Created: 1/1/1995

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A Die-Hard Issue

The CIA's Role in the Study ofs/

Gerald Haines


hile Agency concern over UFOt wai substantial until the, OA has since paid only limited and peripheral attention to the phenomena.


Geraldhe National Reconnaissance Office hitrorian.

An extraordinaryercent of all American* have at least heard or read something about Unidentified Hying Object) (UFOs) andercent believe they ate reaL1 Former US Presidents Carter and Reagan claim to haveFO.neologism for UFOUFO organization! ate found throughout the Unitedany are convinced (hat lhe USand particularly CIA, are engagedassive conspiracy and coverup of (be issue. The idea that CIA has secretly concealed its research into UFOs hasajor theme of UFO buffi since theUFO phenomena emerged in theu)

Infter being pressured by UFOIogisrt for the telease ofCIA information onCI R. James Woolsey ordered another review of all Agency files on UFOs. Using CIA records compiled from that review, thii study traces CIA interest and involvement in the UFO controversy from theU>

It chronologically examines the Agency's efforts to solve ihe mystery of UFOt. its programs that had an impact on UFO sightings, and its attempts to conceal CIA involvement in the entire UFO Issue. What emerges from this examination is that, while Agency concern over UFOs was substantial until the, CIA has since paid only lim-itcd and peripheral attention to the phenomena. (U)


The emergence7 of the Cold War confrontation between the United States and the Soviet Union also saw the first wave of UFOThe first reportHying saucer* over the United States came onhen Kennethrivate pilot and reputable businessman, while lookingowned plane sighted nine disk-shaped objects near Mt. Rainier. Washington, traveling at an estimated speed ofph. Arnolds report was followedlood ofsightings, including reports from military and civilian pilots and air traffic controllers all over the Unitedir Force Geo. Nathan Twining, head of the Ail Technical Service Command, established Project SIGN (initially named Project SAUCER) to collect, collate, evaluate, and distribute within the government all informationto such ughtinp, on the premise that UFOs might be real and ofto the nationalU)

The Technical Intelligence Division of the Air Material Command (AMC) ar Wright Field (later Wright-Patterson Ait Force Base) in Dayton. Ohio, assumed control of Project SIGN and began its work onlthough at first fearful that the objects might be Soviet secret weapons, the Air Force soon concluded that UFOs were real but easily explained and notThe Air Force repott round that almost all sightings stemmed from one or more of three causes: mass hysteria and halluclnarion, hoax, or misinterpreiarion of known


Nevertheless, the reportcontinued miliury intrl igcncr control owi the inveitiga-tion of ill lightings and did nor rule owl the potiibiliry of enrarrrrewrial')

Amid mounting UFO tigivmp. the Ait force connniaed ro collect and evaluate UFO dau in theew project, GRUDGE, which t< ,ed to alleviate public anaicty over UFOiublic relationsdesigned to persuade the public ihat UFOi conaiiluted nothing umiaual or extraordinary. UFOwere explained ai biltooni, conventional iirrfih, planeia,opiical illusions, solar rcflecUoni. or even "largeRUDGtound no evidence in UFO lighting* of*advanced foreign weapons design o' development, and they con -eluded that UFOi did not threaten US security. They reeoewr.eoded thai the project be reduced in acope because the very existence of Air Force mirreat encouragedtoFOt and tontribulcdwar hysteria" atmo-sphere Onhe Air Force announced che project'aII)

With increased Cold Wai rem ions, the Korean war, ind continued UFOSAF Directoren. Charles P. Cabellew UFO projectroject BLUE BOOK became (he major Air Force elon to xudi the UFO phenomenon ihrimghoothe task ofrtg and explaining UFO* continued to fall on the Air Mitrrul Com mind at Vright-Paitenon.all italT. the Air Technical Intelligence Center IAT1C) tried to persuade che public that UFOi were notroject. SIGN. GRUDGE,

and BLUE BOOK ki the tone for the official US Government position regarding UFOi foi the nextean. (U)


CIA closely monitored the Air Force effort, aware of rhe mounting number of lighting* and increasinglythat UFO* mightotential lecurny threat.Given the distribution of the sightings. CIA orfi-cialijueti.or.rd whether ihey might reflect' midMimmer Agency officiali accepied the Air Force'i torn Iumoim about UFO reporri. alihough theythat "ilnct thereemote possibility that ihey may be inter plan-eury ii r. rnfi it It ntceauty to investigate each

A maativc buildup of lightings over the United Sumi pec ally in July, alarmed the Truman adminii-tniion. Onndufy, ndar scopes at Washington Nationaland Andrrvn Air Force Base tricked myiierioua blips. Onuly, the blips irappcared. The Aii Force scrambled interceptor aircraft tobut they found nothing. The incidenu, however, cauaed headlines across the country. The White House wanted to know what wa* happening, and the Air Force qutckly offered the explanation that the radar hi pi might be the result of'temperatureml Aeronautics Administration investigationthat loch radar blip* were Ouitc common and were caused by temperatureU>

Although it had monitored UFO tcporti for st leair three years, the Agency reacted to the new taih of

tighrinp bypecial study group within the Office of Soenrfic Intelligencend the Office of Current Intelligence (OO) to review the situation. '* Edward TauM, acting chief of OSn Weapons andDivision, reported foi the groupmoat UFO lightings could beexplained. Nevertheless he recommended thai CIA continue monitoring the problem, mwKh ihe AT1C. He also urged that OA conceal its interest from the media and ihe public, 'in view of their probabaf alarmist tendencies" SO accept such interest si confirming theUl

Upon receiving the report. Deputy Director for Intelligence (DDI)Amory. [t. aaiigncd responsibility for rhe UFO inveirigations to OSTi Physxs and Electronics Division, with A. Ray Gordon ai the officer inach branch in the division waa to contribute to the investigation, and Gordon wai to coordinate closely with ATIC Amory, who asked the group to focui on the national sccu-tity implication* of UFOs, wai relaying DCI Walter Bedell Smith'smith wanted ro know whether or not the Air Forceof aaucen waa efficiently objective and how much more money and manpower would be necessary to determine the csuac of the smallof unci pinned flying saucers-Smith believed "there was only one chance0 that the phenomc nonhreat to the security of the country, but even that chance could not beccording to Smith, ir wax OAloponsibiliry by nature ro coordinate the intelligence effort required ro solve the problem. Smith also wanted to know what use could be made of the UFOin connection with US psychological warfare efforts, (U)

Amateur photograph* of alleged UFOs.



