The functions of Si/OSS are defined In General Order Numberffective Januaryeeued by General Donovan, January },onforming to the directlTO ieaued to OSS dealgnatlng OSS an an agency of.
The functiona are defined a* followe:
organization and opemtlon of eepionage and counterespionage
In enemy-occupied or -controlled territorial. Bases therefor =ay be established in neutral countries beat aulted for the purpoae.
selntenanco of contact with underground groups In-controlled territory.
0. The collection, evaluation and dlaaealnation of such Information of enemy Intentions and potentialities, including economic, payohologlcnl, eociologleal and political conditions, as may be required for peychological warfare.
a. The collection abroad and dlasemtnation of such information aa mmj aaalat In the appraisal of reailte being obtained by peychological warfare conducted by the United Ratlona and the enemy.
a. The dlaeeolnatlon to appropriate agencies of the armed forces of information of military or naval elgnlfIcance which nay have been collected Incidental to the primary activities of the branch.
Comment: (a) In actuality not much first class information is obtained regarding Germany proper or Italy. Information regarding 1'rance. Korway, Finland and the Protectorate la likewise sowwhal spotty and frequently out of date. There la good coverage of Spain, Portugal, and Spanish Morocco, with fair coverage for the rest of Africa. Tha Middle Kaet,
especially Iran. Is veil covered; the Far East hardly at all; th? BalkacB are covered tlirough Cairo with soma inevitable delay. underground groups ere contacted largely through neutral countries, notably Sweden. Switzerland and Spain. There is also considerable contact through England (London Office ofairo, Algiers, and with groups In the United States. The eost active groups are the Poles, Free French. Czech, Norwegian and Dutch. Information is also obtained froa France and the Balkans through the English, d) and (e) have been affected by the official transfer of Psychological Warfare to OWI. Actually OSS continues to be Interested In Psychological Warfare but the SI Branch has always emphasized tho collection and dissemination ofeconomic and political information.
Chiefs of Staff
William J. Donovan, Director of OSS
Edward G. Buxton. Assistant Director of OSS
d'. General John Hagruder, Deputy Director Intelligence Service
Whitney Shepardson, Director of Secret Intelligence Branch
various chiefs of the Geographic Sections
Coaaent: At present, at least, thereendency on the part of the Chiefs of the SI Geographic Sections to take their problems to Hr. Shepardson and, with his permission, to General Donovan direct.
Ho formal tabic of organization of Si/OSS has ever been drawn up, therefore, itxtremely difficult tolear picture of the whole. Directives are issued with great frequency by the Director of OSS nnd the
Director of SI. Theeo directives are more In the form of suggestions than orders and each Section (equivalentranch in HIS) laaw unto itself. Changen take place continually and no one person seems to have all tho information at nil finger tips. In general, however, the following holds:
Director SI Personnel, SI Personnel, Civil Service
The last two are actuallyoparate Division of Servlcee and not purely SI.
Worth African Theater Officer Central African Desk AlglereDesk
Middle Beet Theater Officer Cairo Desk London Desk Eire Desk
India. Afghanistan and Union of Snuth Africa Desk
7ar East Theater Officer
Hethcrlande East Indies Desk China Deek
Bursa, Thailand, Indo-China and Malaya Desk
East Section (Iraq, Iran, Syria, Palestine and Turkey)
Central European Section
Scandinavian Desk (Norway, Sweden. Benaark and Finland)
Greek Desk Roumanian Desk Yugoslav Desk Bulgarian Deek
Hungarian and Csechalovak Desk Topographic Desk
Low Countries Desk
Swiss Desk J. Labor Section k. Counter Intelligence Section 1. Reporting Board
PreBB Survey n. Registry
NMfi - ^
Registry Control (Kail Boon) Special Docusents SI Application*
Comment: As notedoulpraent and Flnancea. together with Medical Services. Special Funda, