OF TENS CF THOUSANDS OF UNDREDS OF THOUSANDS MORE, AND THE MOCRAPHIC MAKEUP.

PERCENT OF NON-SERBS WHO LIVED IN THE 70 PERCENT OF BOSNIA NOW UNDER SERB CONTROL HAVE BEEN FORCED TO FLEE OS HAVE 3EEN KILLED.AJORITY OFISPLACED PERSONS WITHIN BOSNIA ARE MUSLIMS. MOST OF THEM EXPELLED FROM THEIR HOMESESULT OF ETHNIC CLEANSIKG. f

THE BOSNIAN SERB ARMY. PARAMILITARY CROUPS, BOSNIAN SERB POLITICAL LEADERS. AND POLICE KAVE PLAYED PIVOTAL COORDINATING ROLES IN ETHNIC CLEANSING IH BOSNIA.

--CONSISTENT PATTERNS OF POLITICAL-MILITARY COLLUSION ANO COORDINATION ARE APPARENT IN SERB SEIZURES OF BOSNIAN TOWNS; MANY NON-SERB REFUGEES FROM THROUGHOUT BOSNIA HAVE DESCRIBED SUCH TAKEOVERS IN STRIKINGLY SIMILAR TERMS.

--THE BLOODIEST ROUNDS OF ETHNIC CLEANSING TOOK PLACE EARLIER IN THE BOSNIAN CONFLICT2 BUT SERB EFFORTS TO EXPEL NON-SERBS ARE CONTINUING, WITH MORE0 EVICTED SINCE LAST SUMMER,

WE LACK CONCLUSIVE EVIDENCE THAT THE MOST SENIOR BOSNIAN SERB OR SERBIAN LEADERS DIRECTED OR PLANNED LARGE-SCALE ETHNIC

CLEANSING; BUT THE SYSTEMATIC. WIDESPREAD NATURE OF SERBSUGGESTS THAT PALE-AND PERHAPS BELGRADE-HAVE EXERCISEDVEILED ROLE IN THE PURPOSEFUL DESTRUCTION ANDBOSNIA'S NON-SERB POPULATION.

BOSNIA: SERB ETHNIC CLEANSING

INTRODUCTION

ETHNIC CLEANSING HAS 3EEN CARRIED OUT IN BOSNIA SINCE AT LEAST PARLY PRIMARILY BY BOSNIAN SERB POLITICAL AND MILITARY FORCES OPPOSED TO THE BOSNIAN GOVERNMENT'S DECLARATION OF INDEPENDENCEEPUBLICWIDE REFERENDUM IN EARLYKE BOSNIAN SERBS BOYCOTTED THE VOTE.

SERBS WERE PLANNING

TAKEOVERS OF SOME TOWNS, SUCH AS BRCKO, BEFORE THE REFERENDUM AND WERE SEEKING ASSISTANCE FRCM THE YUGOSLAV PEOPLE'S ARMY (JNA) AND PARAMILITARYHKI) IN SEP3IA. I

IN MANY CASES, ETHNIC SERBS DID NOT CONSTITUTE MAJORITIES OR SIGNIFICANT PLURALITIES IN KEY MULTIETHNIC TOWNS THEY SUBJECTED TO ETHNIC CLEANSING.

IN EARLY

USLIMSAJORITY CF 56 PERCENT IN TH2 NORTHEASTERN CITY OF BRCKO. THEY ALSOLURALITY ERCENT) OF THE POPULATION IN THE NORTHWESTERN TOWN OF PRIJEDOR THAT NEARLY EQUALED THE SIZE OF THE SERB COMMUNITYOTH AREAS HAVE SINCE 3EEN VIRTUALLY DEPOPULATED OF HON-SERB RESIDENTS. I

WELLILLION OF THOSE DISPLACED MAINLYERB ETHNIC CLEANSING SINCE2 REMAIN IN BOSNIA. AJORITY ARE MUSLIMS FORCED INTO OVERCROWDED ENCLAVES AND TOWNS IN BOSNIAN GOVERNMENT-HELD AREAS.