!.ed by Gordon, the OA Study Group met with Air Force official! at Wright-Pat tenon and reviewed their data andhe Air Force claimed thatercent of the reported lightings were easily accounted lor. The otherercent waa characterized aaumber of incredible reports from crediblehe Air Force rejected the theoriet that the sighting! involved US or Soviet secret weapont development or that they involved "men from Man" because there was no evidence to support these The Air Force briefers sought to explain these UFO reports as the misinterpretation of known objects or little understood natural phenomena. "Air Force and CIA officials agreed that outsideof Agency interest in UFOi would make the problem morehis concealment of CIA interest contributed greatly to later chargesIA conspiracy and coverup. (U)

The CIA Study Group also searched the Soviet press for UFO reports, bur found none, causing the group to conclude that the absence of tepoits had to have been the result ofSoviei Government policy. The group also envisioned the USSR's possible use of UFOisychologi-cal warfare tool. In addition, they worried that, if the US air warning system should be deliberatelyby UFO sightings, the Soviets mighturprise advantage in any nuclearU)

Because of the tense Cold Warand increased Soviet capabilities, the CIA Study Group saw serious national securityin the flying saucer situation. The group believed that the Soviets could use UFO re pons to touch off

Because of the tease Cold War situation and increased Soviet capabilities, the CIA Study Group saw serious national security concerns in the flying saucer situation.


mass hysteria and panic in the United States. The group also believed that the Sovieu might use UFO lighringi to overload the US air warning system so that it could not distinguish teal targets from phantom UFOs. H. Marshall Chad-well, Assisrant Director ofdded thai he considered theof such importance "that it should be brought to the attention of the National Security Council, in orderom muni tywideeffort towards it solution may be initiated.""

Chadwcll briefed DCI Smith on the subject of UFOi ine urged action because he wasrhaioing on rhat must have immediate attention" and thai 'sightings of unexplained objects ai great altitudei andai high speeds in the vicinity of major US defense installations are of such nature that they arc norto natutal phenomena oi known types of aerialeemorandum from the DCI to the National Security Council (NSC)roposed NSC Direcrivethe investigation of UFOtriority project throughout the intelligence and the defense research and developmenthadwcll also urged Smith toan external research project of top-level scientists to study theoffter this briefing.

Smith directed DDI Amory roa NSC Intelligence Directive (NSC1D) for submission to ihe NSC on the need to continue theof UFOs and to coordinate such investigations with the AirU)

The Robertson

heAdvisoryC) took up the issue of UFOs.'* Acting chairman Robert Amory. Jr.DCI Smith's request to the committee that itc.uiChaoWlihen briefly reviewed the situation and the active program ofIC relating to UFOs. The lonunnire agreed that the DCI ahould "enlist theof selected scientist! to renew and appraise the available evidence in the light of pertinent scientificand drafti II) on the subject." Msj Gen John A. Sam-ford. Director of Air Force Intelligence, offered till fullu)

At the same lime. Chadwcll I

HTttTiK altoin studying the UFOTheii British scientist. R. V. Jones,tanding commit-tee created in1 on Hying saucers. Jones and his committee's conclusioni on UFOi were umilarose of Agency officials: thcught-ings were not enemy aire raft butomena- The

observed, however, thaieat air show RAF pilori and senior militaryk .ili had observed aflyingiven the press response, according to the officer,

Jones wu hivingmoti difficult iimr trying to correct public opinionL'KX The public wu convinced they went)

Invadwril and H. P.otedrom lhe California Imtiiute of Technology, putiiUftguisHrd panel ofnon-milirary acientiiii to tf udy the UFO issue. It included Roberuon atSamuel A.uclear physicist from the Broohhaven National laboratories: li.iiigh-energy phytic lit: Thornton Page, the deputy director of the Johns(Iterations Research Office and an expert on radar and ctcctrorua: and Lloyd Barirector of the Brtvkhavcn National Labor normpecialist inU)

The charge to the panel was to review the available evidence on UFOi and to consider thr possible dangcrt of the phenomena to US national security. The panel met from IA tot reviewed Air Force data on UFO case histories and.ours teutlying the phenomens. declared that reasonable explanation! co-j'c he luggrstrd for most, if not all. lightings Aftermotion-pinurr film takenFO near Tiemonton. Utah,2 and one near Great Falls, Montana, onhe panel concluded, forthat the image* on the Trcmonton film were caused byreflecting off seagulls and that the images at Great Falls were iuii-lighr reflecting off (he surface of rwo Air ForceU)

The panel concluded unanimously that there was no evidenceirect threat to nationalhe UFO sightings. Nor could the panel find any evidence that the objecti sighted

might be eitraterrrtiriali. It did find that continued emphasis on UFO reporting might threaten "the orderly functioning" of the government by 'dogging the channel ofby irrelevantnd inducing "hysterica) mass behavior* harmful to commuted authority. The panel also worried that potential enemies contemplating an attack on the United States might exploit the UFO phenomena and uae it roUS airU)

To meet these problems, the panelthat the National Security Council debunk UFO reports andolicy of public education to reassure ihe public of the lack of evidence behind UFOs It loggcseed using the man media, advertising, business dubs, schools, and even the Disney corporation tn get the message across. Reporting al the height of McCarrhyiim, the panel alsothat such private UFO groups as the Civilian Flying Saucer Investigator! in Los Angeles and the Aeriil Phenomena Rceinhin Wisconsin be monitored for subversiveU)

The Robertson panel'i conduaions were strikingly similar to those of the earlier Air Force prefect reports on SIGN and GRUDGE and to those of the CIA's own OSI Study Group. All investigativr groups found that UFO reports presented no direct threat to the national security and no evidence of visits by eat raterrest rials. (L'l

Following the Robertson panelthebandoned efforts to draftCI Don UFOs.heAdvisory Pand on UFOi (the Robertson panel) lubmiftcd in report TO the (AC. the Secretary of Defense, the Director of the Federal Civil Defense Administration, and the

Chairman of the National Security Resources Board. Agency officials laid no further consideration of the subject appeared warranted, althougs they continued to monitor lightings in the intereM of national security. Philip Strong and Fred Duranr from OSI also briefed the Office of National Estimate* on theIA officials wanted knowledge of any Agency interest in the subject of flying saucers carefully restricted,nor only that (he Roberuon panel report was classified but alio that any mention of CIA sponiorih ip of lhe paad was forbidden Thia attitude would latet cauie the Agency major roblcrm relating lo its credibility. *


i CIA's Fading Inures! in UFOt

After the report of the Robertson panel. Agency officials put the enure issue of UFOs on the back burner. IniadweD mnasrnrd chief reapontibility for keeping abreast of UFOs to OSI's Physicserironic Division, while the Applied Science Division continued to providedarenko, chief of ihe Physics and Elecironics Division, did not want the problem, contending that it would require too much erf hiss analytic andlime Given the findings of the Robertson panel, he proposedon-sidei the project 'inactive" and to devote only one analyst part-timee clerk toeference file of lhe. net of the Air Force and other agencies on UFOi- Neither the Navy nor rhe Army showed much ir.terew in UFOs. according toonbeliever in UFOt, Odarenko continued his attempti io hare hit division relieved of the rctpon-ubillty for monitoring UFO reports.

. for example, he reeoov mended thai the entire project be terminated became no new informs-tioo concerning UFOs had lurfacede argued, hia division waa fee-erious budget reduction and could not ipa re theiad-wefl and other Agencyalt. however, conrinued to worry about UFO* Of special concern wentreporta of UFO ugh tings and claimt that German engineers held by the Sovieti wereDying saucer*uture weapon of


To moil US political and military leaden, the Soviet Union by theadangerouaSoviet progreu in nuclear weapons and guided misiiles wasalarming. In the summerhe USSR had detonated an atomic bomb. Innly nine mom hi after the United Sutesydrogen bomb, ihe Sovieu detonated one. In the iprngop atcret RAND Corpora tion study alio pointed out the vulnerability of SAC basesui-piise arrack by Soviet long-range bombers. Concern over the dangeroviet attack on the United States conrinued to giow, and UFO sightings added to the uneasiness of USU)

Mounting reports of UFOi overturope and Afghan it un also prompted concern that the Soviets were making raprd prog rem in tha area. CIA offWiali knew thai the British and Canadiani wcte already experimenting with "fy.nganadian-Brit iih-US developmental operationroducenone onvent ion al flying-uueer-fype aircraft, and Agency official* (eared the Soviet* were letting iimilardding to ihe concern


BLUE BOOK inreatigators were able to attribute many UFO sightingslights.


lying saucer lighting by US Senator Rithird Ruiaell and his party while travelingrain in the USSR infter eaten-save interviews of Ruiaell and hit group, however. CIA officialsthatighting did not support the theory that the Sovieu had developedke oraircraft, lerbtn Scoville,he Asaisunt Director of OSI. wrote that the obuxti observedwere normal ,tt aircraftteepilton E. Lexow, head of the ClA'i Applied Sciences Division, wai alio skeptical. He questioned why the Sovieu werero develop conventional-type aircraft if theyyingcoville aiked Lexow to assume nrspons.bdity for fullyjj the capabilities and limitation* of nODCOnventronal aircraft and to maintain the OSI central file on rhe >ub|tct of UFOa. (u)


InIA had entered into the world of high technology withverhead reconnaissance project Working with Lockheed's Advanced Development facility tn Burba nit, California, known si the Skunk Works, and Kelly Johnson, the famous aeronautical engineer, the Agency by5 waaa high-altitude experimental aircraft. It could fly0 fret, in the. mow commercial airliners flew between

eet0 feet.oncetarted test flights, commercial pilots and aircontrollers beganarge increase in UFOu)

Thea were lilver (they were later painted black) and reflected rhe rays from the sun. especially atand runict. They often appeared as faery obtects to observersir Force BLUE BOOK it tort aware of thersed to explain away such by linking them to natural era such as ice crystals and tempera hi reycKecking with theroject Staff in Washington. BLUE BOOKwete able to attribute many UTO sightinglights. Theycareful, however, not to reveal the rroe caase of the lighting to th* public. According to latct estimates from CIA official! who worked onroject and the OXCARTr Blackbird) project, over half of all UFO reports from thehroughere accounted for by mannedflight* (namely) over the Unitedhis led the Air Force to make misleading andstatements to the public in order to allay public lean and ro protect an ntraordnanly seniuve national security project. Whileptthis deception added fuel to the later conspiracy theories and the coverup controversy of. The percentage of what the Air Force considered unexplained UFO sighting! fellercent5 aridercent* (U)

Ai the same time, pressure wastot rhe release of the Robertson pane! report on UFOs.dward Ruppelt, fonnei head of the Air Force BLUE BOOK project,

publicly revealed the existence of theest-selling book by UFOlo-gist Donald Keyetired Marine Corps major, advocated release of all government information relating to UFOt Civilian UFO groups such at rhe National Investigation*on Aerial Phenomena (NICAP) and rhe Aerial Phenomena Research Organisation (APRO) immediately pushedrelease of the Robertson panelnder pressure, ihc Ait Force approached CIA totto dedanity ind release the report. Despite such pressure. Philip Strong. Deputy Atsitunt Director of OSI, refuted to declassify the report and declined toof the panel. Ai an alternative, the Agencyanlmedof the report which deleted any reference to the Agency and avoided mention of any psychological warfare potential in the UFOU>

The demands, however, for moreinformation about UFOt did not let up.ey-hoe, in an interview with Mike Wallace of CBS. claimed deep CIA involvement with UFOs and Agency sponsorship of tbe Robertson panel-Thiscries of letters to the Agency from Keyhoc and Dr. Leonhemical engineer and UFOtogist. They demanded the ideate of the full Robertson panel report and confirmation of CIA involvement in the UFO issue. Davidson had convinced himself that the Agency, not the Air Force, carried most of the responsibility for UFO analysis and that "the activities of the US Government ate responsible for the flying saucer sightings of the lastndeed, because of thend OXCART flights, Davidson was closer to the truth than he suspected The Agency,

nevertheless, held firm to itt policy of not revealing iu role in UFOand refused to declassify the full Robertson panel report '*

eeting with Air Force representa. tives to discuss how to handle future inquires such as Keyhoc't and David son'i. Agency officials confirmed their opposition to the declassification of the full report and worried that Key-hoe had the ear of former DCI VAdm. Roscor Hillenkoetier, who tcrved on the board of governors of NICAP. They debated whether to have CIA General Counsel Lawrence FL Houi-ton show Hillenkoetier ihe reportossible way ro defuse the situation. CIA officer Frank Chapin also hinted that Davidson might have ulterior motives, "some oft hem perhaps not io the beat inteiett of thiind suggested bringing in the FBI tolthough ihr record is unclear whether the FBI everan investigation of Davidson or Keyhoc. ot whether Houston ever b> Hillenkoetier about the Robertson report. Hillenkoetter did resign from the NICAP" (u)

The Agency was also involved with Davidson and Key hoe tn two rather famous UFO cases in, which helped contributerowing tense of public distrust of CIA with regard to UFOs. One focused on what tvat reported to haveape recordingadio signal from asaucer and (he other on reported photographslying saucer, The "radio code" incident beganenoughhen two elderly sisters in Chicago, Mildred and Marie Maier, reported In theoflight their experiences with UFOt. including the recordingadio program io which an uni-denrified code waseard, The sisters taped the program and

other ham radio operators alto claimed to have heard the "spaceOSI became interested and asked the Scientific Contact Branch toopy of theU)


field otneert from the Con-ionne of whom waa Dewelt Walker, made contact with the Maicr listers, who were "thrilled (hat the government wasnd setime to meet withn trying to secure the tape recording, the Agency officers reported that they had stumbledcene from Arttnkand Old late. "The only thing lacking wasalker cabled Headquarters. After reviewing thescrapbook of clippings from rheir days on the stage, the officersopy of theSIthe tape and found it was nothing more than Morse codeS radio sution. The matter rested there until UFOIoglst Leon Davidson talked with the Maicr sistershe sitters remembered they had ulkedr, Walker who said he was from the US Air Force.then wroter. Walker, believing him toS Air Force Intdligence Officer ftom Wright-Patterton, to ask if the tape had been anarywd at ATIC Dewelt Walkei replied to Davidson (hat the tape had been forwarded to proper authorities for evaluation, and no information was available concerning rhe results. Not satisfied, and suspecting that Walker wasIA officer, Davidson next wrote DO Allen Dulles demanding to learn what the coded message revealed and who Mr. Walkerhe Agency, wanting to keep Walker's identityIA employee secret, replied thit another agency of the government had ana-lyred the tape in question and that

