Created: 12/1/1994

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Research Paper




intelligence report

Office of Resources, Trade, and Technology

eastern zaire's humanitarian crisis: scope and impactl

A Research Paper

Thit Intelligence Report was prepared at the request of the Department of State by the Geographic Resources Division. Office of Resources Tradc^md Technology, with contributions from the j


Office of African and Latin Amenejnfice of Imagery Aiulyiis. and the Defense Intel licence Agency. PGl-IA.

Comments and queries urc welcome and may be directed to| RTT.I



Eastern Zaire'srisis: Scope and Impact i


hijomanian gibIIobU at4 wl* -trd an Aii to port

mid-July in/laxillion Rwandan refugees lo Zaire's eastern border provincesumanitarian crisis that is likely lo persist for at least another six months. The sheer size of ihc refugee populahonenormous relief requirements:

thannternational nongovernmental organizations (NGOs) are involved in the relief efforts; food requirements aloneetric tons per day, according to UN World Food Program estimates. j

Although the emergency has eased as relief has flowed into the region, conditions in the camps remain poor:

Deteriorating security has become Iht most severe constraint to relief efforts, especially in the Coma region. Violence in the camps plagues both refugees and reliefumber or NGOs have threatened io pull oui of camps controlled by Hutu militiagovernment politicians.

Relief efTons have not ended malnutrition, disease, and poor sanitation.

In addition, the camps in the Goma region remain vulnerable to volcanic and other natural hazards.

Meanwhile, relief deliveries face formidable logisticdis-lanccs to the remote and underdeveloped region, inadequate localand the mid-Septembcr-to-May rainy season]

The crisis is exacerbating eastern Zaire '* longstanding demographic,and security problems:

refugees are concentratedone ihat already had one of thepopulation densities in Africa.

The influx is reignicing ethnic tensions in the region, according io press and diplomatic reports, and already has sparked violence.

crisis has liurt local agriculture, commerce. RHlrisrn, COmmunit) life, and the environment and has disrupted already deteriorated trade relations with neighboring Rwanda as well as with Burundi.h


The instability increases the possibilityegional conflict Observers are increasingly concerned thai the Tutsi -dominated Kigali regime will launch retaliatory military strikes into Zaire in response to refugee-directed raids from Zaire into Rwanda or of an insurgency mounted against Kigali by former Rwandan armed forces. Moreover, the Tutsi-control led military in Burundi is concerned about extremist Hutu refugees just across its border with Zaire. I

Central African Republic




Eastern Zaire's Humanitarian Crisis: Scope and Impact |

Scope of the Crisis

The UN estimates that thereerceni of Suh-Sahantn Africa'sUK densely populated and ethnically fractious portions of the eastern ZairianrsJi'.-lion of these are Rwandan Hutui who fled theirin July and August following the victory of the Rwandan Patriotic Front insurgents, AnO0 of these refugees are in Goma and in camps north and west of town;re in Bukavu and inmall campsosl of theercent of whom arclocated along the Rumi River pbins north of Uvira. In addition, the Kivus have tens of thousands of Rwandan* who fled during earlier periods of turmoil, although US Embassy reports indicate Out some arc reluming to Rwanda.

The humanitarian needs of lhe refugee population arc huge. The UN High Commission for Refugeeshich is coordinating relief efforts in east-em Zaire,5 million for the effort between mid-July and mid-October. This did not cover supplies from other UN agencies, such as the UN Children's Fund, the World Health Orgam -ation. and the World Food Program, which are working with the International Committee of the Red Cross. Mcd-icins Sam Frontiersnd more lhantherorganizations (NGOs) to provide food, water, medical services, shelter, and sanitation to refugees in the

Refugee Camp Conditions

Tbe acute initial phase of the emergency has ended.

and death rates in ihe Goma camps have fallen from

1 AdaumnciJlOO.COOto ISO.OftOli-ircfu-gtestheef.ua art ten uclvdcd im lhat aaratu boc*uK thcrct oeed unuwt In Mtui. irjnyCIOO Tutm who [lea Bufcjtu ind-ho fledenu in Af have iciumcil lo Rwanda, according to diplomatic repining- H

Goma and Itukatu: Main Cities

a populationefore ihe receni influx of Rwandanan important center of economic activity in NordKnn. The urnn has tangransportation huh because of iu relatively large airport, links to Rwanda's good roads, command of the Lac Kivu ferry traffic, and proximity toeoffee-smurgling routes through Rwanda and Uganda, accordingS Embassy report, lis importance has growng when Nnrd-Kivueparate region. Goma has fewtea and coffeea ramshackle commercial sec-lion. The town's moderatebyeterits location near Lac Kivu, the Nyiragongo and the Nyanxulagiraand Pare Saiionale de Vtrunga attract some tourtsts. Well-to-doPresidentvillas along the lake.U

Bukavu. the economically depressed capital ofa precrisis population ofdensely settled. Like Goma, itusiness,and minor resort town; is is also an educational center. Over the years, local ntmgosernrnenial(NGOs) and development organizations hate been particularly active in Bukavu. Il ismof Pare Nalionale de KoJtuzi-Biega. The town's limited industry is based on the processing ofproducts

er day in July0 perslightly above the irxernaiiorully accepted norm0 per dayefugee situation. Nonetheless, conditions in the refugee camps remain

Cases of malnutrition are widespread, according to US Embassy reports, especially among youngand in households headed by women. Health ofti-ciali attribute the problem to gaps in the food pipeline, an improper nutritional mix. and security problems






turface *aterare largely afurntm

prevent equitable distribution of food in the camps. In late August, relief workersigh incidence of malnutrition in ihe Goma areautritional survey in Mugungacamp indicated thatercent of children under age five in male-headed households andercent of those in female-headed households were malnourished. In Kibumba camp, more lhan one-fiflh of the children under live wereercent were severelyollowup survey conducted in October concluded that malnutriiion rates had increased since August, according to US Embassy reports. Diplomaiic lepon-tng indicates that food relief shortfalls and violence ire afTecting food distribution in camps in the Uvira area and have creased pockets of malnutntion in camps near Bukavu. j

Although Ihe minimum requirements for clean water are being met in most camps, ihe supply of water is still inadequate in some. Thisoncern because relief workers believeack of potable water and poor sanitation were responsible for ihe rapid spread of cholera and bloody diarrhea thai caused theof0 deaths recorded in camps in ihe Goma area in the month following ihe massive influx. Shortages of water purification equipment and the incidence of waicrbomeare still widespread throughout thereported in early October in some Bukavu aiea camps, according to USAID's Office of Foreign Disaster Assistanceoreover, supplies remain vulnerable iobecause clean water must be .rucked intoof the camps

Efforts to improve camp sanitation are proceeding Slowly. The needs remain particularly great in the Goma area, where ihe hard volcanic rock surface

Figurthildren at water lap in Kaikuiha rtf. usee lempntar Bukinu The naicr it piped from Lac Kin saaj

inhibiis digging; OFDA reports indicate that, as of early October, only one latrine existed for every IQO persons, and many of ihe existing luirlnes needede closed. Conditions are also poor in the Bukavu area, where limited land for camp sites has caused severe overcrowding, according lo US Embassy re pons |

Disease remains pervasive. The cholera epidemic has been contained, but deaths from bloody diarrheaOther problems include nonbloody diarrhea, malaria, and acuic respiratory diseases. Refugeeexpect that incidences of the Utter iwo will increase as ihe rainy season (mid-September through May) progresses. Intestinal diseases are endemic to the region, and periodic outbreaks should alto be expected, according to US military doctors Inrelief worken are concenved about the probably high prevalence of HIV jrtfectioo among refugees |

Finally, the camps in Ihe Goma area remain at risk from volcaniclthough refugees have been moved from the most vulnerable location, continued

1 For more Information on ine leeWn't.physical eeaerarihy andhazards. *re appcKllics * t

relocation and development of evacuation plans for camps near the region's two active volcanoes arc needed. All existing and proposed refugee camp sites in the Goma area are located on relatively young lava flaws, which arc considered uninhabitable by locals

because they eventually will be buried by new lava, accordingS Geological Survey report. Scientists believe that refugees in low-lying camps west of Goma alsohreat from carbon dioxide gas.