CLEANSINGOSNIAN SERBS CONTINUES TODAY, ALTHOUGH THE MOST BRUTAL AND WIDESPREAD INCIDENTS TOOK PLACE2 WHEN SOME OF THE MOST NOTORIOUS DETENTION CAMPS WERE FORCED TO CLOSE FOLLOWING EXTENSIVE INTERNATIONAL MORE0 NON-SERBS HAVE BEEN EXPELLED FROM SERB-CONTROLLED AREAS SINCE JULY ACCORDING TO REPORTS, FORCED OUT IN ONE WEEK LAST SEPTEMBER ALONE.I

CROATS AND MUSLIMS HAVE ALSO COMMITTED ATROCITIES DUPING THE BOSNIAN CONFLICT, BUT THEIR ACTIONS HAVE CONSISTED OVERWHELMINGLY OF RANDOM, DISCRETE-THOUCH SOMETIMES FEROCIOUS-EPISODES THAT LACK THE SUSTAINED INTENSITY, ORCHESTRATION, AND SCALE OF THE BOSNIAN SERBS' EFFORTS (SEE INSETI.

VAST MAJORITY OF REPORTING INDICATES THAT ETHNICPROBABLY RESPONSIBLE FOR AT LEASTERCENT OF DISPLACEMENT, AND LOSS Or LIFE ASSOCIATED WITH IN

BEGIN BOX

THE DEMOGRAPHIC IMPACT OF BOSNIAN SERB ETHNIC CLEANSING

THE NUMBER OF NON-SERBS LIVING IN TERRITORY NOW HELD BY THE BOSNIAN SERBS:

3EFORE THE WAR (EARLY

NOVEMBER

THE KEY PLAYERS IN ETHNIC CLEANSING

A SUBSTANTIAL BODY OF EVIDENCE INDICATES THAT POLITICAL,

SECURITY. MILITARY, AND PARAMILITARY ELEMENTS ALL PLAYED CENTRAL. COORDINATED ROLES IN CARRYING OUT ETHNIC CLEANSIM3 IN BOSNIA.

--THE REPORTING FROM ETHNICALLY CLEANSED TOWNS AS DISTANT FROM EACH CTHSR AS PRIJEDOR, BRCKO, AND FOCATRIKINGLY SIMILAR PATTERN. THE REPORTS DESCRIBE HOW NON-SERBS WERE DISARMED AND SERB POLITICAL. SECURITY. AND MILITARY FORCES TOOK CONTROL OF TOWNS. SETTING UP NEW CIVIC STRUCTURES WITH IDENTICAL NAMES OR FUNCTIONS. AND SYSTEMATICALLY ROUNDING UP. INTERROGATING, TORTURING. AND IMPRISONING OR EXPELLING MEM3ERS CF NON-SERB ELITES-USUALLY MUSLIMS. THE ALMOST SIMULTANEOUS TIMING OF THE TAKEOVERS OF MANY TOWNS IN THE SPRING2 ALSO SUGGESTS COLLUSION AMONG BOSNIAN SERB AUTHORITIES.

TKE BALANCE AMONG THESE POLITICAL AND MILITARY ELEMENTS APPEARS TO HAV2 SHIFTED OVER THE PAST TOO YEARS-THE MILITARY, FOR EXAMPLE, HAS EXPANDED ITS ROLE IN ETHNIC CLEANSINC-BUT ALL REMAIN INVOLVED, ACCORDING TO RECENT INFORMATION. I

BEGIN BOX

CROAT AND MUSLIM ATROCITIES IN BOSNIA

THE VAST MAJORITY OF DEATHS AND EXPULSIONS BECAUSE OF ETHNIC CLEANSING IH BOSNIA HAVE BEEN THE WORK OF ETHNIC SERBS, ACCORDING TO REPORTING.NIAN MUSLIMS AND CROATS HAVE ALSO BEEN RESPONSIBLE FOR ATROCITIES AGAINST EACH OTHER AND ETHNIC SERBS. BOTH GROUPS HAVE DETAINED. ABUSED. EXPELLED. AND BEEN RESPONSIBLE FOR THE DEATHS OF CIVILIANS-PARTICULA3LY IN CENTRAL BOSNIA.

NOTORIOUS DETENTION SITES. SUCH AS THE TARCIN SILOS RUN' BY THE BOSNIAN GOVERNMENT ARMY, ARE STILL OPERATING,|

|AND MAY HOLD SOME CIVILIANS ALONG WITH BOSNIAN SERB

ARMY POWS.

REPORTS ALSO PERSIST OF LOCALIZED BRUTALITY AND HARASSMENT OF MINORITIES.

DETENTION SITES, SUCK AS THOSE RUN BY MUSLIM FOPCES IN BUGOJNO IN CENTRAL BOSNIA, REPORTEDLY HAVE BEEN CLOSED. REPORTS. HOWEVER. INDICATE THAT HARRASSMENT AND EXPULSIONS OF SERB CIVILIANS CONTINUED AS LATE AS LAST SPRING.

--PRESS REPORTS NOTE THAT BOSNIAN CROATS HAVE BEEN TRYING SINCE IJkST SPRING TO EVICT KVSIMS FROM WESTERN MOSTAR, WHICH TKE CROATS CONTROL.

DESPITE THIS RECORD OF OFFENSES, THERE IS NO INFORMATION-NOR ISATTERN Or EVENTS-SUGGESTING THAT EITHER BOSNIAN MUSLIM OR BOSNIAN CROAT LEADERS HAVE ENCOURAGED LARGE-SCALE ETHNIC

CLEAN'S IMC EFFORTS IN CONJUNCTION WITH THEIR MILITARY FORCES TO CAIN AND HOLD TERRITORY. NON-SERB FORCES IN BOSNIA HAVE NOT PURSUED SUSTAINED CAMPAIGNS OF ETHNIC CLEANSING AS HAVE THE BOSNIAN SERBS, BUT MOST OFTEN HAVE COMMITTED ATROCITIES OR FORCED EXPULSIONS IN RESPONSE TO SUCH ACTS PERPETRATED AGAINST THEIR OWN ETHNIC GROUP.

--ESTIMATES OF THE NUMBER OF DEATHS AND DISPLACED PERSONS NIA SUGGEST, WHEN COMPARED WITH1 CENSUS DATA FOR BOSNIA, THAT FAR FEWER ETHNIC SERBS THAN MUSLIMS AND CROATS HAVE BEEN KILLED OR EXPELLED FROM THEIR HOMES.

OX

THE SERBIAN DEMOCRATIC PARTY AND INTERNAL SECURITY

LOCAL AND REGIONAL MEMBERS OF BOSNIAN SERB LEADER RADOVAN KARADZIC'S SERBIAN DEMOCRATIC PARTY (SDSI APPEAR TO HAVE BEEN RESPONSIBLE FOR MANY TACTICAL DECISIONS INVOLVING THE ETHNIC CLEANSING OF NON-SERBS.

--NUMEROUS REPORTS NAME THE SD3 AS HAVING ORCHESTRATED SERB TAKEOVERS OF PREVIOUSLY MULTIETHNIC TOWNS, WHERE THEY PUT IN PLACE HEW REGIMES, SET UP INTERROGATION CENTERS. ESTABLISHED MOCK AND MOVED THOUSANDS OF NON-SER3 CIVILIAN PRISONERS TO DETENTION CAMPS.

--THE SDS MAYOR OF PRIJEDOR. WHO TOOK OFFICE FOLLOWING THE TAKEOVER OF THE TOWN IN APRIL STATEDS NEWS ORGANIZATION ALL2 INTERVIEW THAT THE THREE PRINCIPAL DETENTION SITES IN THE AREA-KERATERM, TRNOPOLJE, AND OMARSKA, WHERE THOUSANDS REPORTEDLY WERE TORTURED AND DIED-WERE "FORMED ON DECISIONS OF THE PRIJEDOR CIVIL AUTHORITIES.

--MANY ETHNIC SERBS IDENTIFIED AS LOCAL SDS ACTIVISTS HAVE ALSO BEEN AFFILIATED WITH LOCAL PARAMILITARY OR IRREGULAR UNITS REPORTED TO HAVE TERRORIZED THE NON-SERB POPULACE. [

LOCAL SDS OFFICIALS ALSO WORK CLOSELY WITH INTERNAL SECURITY ELEMENTS.

--INTERIOR MINISTRY OFFICIALS TRADITIONALLY CONTROL THE LOCAL POLICE, AND THEIR AUTHORITY FOR DEALING WITH CIVIL DISORDER GIVES THEM ACCESS TO MUNICIPAL RECORDS. MANY REPORTS INDICATE THAT. IN TOWN TAKEOVERS, PROMINENT LOCAL NON-SERBS HAVE BEEN QUICKLY ROUNDED U? 3Y POLICE USING ORGANIZED LISTS.

SERB INTERNAL AFFAIRS OFFICIALS ALSO REPORTEDLY HAVE COMMANDED INTERROGATION SITES AND DETENTION CAMPS FOR CIVILIANS, SUCH AS OMARSKA-

KARADZIC HAS CONSISTENTLY DENIED THATAVE ENGAGED IN ETHNIC CLEANSING OR THAT KIS SELF-APPOINTED REGIME IS RESPONSIBLE FOR ANY ATROCITIES, BUT HE AND HIS ASSOCIATES HAVE OPERATED SOME OF THE MOST NOTORIOUS BOSNIAN SERB DETENTION CAMPS.

--JOURNALISTS REPORTED HAVING TO ARRANGE VISITS TO DETENTION CAMPS 2 THROUGH KARADZIC'S OFFICE.

CONSISTENT PATTERNS EVIDENT IN THE TAKEOVERS OF TOWNS THROUGHOUT BOSNIA STRONGLY SUGGEST THAT TOP SDS LEADERS, INCLUDING KARADZIC. KNEW ABOUT ETHNIC CLEANSING PLANS FROM THE OUTSST-AND THAT THEY PROBABLY INITIATED THEM IN COORDINATION WITH INTERNAL SECURITY ORGANS AND THE MILITARY.

THE BOSNIAN SERB MILITARY

TKE BOSNIAN SERB ARMY (BSA), WHICH WAS FORMED FROM TKE YUGOSLAV PEOPLE'S ARMY (JNA) IN HASENTRAL PARTICIPANT IN ETHNIC CLEANSING CAMPAIGNS ACAINST MUSLIMS AND CROATS.

--BSA UNITS HAVE CONDUCTED SYSTEMATIC ETHNIC CONTROLLED DETENTION CAMPS. AND METHODICALLYVILLAGES, IN PARTICULAR. BSA FORCES HAVE OFTEN OPERATEDKITH SERB PARAMILITARY UNITS IDENTIFIED ASOF SOME OF THE WORST ATROCITIES OF THE

FROM APRIL THROUGHHE BSA AND THE JNA BEFORE IT. CARRIED OUT OPERATIONS AIMED AT REMOVING BY FORCE MUCH OF THE SUBSTANTIAL MUSLIM AND SMALLER CROAT POPULATIONS FROM TKE NORTHWESTERN BOSNIAN TOWNS OF PRIJEDOR AND SANSKI MOST AND THEIR SURROUNDING AREAS.

WAS pr0ba3ly THE

MOST WELL-ORGANIZED AND COMPREHENSIVE ETHNIC CLEANSING EFFORT CONDUCTED IN BOSNIA SINCE THE ONSET OF HOSTILITIES. REPORTING INDICATES THAT THESE ACTIONS WERE CARRIED OUT JOINTLY BY THE BOSNIAN SERB INTERNAL AFFAIRS "MINISTRY" UNDER THE DIRECTION OF THE SERBIAN DEMOCRATIC PARTY.

--EXTENSIVE REPORTING HAS IDENTIFIED TWO BOSNIAN SERB MILITARY BRIGADES THAT WERE FORMERLY PART OF THE TERRITORIAL DEFENSE FORCE, THE 5TH KCZARSKA AND 6TH KRAJISKA, AS HAVING HAD MAJOR ROLES IN ROUNDING UP MUSLIM CITIZENS IN THESE AREAS FOR TRANSPORT TO DETENTION CAMPS OR KILLING MUSLIMS AND DESTROYING -HEIR TOWNS.

--THESE TWO UNITS OPERATED INITIALLY UNDER TKE CONTROL OF THE JNA AND THEN THE BSA.I

BSA HAS OPERATED MANY HELD PRIMARILY MUSLIM AND CROA1 POWS--ACCORDING TO REPORTINC. EPORTED BRUTALITY AND HIGH DE; MANJACA AND BATKOVIC,

CAMPS THAT HAVE HER THAN

NOTORIOUS FOR THEIR UDE FACILITIES AT

SIGNIFICANT PAST OF THE SERB DETENTION CAM? AND PRISON SYSTEM IN BOSNIA REPORTEDLY WAS AN INTEGRATED ENTITY ORGANIZED WITHIN THE CORPS STRUCTURE OF THE BSA.I

--THE BSA'S SECURITY SERVICE REPORTEDLY EXERCISED COMMAND AND CONTROL OF THE CAMP SYSTEM USING MILITARY POLICE AS GUARDS.

AS THE BSA, UNDER THE COMMAND OF GENERAL RATKO MLADIC, HAS INTENSIFIED ITS MILITARY OPERATIONS, ITS ROLE IN ETHNIC CLEANSING HAS GROWN. THE BSA HAS INCORPORATED INTO ITS CAMPAIGNS THE SYSTEMATIC DESTRUCTION OF VILLAGES-PRIMARILY MUSLIM-TO ENSURE THAT THE INHABITANTS WILL NOT RETURN TO TKE AREA.

BSA FORCES IN BOTH THE JANUARY-APRIL3 SREBRENICA OFFENSIVE AND THE APRIL4 CORAZDE ATTACK RAZED MUSLIM VILLAGES WELL AFTER BOSNIAN SERB TROOPS HAD SEIZED CONTROL OF THE AREAS SURROUNDING THE VILLAGES.

3ECIN BOX

THE BOSNIAN SERB ARMY'S ETHNIC CLEANSING OF MUSLIM VILLAGES DURING TKE4 GORAZDA OFFENSIVE

DURING ITS4 OFFENSIVE TO CAPTURE THE BOSNIAN-MUSLIM-CONTROLLED TOWN OF GORAZDE, THE BOSNIAN SERB ARMY (BSA) DESTROYED THE ONLY REMAINING MUSLIM VILLAGES IN TKE AREA--DRIVING OUT THE POPULATION TO CLAIM THE LAND FOR ETHNIC SER3S.

TKE SMALL SIZE OF THE VILLAGES, THE ABSENCE OF SIGNIFICANT LOCAL MUSLIM RESISTANCE, AND THE FLIGHT OF MOST RESIDENTS IN THE FACE OF THE BSA'S ADVANCE SUGGEST THAT TKE DESTRUCTION OF THE TOWNS WASILITARY NECESSITY BUT WAS AIMED ATETURN OF THEIR MUSLIM INHABITANTS.

--THERE APE NO REPORTS THAT PARAMILITARY GROUPS OF THE TYPE ASSOCIATED WITH DESTRUCTION. LOOTING, AND ATROCITIES ELSEWHERE IN BOSNIA IN THE WAKE OF BSA ASSAULTS WERE PRESENT DURING THE OFFENSIVE, SUGGESTING THAT BSA TROOPS BURNED THE VILLAGES.

EBB BOX

PARAMILITARY FORCES

NUMEROUS REPORTS INDICATE THAT BOI'HNIAN SERB AND SERBIAN PARAMILITARY UNITS INITIALLY OPERATED IN CONJUNCTION WITH THE JNA

TYOHCT.

AND LATER THE BSA, AS WELL AS LOCAL POLICE FORCES, TO SEIZE CONTROL OF TERRITORY AND ETHNICALLY CLEANSE THESE AREAS

ANGE OF REPORTING PROVIDES AT LEAST CIRCUMSTANTIAL EVIDENCE THAT THE JNA/BSA AND THE SERBIAN INTERIOR MINISTRY ARMED BOSNIAN SERB AND SERBIAN PARAMILITARIES

MANY CASES, THE JNA/BSA SECURED THE AREAOWN AND PIREU ARTILLERY OR TANK ROUNDS INTO THE AREA TO TERRORIZE THE POPULATION, ACCORDINGARIETY OF REPORTS. PARAMILITARY UNITS APPEARED TO OPERATE IN CLOSE COORDINATION WITH THE ARMY, IF NOT UNDER ITS COMMAND, TYPICALLY FOLLOWING UP ON THE ARMY'S ENCIRCLEMENT OF THE TOWN BY ENTERING IT TO ETHNICALLY CLEANSE IT THROUGH MURDER, TERROR TACTICS, AND EXPULSION.