82 Seeasjf*'

Davidson would tie hearing from the Airugust, rhe Ait Force wrote Davidson saying that Walker "wu and is an Air Force Officer" and that the tape "was ana-!yted by another governmenthe Air Force letter confirmed that the recordingonly identifiable Morse code which camenown US-licensed radio Station.'* (U)


again. This time, ne wanted to know the identity of the Morse operator and of rhe agency tha; had conducted the analysts. The Agency and oSe Air Force were nowruandary. TVe Agency had pirviouly denied (hat it had actually analyzed the tape. The Air Force hid also denied analysing the tape and claimed that Walker wu an Ait Force officer. OA officers, under etner, conracted Davidson in Oil ago and promised to get theamlatron and theof the transmitter, ifn another artempt ro pacifya OA officer, again under cover and wearing his Air Force uniform, contacted Davidson in New Vork City The CIA officer ta plained that rhe ft was no super agency involved and that Air Force policy wu not to disc low who was doing what. While seeming to accept tha argument, Davidson nevertheless pressed forof the recording message andsource. The officer agreed to ice what he couldfter checking whh Headquarters, the OA officer phoned Davidson to reporthorough check had been made and. because the signalof known US origin, the tape and the notes made ai the rime hadst re red to conserve fileh what he perceivedunaround, DsvidiQu told the OA officer thn

Afzency official' fell the need to keep informed on UFOs if only to alert die

DCI to the more sensational UFO reports and flaps.


"he and hu agency, whichever it was, were acting likeJimmy Hofra and the Teatnaicr Union in destroying records wtuch might indictelieving that any more contact with Davidson would only encourage more speculation, the Contactwaahrd iti hands of the issue by repotting to the DO andTIC thai it would not respond to or try to contact Davidsoninor, rather birarre modem,poorly by both the OA and the Ail Forte, lumedajor flap that added had ro the growingsurrounding UFOt and CIA's role in their investigation. (U)

Another minorew montha later added to the growing crueauou surrounding (he Agency's (rue role with regard to flying sauccis. The Agency's .oncern over secrecy again made matters worse.ft. Major Keyhor charged that the Agency was ddibcraidy asking eyewitnesses of UFOs nor to make their sightings rauWac'MU)

The incident stemmed7 requesr from OSI to the CD io obtain fromayhotographer for KYW-TV in Cleveland. Ohio, certainhe took2 of an unidentified iryipgobject HarryD eJficet. contacted May-het and obtained copies of ihe photographs for analysis. Onohn Haren,

pnoiDgripna of the alleged UFO to Mayher without comment. Mayher asked Hatcn for the Agencyof ihe photos, captaining that be witoV program io brief ihe public on UFOs. He wanted io mention on ihe showS intelligence organisation had viewed the photographs and thought therarresr Although ht advised Mayher not to take this approach. Hazrn stated thai MayherS omen and would have ro make his owno what toey hoe later contactedwho told him his itory of CIA and theey hoe then asked the Agency to confirm Hairn's employment in writing, in an effort to expose OA's role in UFO investi-gationt The Agency refused, deipite the fact lhai CD field representatives were normally overt and carriedidentifying their Agency assooation. DOaide, John S. Eaiman, merely semoncommittal letter noting that, because UFOs were of primaryto the Department of ihe Air Force, the Agency had iesttred hit letter to ihe Air Force for anresponie. Like the response to Davidson, the Agency reply to Key-hoc only fueled the speculation that :he Agency wu deeply involved in UFOsighrinp. Pressure for release of OA mini matron on UFOitou)

Alrhough CIAeclining ir.itr-esr in UFO cases, ii continued to monitor UFO lightings. Agency{fit the need ro keep informed on UFOs if only to alert the DO to the more acnaarional UFO reports andI; i

, Declining CIAini and Moneting Coolroveity

In ihe. Keyhoc.and other UFOlopm maintained iheir assault on the Agency fot release of UK)Davidson now claimed rhai CIA "was solely responsible forthe Flying Saucer furorool lor cold war psychological warfare* Despite talli for Con-grcssional hearings and ihe release of all maieiiali relating ro UFOt, litileU)

owever, following high-level White House discumom on what to do if an al.en intelligence was diKOvered in spaceewof UFO reports and sightings, DCI |ohn McCone aslted for an updated CIA evaluation of UFOs. Responding io McCone't reajueit. OSI ashed che CD to obtain various recent samples and reports of UFO lighting, fromh Key-hoe, one of the rounders, no longer active in the organisation, CIAmet with Richard H. Hall, the acting director. Hall gave the ofneers samples from the NICAP database on the moti recent sightingsfter OSIhad reviewed theDonald F. Chamberlain. OSI Assistant Director, assured McCone that little had changed since ihe There was stiU no evidence that UFOihreat to theof the United Sutes or that tbey wereof "foreign origin "told McCone that OSI mil monitored UFO reports, including the official Air Force investigation, Project BLUE SOOK "i"

Ai the larne time that CIA wasihi latest internal review of UFOs. public pressure forced the Ait Force iopecial ad hoc

committee to review BLUE BOOK. Chaired by Dr. Brianember of the Air Force Scientific Advisory Board, tbe panel included Carl Sagan. the famous an ro no user from Cornell University. Iu report offered nothing new. It declared that UFOi did noi threaten the national security and that it could find *no UFO case which representedor scientific advances outsidee-retinal rransewoek* Thedid recommend that UFOi be studied intensively,eadingactingoordinator for the projeci, to untie the iuue conclusively. **

The House Armed Servicesaho held brief hearings on UFOi6 that produced similar results. Secirtiry of live Air Force Harold Brown assured the committer thai moat sightings were easdy explained and that there was oo evidence thatangeii from outer space* had seenanh. He told the committee mem Sen, however, that the Air Force would keep an open mind andto investigate all UFO re pons (U)

Following the report ofrirn Committee, the House hearings on UFOt, ind Dr. RobertsondisclosureBS Repent program that CIA indeed had been involved in UFO analysis, the Air Force in6 again approached rhe Agency tor declassification of the entire Robert -ton panel report3 and the lull Durant report on the Robertson panel deliberation! and findings. The Agency again refused to budge. Karl H. Webei. Deputy Ditcctor of OSI. wrote ihe Air Force that *We are rnenr aniious that further publicity not be given to the information that the panel wai sponsored by theeber noted that there was already a

saniitted version available to the public" Weber't response was rather shortsighted and ill considered Ii only drew more attention toyear-old Robertson panel report andole in the investigation of UFOs. The science editor of TheReview dtew nationwide attention to the CIA'i rolehen he published an article cmoxir^ the 'sanitisedof3 Robertson panel report and called tor release of tbe entireUl

Unknown to CIA officials. Di. James E.oted atmoiphcrir physicist from the University of Ari-tons, had already seen the Durant report on rhe Robertson panelat Wright-Pattersonhen McDonald returned to Wright-Patterson onune to copy the report, however, the Air Force lefuted to lo him see it again. Mating that itIAdocument. EmergingFO authority. McDonald publicly diimed thai the CIA was behind tbe An Force secrecy policies and coverup. He demanded the release of the full Robertson panel report and the DurantU)

Bowing to public pressure and theof iu own O'Brien Committee, the Air Force announced ia6 that if wasontracteading university torogram of intensive investigation! of UFO tightingi The new program was designed to blunt continuing charge! that the UShad concealed what it knew aboutctober, theof Colorado accept0 contract with rhe Air Force foronth study of tryingDr. Edwaed U.hysicist at Coloradoormer

84 ScjpM


Director of (ha Nil ion al Hurfjn of Standards, agreed in head thePronouncing himself an "agnniiie" on ihe subject of UFOs. Condon observed that he hid in open mind on ihe question and thought that pom. hie extraterritorial origins were "improbable bul notrig, On. Edwatd GiUet. USAF. and Dr. Thoma* Ratchford from the Air Forte Research and Dcvesopenent Offke became the Air Force coordinator! for the protect. Iniller contactedundahl. Director of CIA's NationalInterpretation Centernd proposed an informal liaison through which NPIC could provide the Condon Committee with technical advice and services in examining photographs of allegedfldahl. jack Smith approved the arrangemeniay ofindow" on (he new effort. They wanted lhe CIA and NPIC toow profile, however, and tn take no pan inany conclusions for the com miner. No work done for the commirtee by NPIC waa to beacknowledged.M

Ratchford nrai requested thatand his com miner be allowedH to ir hxhnacaJ aspects of lhe problem and to viewtasccsal equipment NPIC had foeOnondon and four members of his committee visited NPIC Lun-dahl rmphasraed to the gioup that any NPIC work to isaisi ihemust not be identified a* CIA work Moreover, work performed by NPIC would berchni-cal nature After receiving thesehe grouptria* of briefings on the service! indnet available elsewhere that

Additional sightings in thebo fueled beliefs that the CIA waa

somehow involvedast conspiracy.


OA had used in its analysis of some UFO photography furnished by Ratchford. Condon and hiswereU)

Condon and ihe tame group met again in7 ai NPIC to hear an analysis of UFO photographs taken at Zanesville. Ohio. Thedebunked thai sighting. The committee wat again impressed with the technical work performed, and Condon remarked thai for the firstcientific analysisFO would stand up iohe group alto discussed theplans to call on US citizens for additional photographs and to issue guidelines for raking useful UFOn addition, CIA officials agreed (hat the Condon Committee could release the foil Durant report with only minor(U)

Inondon and hi*released their report onhe report concluded that little, if anything, had come from the study of UFOs in the pastean and that further extensive ttudy of UFO sightings was unwarranted. It also recommended that the Air Force special unit, Project BLUE BOOK, be discontinued. It did not mention CIA participation in (he Condonnvestigation.'* Apanel established by the National Academy of Science* reviewed the Condon report and concurred with its conclusion that "no high priority in UFO investigarions i* warranted

by data of the past twot concluded its review by declaring, "On the basis of present knowledge, the least likely explanation of UFOs is the hypothesis of extraterrestrial visitations by intelligentollowing the recommendations of the Condon Committee and the National Academy of Sciences, the Secretary of the Air Force, Robert C. Seamans,nnounced on9 the terminaiion of BLUEu)

: lhe UFO Issue Refuses To Die

The Condon report did not satisfy msny UFOIogitU, who consideredoverup for CIA activities in UFO research. Additional sightings in thelso fueled beliefs thatai somehow involvedast conspiracy.Spaulding. headmall UFO group. Ground Saucer Watchrote io CIAopy of the Roberuon panel report and all records relating topaulding was convinced that the Agency was withholding major files on UFOi. Agency official) provided Spauldingopy of thepanel repon and of the Durantnagain wrote the Agency questioning the authenticity of the reports he had received andIA coverup of its UFO activities. Gene Wilton, CIA's Information and Privacy Coordinator, replied in an attempt to satisfy Spaulding, "At no time prior to the formation of the Robertson Panel and subsequent to the issuance of the panel's report has CIA engaged in the study of the UFOhe Robertson panel repon, according ro Wilson, wax "rhe summation of Agency interest and

involvement inilson also inferied ihit there were no addit.or-a! document! in CIApoiaemion thaton was ill .nfomrdl,(U)

Inpau'd'ftg ind GSW. unconvinced by Wilson's response, lUcdFreedom]he Agencyec ifn ally requeued ail UFO document* in ClA'i possession. Deluged by similar FOIA requesu for Agency information on UFOi, CIA officiali agreed, after much legal maneuvering, to conduct asearch" of CIA file* for UFOespite an Agency-wide unsympathetic attitude toward the suit, Agency otncals. led bybell ftom the OfTiee of General Counsel,ore ugh search tot records pertaining to UFOs Persistent, demandina, and even threatening at times. ZicbcH and his group scoured the Agency. They even turned up an old UFO fileecretary's desk The search finallyages. Onhe Agency released all butocument! ofagei to GSVP. It withheldocument) on national security grounds and to piotrct sourcci andUI

Although the releaaed documentsno smoking gun and revealedow-level Agency imerest in the UFO phenomena after the Robertaor) panel reporthe ptesa nested the releaseensational manner The Ntw Ytrt Timer, for example, claimed that the dcclaiiificdconfirmed intensive government concern over UFOi and that the Agency wai let'eily involved in the lurveillance ofS*

then lued for the release oflaiming that the Agencystill holding out keyt was much like the John F. Kennedy aaaasiinition nine. No matter how much material the Agency released and no matter ho* dull and pioauc the information,continued to believegency eovemp and(U)

DO SsansfWid Turner waa so upset when he read Tht rWtvn article that he asked hu sen or"Are wc in IfrKV" After reviewing the records. Don Wort man. Deputy Director for Adm in iit ration, repotted to Turner that there was "no organned Agency effort to doonnevtton with UFOnor hai there been an otganiied effort to collect Intelligence on UFOtonman assured Turner that the Agency records heldporadic instances of correspondence dealing with thencluding varioui kinds of reports of UFO sightings. There wai no Agency program to collect actively infoimation on UFOi. and thereleased to GSW had fewhus assured. Turner had ihe General Counsel piessummary judgment againsi the newy GSW. Inbe courts dismissed rhe lawsuit, finding thai the Agency had conducted aand adequateoodU)

Daring the, the Agency continued its low-key interest in UFOs and UFO sightings. While most scientiiti now diimisscd flying tauceriuaint part of. some in the Agency and in the Intelligenceihifted their interest to studying parapsychology and psychic

phenomena associated with UFO sightings. CIA official! also looked at the UFO problem to determine what UFO sightings might tell them about Soviet progress in rockets and missiles and reviewed itsaspects. Agency analysts from the life Science Division of OSI and OSWR officiallymall amount of their rime to issuesto UFOs. These included counterintelligence concerns that the Soviets and the KGB were uting US citiiens and UFO groupi to obtain information on sensitive US weapons development programs (such as the Stealthhe vulnerability ol* the US air-defense network toby foreign missiles mimicking UFOt, and evidence of Soviet advanced technology associated with UFO sightings. (U)