Serurliy Concerns

Deteriorating security in ihe camps ha*e constrain! to relief efforts Disorderoccur routinely in the Goma camps, andbecome virtually impossible for NGOs to Sep-


following an incident in the Katale camp (hat forced the evacuation of relief workers and resulted in the effective takeover of the camp by many of lhe same elements that were responsible for the genocide in Rwanda. In early November,t relief groups threatened to pull out of camps around Goma because of security conditions Relief workers in camps nearfrequent killings, looting of relief supplies, andconcerned about the lack of security and the high levels of violence, according to diplomatic reporting. Indeed. MSF/Francc halted its operations in the Bukavu Region in mid-November

Soldiers from the former Rwanda Armed Forces (FAR) and Hutu militias remain organized and armed inside Zaire and have become increasingly aggressive:

securitylittle to bolster security andundermine it. Zairian forces are stretchedrudimentary military discipline, andress

ngage tn violent criminal activity, threaten relief efforts, and clash with Rwandan refugees and soldiers.

the Goma area, as many0 FAR troops arc encamped someilometers (km) northwest of the town. Many havesome heavyaccessumerous vehicles. FAR troops have attacked Tutsi refugee camps, killed moderate Hutus who have advocated lhat refugees return to Rwanda, and robbed relief convoys, according to diplomatic repotting

In addition, the presence of moreand Burundian Hulu refugees in Sud-Kivu near the Burundian border is undermining security in that region. Bujumbura views the Hutu refugees asami-Tutsi insurgents andase of support for extremist Hutu forces inside Burundi, according lo diplomatic reporting. Burundian officials have demanded that Western relief agencies move Usefrom the border and strenuously objected when additional refugees were relocated to the area from camps around Goma in mid-October:

Burundian Army troops have crossed inio Zaiietimes since mid-October in pursuit of Hutu guerrillas, according to diplomatic reporting.

There are well0 Hutu militiamen inZaire; many act as enforcers for Hutu extremists, kill moderate Hutus. and hinder relief operations. The militiamen are particularly well organized in the Goma area where, along with ex-politicians, the) control food distribution in several camps.P

airian troops in theincluding as manyf President Mobutu's

Deliveryaddition to health and security problems inhumanitarian organizations face Iheof iransponingetric tons ofwell as medicine and otherdistances to remote locations Becausebetween the Kivus and the rest of Zaire aretheare concentratedeasternsupplied via the Eastrail and road corridors from ports on themat aremlthough two hard-surfaced.airfields arc near Goma and Bukavu.indicate that they lack the capacity to handWhim:

Goma. which is supplied largely from Mombasa via Uganda and Rwanda, is more accessible than Bukavu. which is supplied primarily from the pon of Dares Salaam via Bujumbura. Moreover, the roads and thethat serve Goma arc in better condition and can sustain greater volumes ol traffic than can those that serve Bukavu. Uvira iv supplied viam of relatively good road from Bujumbura or via barge from the Tana-man pon of Kigoma on Lake Tanganyika: relief officials believe that Kalundum south of Uvini.etric tons of food per day The need tomany of the goods to Bukavu and Uvira increases the probability of logjams and costly delays j

Once ihe aid reaches eastern Zaire, distribution ishy poor primary and secondary roads, which deteriorate under the heavy flow of goods andrains Facilities at the lake ports of Goma and Bukavu are also limited Moreover, refugees in the Bukavu area are dispersedelatively large number of small, poorly accessible camps, accordingS Embassy^

Fuel supply and storage problems compound these transport difficulties:

* Petroleum-based fuels must be trucked overland to the Kivus from Kenya via Ugnnda, Rwanda, or Burundi,

Diplomatic sources report that severe shortages of diesel fuel, gasoline, and aviation fuel are common throughout the region.

With the exceptiontXl-barrcl fuel depot al Uvira. little storage capacity exists in the eastern Kivu Region.l

Problems Beyond the Immediate Crisis

Demographic and Ethnic Pressures The expected prolonged refugee presence in the Kivus is likely to aggravate local demographic pressures The easternmost portions of Nord-Kivu and Sud-Kivu are among (he most densely populated in Africa:resemble those that existed in adjacent portions of Rwanda The recent influx: increased (he population of thewas moreillion before the crisis, according to projections made from4crcenr. Rwandanarc occupying schools, churches, and common areas and are disrupting community services.thereistory of tensions betweeni lie waves of refugees, accordingS Embassy report |