--THE BSA APPEARS TO HAVE DISBANDED MOST PARAMILITARYINCORPORATED THEM INTO THE ARMY IN LATE2 LARGELY BECAUSETHAT PARAMILITARY COMMANDERS WERE UNRELIABLEIVAL ARMED FORCE. VOLUNTEER PARAMILITARY UNITSOPERATED SINCE THAT TIME APPEAR TO HAVE FUNCTIONED UNDEROR AS PARTSA UNIT.

THE SERBIAN CONNECTION

TKE MOST TANGIBLE LINK BETWEEN SERB AUTHORITIES IN BELGRADE AND ACTIONS AGAINST NON-SERBS IN BOSNIA HAS BEEN THROUGH THE PRESENCE IN BOSNIA OF PARAMILITARY UNITS FORMED PARTLY IN SERBIA. SERBIAN NATIONALS HAVE LED THESE UNITS, WHICH ARE IMPLICATED IN ETHNIC CLEANSING BY NUMEROUS REPORTS.

--REPORTING INDICATES THAT, AT LEAST EARLY ON IN THE BOSNIAN CONFLICT, BELGRADE KNEW OF ETHNIC CLEANSING ACTIVITY, ALLOWING SERBIAN FORCES TO INTERVENE ON BEHALF OF BOSNIAN SERBS. IN ONE CASE, SERBIAN TROOPS EVEN RESTRAINED OVERZEALOUS SERB PARAMILITARY FORCES WHOSE BRUTAL ACTIONS IN THE NORTH EASTERN BOSNIAN CITY OF BRCKO APPARENTLY RISKED ATTRACTING UNWELCOME ATTENTION. I"

MIKAJLO KERTES AND RADMILO BOGDANOVIC, INTIMATES OF SERBIAN LEADER SLOBODAN MILOSEVIC WHO HAVE HELPED HIM TO ESTA3LISH CONTROL OVER SERBIA'S INTELLIGENCE AND SECURITY SERVICES, ARE LIKELY CENTRAL FIGURES IN ANY PLANNING OR DIRECTING ROLE THAT SERBIA MAY HAVE PLAYED IN ETHNIC CLEANSING IN BOSNIA.

REPORTING INDICATES THAT BOTH HAVE BEEN INVOLVED IN THE OVERSIGHT OF SERBIAN PARAMILITARIES SINCE EARLY

SUCH OFFICIALS GENERALLY HAVE BEEN CAREFUL. HOWEVER, TO AVOID

THE TOLL OF SERB ETHNIC CLEANSING

THERE IS NO RELIABLE ESTIMATE OF HOW MANY BOSNIANS HAVE DIEDESULT OP SER3 ETHNIC CLEANSING, BUT REPORTS SUGGEST THAT THEY NUMBER IN THE TENS OF THOUSANDS.

- -EXTENSIVE REPORTING HAS YIELDED INFORMATION ON MOREMASS GRAVES IN BOSNIA THAT ARE SAID TOOTALODIES.

PEOPLE FROM STATES OF THE FORMER YUGOSLAVIA HAVE BEEN DISPLACED BUT REMAIN ELSEWHERE IN TKE FORMER BALKAN COUNTRY.

F THOSE DISPLACED PERSONS ARE IN BOSNIA. AJORITY OF 7KEM MUSLIMS rOPCO TO LF.AVF SFPR-aiNTacLLED MMi

AN REFUGEES FROM THE FORMER YUGOSLAVIA HAVE FLED ABROAD, MOST OF THEM TO EUROPE.

--THERE ARE NO FIRM ESTIMATES OF THE BREAKDOWN OF BALKAN REFUGEE POPULATIONS BY ETHNIC CROUP. EITHER WITHIN THE FORMER YUGOSLAVIA OR ABROAD. MOST REPORTS, HOWEVER. INDICATELEAR. THOUGH UNSPECIFIED. MAJORITY ARE BOSNIAN MUSLIMS.i

CONCLUSION

WIDESPREAD. SUSTAINED SERB ETHNIC CLEANSING CAMPAIGNS OVER THREE YEARS HAVE RADICALLY ALTERED THESTATE. RESTORING ITS PRE-WAR DEMOGRAPHIC BALANCEDISTRIBUTION NOW APPEARS VIRTUALLY IMPOSSIBLE. THE ETHNIC SERB POLITICAL AND MILITARY FORCES HAVE CREATEDMUSLIM-DIASPORA. AT THE SAKE TIME, ETHNICSUCCEEDED IN SECURING THEIR HOLD OVER LARGE PARTS OFAND MADE SIGNIFICANT STRIDES TOWARD THEIROF ESTABLISHING. OR EXPANDING. AN ETHNICALLY PURE

APPENDIX A

AGREEMENTS AND TREATIES OF INTERNATICNAL LAW APPLICABLE TO THE CONFLICT IN THE FORMER YUGOSLAVIA

GENEVA CONVENTION RELATIVE TO THE TREATMENT OF PRISONERS OF WAR, 9 (GENEVA CONVENTION NUMBER III).