The Agency also continued its con-in this

Community coordination with other agencies regarding their work inpsychic phenomena, and "remote viewing" experiments. In general, the Agency tookscientific view of these unconventional scientific issues, There was no formal or official UFO project within the Agency in, and Agency officials purposely kept filet on UFOiinimum to avoid creating records that might mil-lead the public If released.'0 (S)

lso produced renewed charges that the Agency was stilldocuments relating to the7 Rotwdl incident, inlying saucer supposedly crashed in New Mexico, and the surfacing of documents whichrevealed the existenceop sectet US research and

development intelligence operation responsible only io tbe President on UFOs in had long argued thatlying saucerew Mciico'. thenot only recovered debris from the crashed saucer but alio lout ot Ave alien bodies Accoiding to some UFOIogisu. the goaf tiirticni clamped tight secuilly around the pfOjcCt stid has refused to divulge iu investigation results and teseatch evernhe US Air Fori*ew report on the Rotwell incident that concluded that the debris found in New Mciico7 probably camence top secret balloonProject MOGUL, designed to monitor the atmosphere forof Soviet nuclearu)

eries of documents surfaced which some UFOlogiats said proved thai President Trumanop secret committeeo secure the recovery of UFO wreckage from Roswell and any other UFO crash tight for scientific study and io exam-ire any alieneesmted from such sites. Most, if not all. these doc-Dmenrs. have proved to be tVtsricationi Yet. the enntrovertyu)

Like the JFK astasttnation conspiracy theories, the UFO issue probably will not go away soon, no matter what the Agency does or uyx. The belief tbat we are not alone in the uorverse is too emotionally appealing and the distrust of our government it too pervasive to make ihe issueto traditional scientific studies of rational explanation and evidence.


Uke tbe JFK usassinalion conspiracy theories, the UFO issue probably will

not go away soon, no matter what the Agency docsv v



) GaBup Pol iruti printed inrw Kant9ndrfci5pJ. Klasi, UFOi|New York Piomcilww,. p. 5.

ee Klisi, UFOi, p.The UFO;

varl Jacobs. Tht UFO Ctm-

i* Amrtta i

Indiana Uawertity Prtsss.un. Oa*htCt-rmmm'i in-rr (Awa* fm EMmmmmmdtm (Ne- York- Sutton and; TimothySrrwr. Tht Wk&iANewYoik: Williami and Whirity Strirbei. ^IMlaaanahaT Tht fhw Swy (New York:.

ft3 John Peienon. innance of Voahtr'u firstike DOackage oluna aed CIA BMscnal oa JlOi lelcaacd to LTOlospw Sustcomio Prifioo and iufdmaji wantnl to know the reasons for mewoolsey agirrd to look inro tbe matter. See Richard J. War-shaw, Riecuthe Assistant, note toanbsw. note SB John ri Wnght. Information andnd Wrigtv. memorandum to Eiecu'iveEnrpt where acwd, all ciuraoet to CIAha an xk are to the record- a> etird h*nti iKtr are held by theo the

Hector Qulnunilla, Jr.,offill1nd CIA. untie wd"Hying Saucers. See aha Good.Ttf

j Worldu.

US paces leoorwd "fao " (bnghi hchti tiaahaf USarms; they migni bei German miei waapoai. OSSbui could find no concrete evidence of enemy weaponi and often fued such reports in ihe "crackpot" category The OSS also investigated possible ughonp ufockets brfore iheir operational use during the aai. See Jacobs, UFO Cui.Tawryy. p.he Centre!rnee Croup, the pitdncnoe of dw CIA. abo mc-utoird reports ofC See OG. IrarlTujrnot

Tht UFOintanilla, "The Investigation


6 See US Air Force, Air Mairrial"Unidentified Aerial Objras: Praicct SIGN,A.ate-d. cd the US Air Fowe Con-naada, Acnvioei aad

Record, Naticnal An-fint*.DC


ash-inglon. LXli NaiMinal tnvesiigaiiont Committee on Aendnd Jacobs, Tht UFOry..

See ObHI. merrvHuaaueii toGeoerals MasorAir Com-aidK "Raporuaw0 and Jatota. Th. UFOr

Seene. Pt/nti GRVDCtoxd BLUE BOOKTht UFO


$op/d( 87

SeeTauu.Dfptsy AnnumL'calrd y tne

"Hying Smii' Working Parry, "Urn-

der.rJard. it* no dur (appro*O)

See Di Stone. OSI. mrmorandum to Or Wilted Macrae. OSI,uch IW udlark. Acting Anifrani Director. OSI, tncrnori'v dura for DDI. "Recent Sighting) of Iraplained UwluV See aim Clark, memorandum fur DDI.

li. See

UFO..S- IV For aughringiSrxm,.

ee Ralph I- Clark. Aeiiru; AasUtant Director. OSI. -iien-rnrandum to DDI Roberi Amory. Jr.SI and OO "ere vn theSI tened a* the ClA'i fatal point tcr the analyiu il foreign itaradRc anddoelof-nrau. la IW OSI -i, merged mtc. rhe Office of Scienceaponi Kevarch. The Office of Current Intelligenceaublished on1 waa ro provide all-source current intelligence to ihe President and the National Sri utity Council.

for US

auu. memorandum foe DepwylaSrreaor. SI (PM*uguai lVSa-lo.'fi! DO Walter Bedell Smithor Inreltigrner (DDI! ennpeped of in oven CIAfficenf Ctearcitar and Diuctnt-nacion i< National Fatimates, Office nf Retraxit anil Krpora. and the Office of Initllajtnr* Coordina.produce imellipnr analyiu

n produce inti pokcymaken

re Minute* of Branch ChkfiII


meeting in ihf DO Conference Room attended hy hii top officers See Deputy Chief. IvrqukNmcnts Staff. Fl, memorandum fix Deputy Direttrii. liana. 'Flying0irectorate of Ope*-taunil. Information Manatjrmcm Stall.R. Bc-I

See OA aarraaaraastW -Mgoed.I

See CIA memorandum, -iniigned.4

2t. Sec CIA. memoeaiMium, jnugntd, "Flying

Set Chadwrll, mrmorandum for Smith,2 andHying Saucen" See abomrmniindum for DCJ2 and Kbss. UFOk

QaaWri. aataraaeatidaasi far DO withre aho Klaas. UfOi.nd Chadwil.

Srv Chadwrll, mrmorandum.2 and Chadwrll."Approval In Piindple -fjrcrnal Research Project Conrcrnrd with Unidrmified Flyingo date. See alao Pmiap G.SI. memorandum for rhe rnurd.with Dr.i ration, Eatecunw Vn Prrudent and Ptorast. Mil and Dr Maa MJfckan. IWcrorrrocf briwred ihal ao order ro undrnak* ma reviewld nnd1 backing and sop-pen ef DCI Smith

Chadwrll. memorandum"Unidentifiedeememorandum for Amory,in Pfuiciplr -Project Concerned withF)>in|n dare.

The IAC wascaveaed7 triaerverxddinaeang body inei'ierncr rfcjmarmrnei. (Ihairec by the DCI. the IAC arathatW ryprexna (on fnun ihe Deparrmrw of Starr, the Army, the Aar Force, the foiraicaff. ih. FN.aawrheAEC

See Klasa. UFtX

See Rxhatd D. Drain. Acting Seere-tary. IAC, "Minurei of hireling held in Director! Conference Room.