In addition, because the recent Rwandanboth Hutu andethnic Banyaiwandans. (heir presence is playing inio longstanding ethnicin the region over land ownership andstatus. Other ethnicBahundc. the Banandc, and the Banyanga in ihe north and the Bashi. ihe Barega. and the Babcmbc in thehave frequently clashed with Banyaiwandun residents as well as with each other. TheHvitus who began arriving in the Kivus in (hehestimated to make up almostercent of Kivu's population and arc concentrated in the border rone, according to academic sources Although no demographic data details ethnic(he US Embassy estimated (hat2 thereillion former Rwandans, mainly Hutus.in the Kivus. Recent US Embassy andeports citeresurgence of ethnic violence in the



Population Per Squarend above



I ess tlian 40


Refugee concentration

Region boundary

Subregton Counoaiy

and iht Kivus

The Kims aie politically disianifrom the capital, iheir autonomy is traced back to conditions that eiisied in die colonial era. The Belgians made Utile effortstablish authority in the region, preferring insteadork ihrough existing iribal structures,


attempts to gain control, and local ethnic groups formed ihe backbone of ihe People's Revolutionarysmall insurgent group thai challengedaitihoitiy in ihe area ihrough lite. Since then, the central government has made onlyheadway in increasing its control. Current Prime Minister Kengo and his predecessor claim roots in the Kivus, but neither has public support in the region, according to diplomatic reporting. US Embassy reports indicate that many residents of Nord-Kivu back Zairian President Mobutu's party, the Popular Movement ofheSole, legalmost locals are wedded to the political siattts quo; Sud-Kivu, on ihc other hand,otbed of Opposition semiment.M

Masisi area, west af Goma, where local Hutu*,bolstered by former FAR elements and the militia, arc leading the tight against the local Bahunde. while Zairian Tutsi are fleeing the area. Relief workersthat the violence has resulted in the deathillagers as well as the displacement0 others.

Competition for land, an important source of ethnic rivalry, is likely lo grow worse. The Banyarwanda's large numbers and traditional agricultural skills have fueled conflict with other ethnic groups over control of agricultural land. Inonflict resulted in ihe deaths of anan-yarwandans and the displacement of. according to diplomatic n'portintv|

ethnic groups and the Banyarwanda. who enjoyed full citizenship until President Mobutu insisted1 thai citizens be able to trace their rootsMobutu postponed elections in Nord- and Sud-Kivu in8 because he feared that tensions over voter eligibility would lead to violence between the Ban yarwandans and other croups, according to US Fmhassy report.|

Economic Disruptions

The influx of refugees is harming ihe local economy and the environment:*

the Bukavu area,mainstay of (he localbeen disrupted. Refugees have occupied farmers* fields and have delayed fallaccording to press and diplomatic reporting.

Many refugees prefer cassava, bananas, goats, and chickens to UN-provided rations and are stealing from local farmers, accordingress report. Demand for local food has driven prices beyond what the local poor can pay and has enticed farmers IO sell household reserves-

ajor source ofbeen almost completely halted.

Foraging refugees are depicting the area's firewood and its charcoal derivative; of particular concern is the deforestation taking place within Pare National de Virunga.

According io OFDA, many camps in the Bukavu area are located on hillsides and are exaccibating erosion and risking landslides^

Instability in neighboring countries is also aggravating econos:

turmoil in Rwanda has disrupted the Kivus" longstanding trade with Rwanda and Burundiproducts are exported for manufactured

national elections required byherights of the Banyarwanda are likely toajor source of ethnic tension. The issue of citizenship has frequentlyoint of contention between local

' For more dciaiU oo Ihc economy and rciourccs. ice ap|Kndi> C.

Threats to Stability

The deterioration of security in the camps andrefugees and local residents arein the Kivus and arcregional conflict. Moreover.

matic reports indicate that former Kwandan soldiers in Zaire remain loyal to their commanders and aresmall-scale military operations against the new Tutsi-dominated government in Rwanda. Such operations, as well as further incursions of Hutuinto Rwanda, may well provoke retaliation by Kigali, including cross-border raids to disruptactivity. Meanwhile, the potential for andirected by extremist Hutu elements in Zaire against Ihe Burundian Tutsi seems to be growing.

and fuel, according io the USnd the breakdown of order in Burundi probably will exacerbate the problem:'

* The disorder has also interrupted communication links. Diplomatic reporting indicates that almost every business or NGO in the border region had relied on Rwanda's communications system by maintaining post office boxes, fax machines, and telephones across the^

' The Ki>ui ore nrtually economically irdcpcadcni of Kirahou; most business transactions arc conducted In dollars rather than in the Zairian currency, few Lu revenues How to (he Central Bank, and the area's traditionally abundant agricultural resources and trade wiih eastern neighbors limit the need for the Kivu* to import

fi.rn Lhe (Cll ol



Terrain, Climate, and Vegetation

The primary features of Zaire's eastern border terrain arc the Mitumba and Virunga mountain ranges and the Great Rift Valley. The Mitumbapeaksthe western arm of the Great Rift Valley: the eastern slopes of the mountains plunge frometers elevation to tbe valleyeters below. Lac Kivu. theiver that drams it. and Lake Tanganyika occupy much of the narrow Rift Valley's relatively flat floor. The broadest portion of the valley is located near Uvira. The volcanic Virunga Range cuts xross the valleyhe northc Kivu, where it forms the divide between the Congo and the Nile Rivets. The terrain in western portions of the Ktvus is hilly.

The region's climate is generally mild. Because of the proximity lo the equator, icmperaiures vary little throughout the year. Monthly meansCC occur at lower elevations andCeters. For most of the year,illimeters (mm) per month: the June-Augusi period is drier, wiih rainfall varying betweennd SO mm. Precipitation increases near the lakes and at higher elevations. By comparison, temperatures in Washington. DC. unge from anIn lan-jjry ton July, and monthlyaveragesm mm

Natural vegetiUon throughout the region varies with local climate and soil conditions;

Mosses and herbs grow on the younger lava flows fnim the Virunga Range, which cover the plains north of Goma. while shrubs and trees grow on the older flows.

Where unalteredtivauon. the Rift Valley floor is covered mainly with short grass, flowering plants, cacius-like planis. small acacia trees, and palms. Along the streams there are fringe forests of spiny date palms; in areas of poor drainage, clephani grass and reeds grow.

Natural vegetation on the walls of the valley change as elevation, rainfall, and humiditygrass, to deciduous forest, io evergreen forest with dense undergrowth, to bamboo forests at the highest elevations On the western slopes of the Mitumbas, the sequence is much lhe same cxcepl lhat here the grassy hills become tropical ramhey descend vicstward into the Congo basm j

Appendix B

Eastern Zaire's Natural Hazards

pope'ation of ihe rcgioovulnerable to three main naturaleruptions, high con-cenirauons of carbon dioxideases, and ihc degassing of lake waters

Two volcanoes. Volcan Nyiragongo and Vole an Nya-mulagira, are located near Goma and area refugee camps and have been active frequently during ihe pastrecently during the summerccording to scientists, the principal dangers posed by the volcanoes arc twofold.

ajor eruption may occur with tittleand lava could quickly engulf an extensive area. The magma that feeds both volcanoes is unusually fluid; during Nyiragongoa last major eruptionake of molten lava burst through severalin the volcano's flanks simultaneously and moved over the countryside at morekm) per hour, according to JapaneseAccording4 USSurveyS) report based on recent held research, however, scientists assessed thatife-threatening eruption occurring over Ihc next few months had diminished.

Second, ash plumes from the volcanoes couldair relief operations.outh African aircraft lost two of its four engines when (he pilot failed to detect small particles from the volcano's ash plume and flew (he plane through it.

4 an eruption occurred in the central tone of the Nyirjgongoas followedmall lavs flaw from the ooutiwcUtmflanlolNvamuljjiiaon* July During the following month, ihc two volebyih and steam plumes ca icvcral ocvatoni.ujuvi tremors were tet: t" Use Gonu area, followed two days laser bjaowlsiure on the southern iloec ofnp> H

Moreover, lava fountains from Ihc volcanoes can also spew large quantities of glassy volcanic ash over broad areas. After an eruption earlier ihis sear, aof cattle died from ingesting such sharp ash. ^|