GENEVA CONVENTION RELATIVE TO THE PROTECTION OF CIVILIAN PERSONS IN TIME OF WAR. 9 (GENEVA CONVENTION NUMBER IV, ESPECIALLYOMEN SHALL BE ESPECIALLY PROTECTED AGAINST RAPE.')

CONVENTION CN THE PREVENTION OF THE CRIME CF CENOCIDE, DECEMBER 8,

PROTOCOL ADDITIONAL TO THE GENEVA CONVENTION OF AMD RELATING TO THE PROTECTION OF VICTIMS OF ARMED CONFLICTS (PROTOCOL IJ. OPDtED FOR SIGNATURE DECEMBER (THIS MAY KAXE BLOCKING HUMANITARIAN AIDAR CRIME.)

PROTOCOL ADDITIONAL TO THE GENEVA CONVENTION OF

ND RELATING TO THE PROTECTION OF VICTIMS OF NOM-INTERNATIONAL ARMED CONFLICTS {PROTOCOL PENED FOR SIGNATURE DECEMBER (THIS MAI* MAKE BLOCKING HUMANITARIAN AIDAR CRIME.)

COMMONO THE GENEVA CONVENTIONS BESTOWS THE PROTECTIONS OF GENEVA CONVENTION NUMBER IV TO CIVILIAN PERSONS IN ARMED CONFLICTS NOT OF AN INTERNATIONAL NATURE.

GRAVE BREACHES OF ONE OR MORE OF THE GENEVA CONVENTIONS RELEVANT TO THE SITUATIONNIA INCLUDE:

--WILLFUL KILLING.

--TORTURE OR INHUMAN TREATMENT.

--WILLFULLY CAUSING GREAT SUFFERING OR SERIOUS INJURY TO BODYEALTH.

--EXTENSIVE DESTRUCTION AND APPROPRIATION OF PROPERTY, NOT JUSTIFIED BY MILITARY NECESSITY, AND CARRIED OUT UNLAWFULLY AND WANTONLY.

RISONER O? WARIVILIAN TC SERVE IN THE ARMED FORCES OF FOREIGN POWER.

--WILLFULLYRISONER CF WAR OF THE RIGHTS OF FAIR

AND REGULAR TRIAL.

t

THIS APPENDIX :S

APPENDIX B

ETHNIC CLEANSING IN BOSNIA: AM ABBREVIATED CHRONOLOGY OF SIGNIFICANT EVENTS

i

UNE

WAR BREAKS OUT IN THE BALKANS ALMOST IMMEDIATELY AFTER SLOVENIA AND CROATIA DECLARE INDEPENDENCE. ALTHOUGH SLOVENIA AND CROATIA CONCLUDE CEASE-FIRE AGREEMENTS WITH BELGRADE BY

--UNLAWFUL DEPORTATION OR TRANSFER OR UNLAWFUL CONFINEMENTIVILIAN.

--TAKING CIVILIANS AS HOSTAGES.

THE STATUS OF BOSNIA-HERZEGOVINA REMAINSCTOBER

SERBIA AND MONTENEGRO SEIZE CONTROL OF YUGOSLAVIA'S FEDERAL PRESIDENCY.

ECEMBER

GERMANY RECOGNIZES SLOVENIA AND CROATIA AS INDEPENDENT STATES.

ANUARY

EC MEMBER STATES ANDTHER COUNTRIES RECOGNIZE CROATIA AND SLOVENIA AS INDEPENDENT STATES.

FEBRUARY

BOSNIANRGANIZE PARAMILITARY UNITS IN NORTHEASTERN CITY OF BRCKO.