Ad mm in ra linn Budding,

See Chadwrll. memorandumrecord. "British Activity inH2

Chad well nrmtaridum for

DO. "CeeastaVaasta (re Arhire>ry Pane! onlyu.urtiiearA

SMAafa*eWWiahrngson. DC

Smiihtonian Inmiute. pp.nd )aeoba..

il SceFredCnurani III,Robert ton Pand Mrriing.uiant, on cootiKt wiih OSIan preiidtnt ol the Amencan Riu In Sotwty. aitrnded rhe Hubcn-von panel ratriingi andummary of thr proceeding*

ee Repurt of the Scientific Paneliritif r;73 and aW DoraiM tcpon on rhe panel dananiauuv

re fcDeemoa Report and Durani Repon Sre tko Ciood. /taW* Tf Sn-mraeoU.UFOnd Klara. UFOi..

34 See Rrbar. rnernoraiidurn ra IAC. IH

re Chadwrll, ineiimnnJum for DDI.-tlrudentified FlyingOUjeto."

B3 Sa<*4


hadwoll. letter to Robertson,nd Rrhci, memorandum tor 1AC,Hying8n briefing ihc ONE. ice Duraot. memorandum foi the record. "Briefing of ONE Bond oo Unidentified Flying03 and CIA Summary dis-sermrated to the field. "Unlclen tilled Flying

Seeetier to Julius A. Stiat-ton, Provost MM',

See Chadwcil. memoiandum for Chief. Physics and Electronics(Todoi M.Unidentified Flying7

ee Odarenko, memorandum io Chadwell. "Unidentified Flyingee also Odarenko. memoiandum to Chad well, "Current Stum of Unislcniifird Hying Objects (UFOB)7

See Odarenko, memorandum, "Uni-denitfied Frying

Seeeport, "Military Uoconven-tionjl Alters83 indno us reports.

Developed by the Canadian affiliate of Britain'i A. V. Roe,idtrull -scale model thiiew teet off the ground. See Odarenko. memorandum lo Chad-well. "Flying Siucrr Type of Planes"rederic C- E. Oder, memorandum to Odarenko. "US Ah1nd Odarenko, T. M. Nordbeek. Ops/SI. and Sidney Graybeal ASDfSI.for tbe record, "Intelligence Responsibilities for Non-Con ven-tioiul Types of Air4

See Reuben Elton, memorandum. "Observation of Hylog Object Near

3coville, memorandum fot the record.oith Senator Richard B.7nd Wiltonrow, memormdum for intormaoon. "RrpoitrdSi^tingc^Unconvcntiond

See leiow. memorandumorma -tion. "Reported Sighting of Untonventiond9rc alsoouei.foi Ceoige C. Millet, Deputy Chief, SAD/SI. "Possible Soviet Hying Saucers, Checkan. memorandum. "Possible Soviet Flying Saucers. Follow Up7eaow, mrmotandum, "Possible Soviet Flyingnd A. H. Sullivan,emorandum.Soviet Flying4

SeeCregory W. Pcdluw ind Dutisld E. Welrenbach, The Cnurd IntrUt-rtmr Agrmy and Ortrhnd RttO'tnoiamrFndWashington. DC; CIA.. (SI

See Pedlow andback, Orer-brad Rrrtmtmamt.. This also was confirmedelephone interview between the author and John Parongosky,amngotky oversaw rhe day-to-day affairs of the OXCART program. (S)

See Jacobs. The UFO Cwmuvwy,-

See Peebles, Worth iht ShtK,tttri an Uiudrmil-

fird thing Objrrn (Ne-; Keyhoc. ThtSawrer Cmifl'mty (New York:; and Jacobs. The UFO CtnrrtPtnr.

Strong, letter tonter io Thorton Pagetto Robertson; Strong, letierCoudtmit. Strong, lenerAlvirer,nd

Strong, memorandum for Major Jamet F. Byrne, Assistant Chief of Suff Intcl-

rif ncpannvrjii or ihc Air IV rif.

"DedasufKaiion of the 'Report of tbe Scientific Panel on Unidentified Flying0ee also Berkner, letter to Strang.7 and Page, letter tohe panel members were also reluctant lo have their association with the Agency

ee Wilton F_ Lcxow. mernotandiirn foe the record. 'Comment* on Letters Dealing wiih Unidentified Flying. S. Far man. letter to Major lawicnce J. Tscker. Office of the Secretary of the Air Force. Informationavidson, letter toerkner, letrer to David-ion.etkner. lettei to Strang,avidson,to7avidson, letter to Allen Dulles,uppdt, letrer to Davidtrong, letter roavidson, lel-ter roavidson. Idler to carman,avidson, letter to Coudtmit,avidson, setter to Page, ISnd Tacker,to Davidson,

See Lesiow, memoiandum for Chapb,

eiow. memorandum for the iccotd, "Meeting with the Air Force Personnel Concerning ScientificPanel Report on Unidentified Hyingated6ee also La Rae t. Teel. Deputy Division Chief. ASD, memorandum for the record, "Meeting with Mr. Chipin onto Iron Davidson's UFO Letier and Subsequent Telephone Con vena-lion with Major Tnscker, [Mel"

Seehief.Division (Scientific).

Sec/at 89

memorandum to Chief, Chicago Office, "Radio Code1 and Ashcrafr, memorin-dam ta Chief, Suppon Branch, OSI.



he Contact Division was created to collect foreign intelligencefrom sources wirh>r. the United Siito.1

D-resiiiratr .>

W'amii cal Staff. June

Scricv The Orion and Drtrbpmemutt DtoiUon,

ec George O. Forrest, Chief, Chi' cago (MTier. memorandum io Chief, Contact Division for Science,

See Sjppoit Dr* toalker.7

See J. Arnold Shaw. Aaaiatani ro thetirra-

ee igjpan tCcawegl aajaaaaajatalga-roUCoL V.7 and lam-earnim. memorandum to Support07

tcable to Support1

Sec Support (Conncll) cable ro7 and Shaauch. cable ro

See Skakich. cable to

ee R_ P. B. Lohmann, memorandum for Chief, Contact Division,

See Support, rahlr lo8 and Conncll (Suppcn) cable in

See Edwin M. Aahcrart. Chief. Con-taer Divanon, Office nf Oreraiiora. memorandum for Annan Bricker. Jr. Aavrract ro the Dareeror.ry bv Major Donald E- Keytoe on 'oho HarmI Auocueaon want the29

64 Seeaun, memorandum ro Chef, Cornaciee also Aahcnft. memorandum to Cleveland RciaJenr Agent. 'Ralph T.ccorduia io thia memorandum,iewed atI1 level and returned to ui wuhou* commcnr" The Air Force held ihe original negatives.ecordi were prubably deiiroyrd.

dnae would remeface in the

neh theUs.-.

oey. Jr DDIIm. Umphire, Office ofPlanning andmemorandum lorUnidentified1memorandum fot lastN PIC "Reported PhotographyHyingwtmcr Nouatrev"Reply to HonorableC"aitV

for nam pit. DavveW leeter to

Congreaiman Joaetdi (larch.une

i Vi -in n. (Chairman, He-jar Committee on Armedletterep. Robert A.