A second naturally occurring ihrcat is (he presence of CO. in low-lying areas near the shoresc Kivu. Typically.hich is highly soluble, poses little ihrcat; ii is dissolved in groundwater and transported to ihe surface ai soda springs. If, however, there is not enough gioundwatei io dissolve ihehc gas can escape into (he atmosphere through dry gas ventsecause (he gas is heavier thanows into natural depressions, basements, or excavations where Ii can accumulate in lethal concentrations. The USGS report suggests ihat the danger of CO; is high near and within some proposed refugee camps,along (he Goma-Sake road

A third but more remote natural threat is (hai offrom Lac Kivu. The lake coniains vast quantities of dissolved CO; and methane (hat could be released into (he atmosphere in (he eventajorsuchubsurfaceava flow into ihe lake, or an eruption on (he lake bottom. At present levels of saturation, however, scientists estimateegassing of the lake could not occur unlessisturbance triggered the movement of deep water many tens of meters|

' Ale. mo lafanaaMecardiac Bow dosearurauoa loci gas pressures mast reachaussroftacBecomes likcls. nor is il know* it LacifiMcaf die soddenypcs of gas emission that occurred in Ihelite> in Cameroon in theHui H


Figure 12

Agricultural Production in Zaire's Kivu Regions










CD Banws.com.

BM poMnev and OMIM

t nd cassava


EZJ Coffee i Tea

tegonD Natcn* cart.

q Cnchona (quinine) p Paean ft Sjflanane



conomy and Resources

Agriculture is the maitulay of the Kivus' economy An estimatedercent of the population isarmingsubsistencebecause of its rich volcanic soils, abundant rainfall, and cool highlands climate, the region is one of the mosl agriculturally productive in Zaire In the, agricultural production, processing, and marketing accounted for mote thanercent of all economic activity in eastern Zaire, according to the US Embassy. Academic reports indicate the region is intensively cultivated and largely self-sullicient in foodj^g

The Kivus' main/ood crops are cassava, sweetbeans, bananasnd several other fruits andorn and lice arc also grownmaller scale. Crops ate cultivated mainly on smallon steepsubsistencewho sell any surplus to traders or middlemen. Most of the surplus is marketed locally or in Rwanda or Burundi because of poor transport connections to the rest of

Although some food is harvested throughout thecrops have fairly distinct growingEmbassy

reporting, bcansarKTcoriiarc^ijTitea' between October and December for harvesting in March through May. Sweet potatoes arc planted mainly between February and May for harvest in June and July In highland areas, where soil moisture is usually better during the June-July dry season, some farmeis will plant uncrop of different foods for harvest in mid-September. Bananas, other fruits, cassava, and bles are generally available year-round. I-

The most important cash crops arc:

Coffee. The region is Zaire's main producer of the expensive Arabica coffee. Most is exported, and, because slate-mandated prices are low, coffee

smuggling to otherbeen significant, according to press reports.

About half the annual production of tea, which is grown on plantations at elevations0eters, is exported.

Grownarge plantation in the Rut-izl Valley near Kiliba, sugarcane is sold mostly to local consumers.

bark. Used to produce quinine, cinchona is grown near Lake Kivu for three European-owned firms. The Kivus currently producehird of the world's quinine.

The region is the world's largest supplier ofapaya extract used in pharmaceuticals and food additives. It is grown in the nonh and is soldelgian-owned company in Beni.

Periodically, high prices for coffee and cinchona bark have encouraged farmers io devote more of their land to such commercial crops, adversely affecting food )ul in the region, according to the US Embassy.

Lack of additional arable land and low levels of inputs and technology arc squeezing land resources The US Embassy reports that land shortages often prompt farmers to reduce or eliminate fallow periods and to cultivate marginal lands. Erosion'in some cases, the wholesale losserious problem in many areas because farmers have neglected to terrace fields ormplement other erosion-control techniques introduced during theera Because there is lillie use of fertilizers to restore nutrients, crop yields have slowly declined as the soil has worn out Even so, Western development

expertv believe (hat ihe decline in crop yields can be reversed by increasing (he use of agricultural inputs and by introducing farmers to modern cropping tcch-

Industry and Mining

Industries in Nord- and Sud-Kivu are based primarily on the processing of agricultural products for export. Coma has tea- and coffee-processing plants. Bukavureweryharmaceutical factory thaiquinine, and Uvira has cotton and sugar mills. In addition, flour, textiles, cement, meal and fish products, and tobacco are produced for local consumption