27 ARCH

BOSNIAEFERENDUM ON INDEPENDENCE FROM YUGOSLAVIA. BOSNIAN SERBS REACT VIOLENTLY TO THE VOTE IN FAVOR OF INDEPENDENCE. PRESIDENT IZET3EG0VIC TRIES TO MAKE CONCESSIONS TO THE SERBS BY INCLUDING THEM IN HIS GOVERNMENT.

7 MARCH

ADVANCE TEAM OK UN PEACEKEEPERS ARRIVES IN YUGOSLAVIA-EARLY APRIL

LARES PRIL

THE EC RECOGNIZES BOSNIA-HERZEGOVINA. 7 APRIL

THE UNITED STATES RECOGNIZES CROATIA, SLOVENIA, AND BOSNIA-HERZEGOVINA. SERBS MOVE ALMOST IMMEDIATELY TO PARTITION THE REPUBLIC. THE JNA STAGES ASSAULTS ON MUSLIM TOWNS. AND ETHNIC CLEANSING CAMPAIGNS BEGIN THROUGHOUT BOSNIA.

APRIL-MAY

BOSNIAN SERBS NATIONALISTS. WORKING WITH JNA AND BOSNIAN SERB ARMY (BSA) FORCES, STAGE CIVIC TAKEOVERS OF PRIJEDOR. SANSKI MOST. AND NEIGHBORING TOWNS IN NORTHWESTERN BOSNIA ANO BEGIN ETHNIC CLEANSING OF THE MUSLIM POPULATION THAT CONTINUES INTO THE FALL.

1 MAY

FIGHTING SPEAKS OUT IN BRCKO, SIGNALING THE START OF SERB ETHNIC CLEANSING THERE.

19 MAY

THE JNA FORMALLY DISASSOCIATES ITSELF FROM ETHNIC SERB FORCES IN BOSNIA. THE NEWLY FORMED BSA UNDER GENERAL RATKO MLADIC CONTINUES THE ETHNIC CLEANSING OF NON-SERBS.

JANUARY-APRIL

BSA CONDUCTS SREBRENICA OFFENSIVE. CARRYING CUT EXTENSIVE ETHNIC CLEANSING OF MUSLIM SETTLEMENTS IH EASTERN BOSNIA.

EBRUARY

THE UN SECURITY COUNCIL AUTHORIZES ESTABLISHMENT OF AH INTERNATIONAL TRIBUNAL TO PROSECUTE WAR CRIMES COMMITTED IN THE FORMER YUGOSLAVIA

1 MARCH

BOSNIAN CROATS AND BOSNIAN MUSLIMS SICN AGREEMENT TOEDERATION IN BOSNIA.

ARCH-APRIL

BOSNIAN SERBS LAUNCH OFFENSIVE AGAINST BOSNIAN GOVERNMENT -HELO ENCLAVE OP CORA2DE. ETHNICALLY CLEANSING SEIZED VILLAGES ALONG THE WAY.

mid-july

ANTICIPATING BOSNIAN GOVERNMENT APPROVAL OF THE CONTACT GROUP'S PEACE PLAN. BOSNIAN SERB FORCES SHOW DEFIANCE BYEW ETHNIC CLEANSING CAMPAIGN IN NORTHERN BOSNIA TO DRIVE OUT REMAINING NCN-SER3 RESIDENTS-

IB JULY

THE BOSNIAN ASSEMBLY APPROVES THE CONTACT GROUP PEACE PLAN. 3 AUGUST

NIAN SERB "PARLIAMENT" VOTES UNANIMOUSLY TOEFERENDUM ON THE CONTACT GROUP PLAN.

UGUST

BOSNIAN SERB REFERENDUM OVERWHELMINGLY REJECTS THE CONTACT GROUP PLAN.

SEPTEMBER

CONCERNED ABOUT THE POTENTIAL IMPACT OF THE LIFTIM3 OF THE UN ARMS EMBARGO ON BOSNIA, BOSNIAN SERBS STEP UP THEIR ETHNIC

CLEANSING CAMPAIGN IN NORTHERN BOSNIA. SINCE THE ONSET OF FIGHTING IN BOSNIA, SOME 90 PERCENT OF NON-SERBS HAVE 3EEN DRIVEN FROM THE

TERRITORY NOW CONTROLLED BY BOSNIAN SERB FORCES.

THIS APPENDIX IS

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