Maiwelltinier, naffNanonal Aeronautics and Space

m Oll'nf of thememorandum for Robert F. Paikard, Officeitcr rational SQen-tificepsrtment of*State. "Thoughtshe Space Alien RaceB

Records of the Dcpai linen: of State.

Recordational Archives. Sec

dnrf.CoSktm Drvrtaon

lokenagarinn Comm,iee on Aerial PSmomm.35

hamberlain, mrmorandum for DCI, "Evaluation of6

7ft Seelr UFO Cararnraernvnd US Air Force. SeienrrKeBoard. Ad Ho.Bnen Cejmrr-rtre) ro Review/ Project fllUI.Xoh-.en. DC ee alio IV Afrer Ymt rraaer,. 7ft

See 'Congrrai Rrauurrd ontik

Weber, lencr *ra Col Ccnld E. Jor-rrnsen. Chief, (immunity ReUrioni Diviiion. OfTue of Dstrasst reportimarv


DianuirdC. onniev (Seprernber.he leir articlr waa othrrwiir unsynv pathrtie to UFO lighting* and the

possibility thai invobed. The Air Force had been eager to provideith the lull repon. See Waller I Mjcfcey. Fjeco-

ce OffVrr. memorandum for DO.

*Ac Force Recrwce*ecianeV (TA

Ma-rrial on g


ee Klara. UFOt,acvbi,

UFO Cenmntny,lark, "Phyticill Scores 'SaucerThe New Yen Tonei. 21


eeet E. Ml Donald. "Statement onRyiogiab-iatieJ ro It*

Hruar Commute on SerenerAairuna

oouoted In Wilier Sullivan.adri Selected Lb Saucer InqreM*.*

/Vw Ym* TnmnCkicbr.

ktn "An Omipokro Sari-mi. Edward Uhlrrht Mm Ymtondon,g. gruff, trie mitt Kad earliernbrrjird ineorr-irtrieiry wiih thr Hmuk Lfiimi'i' Ardi'irici Committee dial dilmrd Condon wat "one of lhe *rum link) in our atomiche Pee. hart, Ware* nW Sttm,

dahl. memorandum for

ec I

memorandum for theUlt of Dr. Condon to NPIC,"re alio (be analyirs of rhe phwoeraphi in


i of UFO7



reraata. uKT Fwfor Or. Ldward7 and attached 'C.uidr.'inci ro UFO Photographer! and UFO Pho-iO|raprhic Ifformaino Sheet. St* abc Coodoo Comrruearc, Previ7 and Klaaa. UFOkhe Zancvilie phMoeraphi umtd out rooax.


(New York: Banlamnd Kiaaa.V repon lon-amrd the Duraau report *wk onFy minor ckdniona.

HO. See Office of Aiuuanr Secretary of "Vfriie. Sewi Reieaar. "Air force to Teemarore Propter BLLTBOOfC*rie Ait Force

mind BLUE BOOK record*the UMf Aaebrwni at MoweD Aar For*in AlabamaVrAai Force turned over all BLUEROOK file* io rhe Nitmnaland RetoredAdminiuraOoc. which rude rhcea avaalaaSIrhe public withoutreHiittriini Some name* rune hern withheld from the dm umrnti. See fOare, UFO. p. 6.

81 GSW* mall group of UFO buf& bawd Ji Phoenia, Arraona, and headed by Wlllara Ff. Spaulding.

Sr- Man. UFOt. p. 8.

See WiUon, letrer io Spaulding,6 andIA Ovj Action.

IA Action. 2.

interview with4 and authorOSI anaryat,arTtiivii*orge Owena.and Proacywerr. DO. KarlOSI;f .Security; and RurledgrDSAfT.9 andDrpury Directorhirc. Auiatam1 nforaaation"FOIASaucero dare

ee "CIA Paper* Detail UFOhrNtwYm* Ttmn 13


Fdct tory."

Ytr* 7iml, .tfenuw.clOticr

; and Jerome Clark. "UFOFOttipmf. Aupaat

erome Crerh. "laueat UFO New* Briefa From Around theFO Updmt.9 andA Ovnl Action.

ee Vuntiun. memorandumT Turner. *You> Quenina. "AreFOrT Annotated io Ta> Aea>/rwr. Newt BeleaaeB

eeCS-'.ee altoVTOj.-

X (S) See John Brennan rrwrnoranduan for Fuchard w'anhaw. Fiecutix Aaaiv ranr. DCI, "Rnquened Informaiion on0a>ehor ioarr.iew) wnh OSVB ana Ipt.4 and OSI analyet.hii author found almoti no documeorarion on Agency

ThcreIA Ptychat Cfmier and die NSA irudie*'har branch of ptyciwlogY ihat deah wieh

ibeue> pvrcbac pbe

or an incident Retponie Team to imettigaie UFO landingt, if one ihould occur. Tha team ha* neve met. The lack of wlid CIA docurnen-tat ion on Agency UFO-retired aeiivittt! Ineave* the enriie inue *omcwha( muriy For this period,

M lack of the UFO Lievaearr penentr, focuie* on (omacteei and abductm.ack.wn FtutuntmAltai (New Yorit Oude* Scnbraer'*nd Howard Blum.New Yorir Simon and.

vlri Beiian aadL Moore, Thr AVneetVImtttnu (New Yorlc Bertefry, Moore. Thehe SearchraahedBurbank, Ca: Fair NPuneiiuhl-aiionnd KUea. UFO. pp.4 Ce*grei*rnanchrrTlR-NM) called for an official nun) of ihe Hawdi Incident. The liAO il eorv-Aacepante irrveuemon ca* ike incadenr. The OA ii not involved in

ill* inviaiigarion. Sec Kiwi. UFOi., John H. Wrarht, Infer-rater ion and Pnacy Cot-

leller Hi Derek Salren.ftrW^f

. and OSvffRinterview. See ilbi the made-tor TV film. Hn**B. which appealed on cable TV on4 and Peeblet ItW'i.

Juno Oammiorce Probe.

FO Oanr.Aeetoam tared Pro* paitihip* Of Till Fartfi (andi limn.and USAF Col. Raehardea.ei and ImIi ]iirvn MtAn6r- aratafl AVae-t. /art Vmmtm Mtx*aduagwvv. DC..

GeWat, Abaft Ftp Srerrr.S. T. Friedman. "Philip KlaiaWhat are ihrait-jm.

eblKaJonaaaa. "New Eetdence of MJ-12

hpottl rmfrntr. -ot 14

'; and Moor* and Jaime H.ktmmma.

. Publica taora0 Wake* Rrddl Smith Happoaediy replaced Foamtal0 followirifraih. All member* lined were drcrivd when rhe MJaced4 See

rty FUirxl. eduor ofWat-iAeaY Pepr-r, dnrrrxird ih at ora of .he ao-cafed Mayntir-12

contained the eiaa tame languageetter fromo Preitdenrial candidate Thotnat Dewey regarding the "Magic" uitercxprsbe dace* and name* had been altered and "Magic" changed toore-

over, iihotocopy, not an original No originalave ever lurfaced. Telephone convcrurinn of the author with Bland,

Original document.

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