Both tin and gold arc mined in (he region. The Society MinicreIndusmelle du Kivua labor force ofn(he largest local mining company, accordingS Embassy report. Tin is Its primary output, but the company also extracts gold al two Sud-Kivu mines, which producectcen: of Zaire's annualH


latum, andulngstcr^ieiriined in the Kivus. although

low world market prices andooomic and political troubles have slowed mineral produciion and have resulted in i; ol |


The tourist industry in the Kivus is not welldespite the region's pleasant climate,volcanic peaks, scenic rift valley lakes, abundance of wildlife, and the presence of two of Zaire's seven nationalKahun-Biegaq-km Virunga.ercent of the population was employed in tourism, accordingovernment of Zaire publication H

The limited tourism in thegorillabeen hurl by the influx of refugees Bukavu andpoints for excursionsorilla habitats in the nationalseveral refugee camps along the roads to the takeoff points forS Embassy report indicates that as many0 refugees are settledm from thegonlla sanctuary north of Goma. To date, there Is no indication thai the refugee presence has affected the health or the habitat of the endangered mountain gorillas, according to press reports, althoughfear ihat disease from the camps or an insurgency launched from (he Goma area might threaten iln-'i |

Power and Energy Resources

The region's most imponani sources of electricity are the two hydroelectric plants on ihc Ruzizt River, both of which straddle the border with Rwanda:

Rutin I,aximum capacityame on line8 and is critically in need of refurbishing.

fiom ihc iwo facilities to Bukavu and Goma isccordinge

Additional sources of electricity in Nord- and Sud-Kivu include several small hydroelecirie plantsandful of diesel-powered facilities. All but the Goma diesel plant supply electricity only to individualenterprises and/or communities. The Goma plant ofteai lacks fuel and is in need ofAkogcther. electricityvail-able to lessercent of the inhabitants of the Kivu region,|

Methane gas is the region's most potentiallyenergy resource. According to diplomaticthe methane reserves found in the depths of Lac Kivu arc among the largest of ihis type in theestimatedillion cubicarc to be shared with neighboring Rwanda While Rwanda hasuccessful, albeit small, methanefacility to support the Gisenyi brewery. Zaire has

US Embassy rcporting.l

al fcas^^tud:

Two other resources arc geothcrmal energy andThe numerous active volcanoes and cinder cones north of Lac Kivj are evidences of the potential for geothcrmal energy development. Further south, preliminary geological surveys conducted in (he delta of the Ruzizi River near Lake Tanganyika havethe possible presence of oil. accordingS Embassy report. These reserves are yet to be confirmed and arc unlikely to be economically (east-

and Rwanda split electrical ouput andresponsibilities for Ruziri I. while Ruzizi H's output is split by Zaire. Rwanda, and Buriandi. As ofoor upkeep had reduced power generation atoercent of capacity and at Ruzizi II tuercent. Furthermore, drought condiiions in recent yean base left insufficient water in the reservoiri.reducing ouiput, according to the US Embassy in Kigali. Maintenance onkilovoll powerlines

Triecat ions

Zaire's telecommunications network is fairlyby African standards, but it providesadequate service, particularly to theregion. Deterioration of equipment, poorlack of sparehortage ofand unreliable electricity supplies

j as welladio relay satelliteSDH3ATTstation for receiving dooesiic radio-and TV broadcasts The station sends AMtation in Bukavu and TV signals to Uvira and to CJoma via miaowijjjjjj

Water Resources

Lacregion's main surface waterLac Vert have been the key sources of water for refugee camps in the north: the Ruziii River, which drains Lac Kivu and empties into Lakeis an important source in the south. Also used are numerous mountain streams such as those near Katale and Rutshuru. Groundwater resources ore less

clcnlil'ul.JHHthe Rulshuru Valleys arc potentially goodgroundwater development, and the Bukavu andareas reportedlyumber ofngs that can be

spring yields in Bukavuubic metersnd in Uviraubic meters per day. Several in Bukavu. however, are gruthc rmal in origin and highly

s in the mou ri ntarealso

potential sources of groundwater but have not been

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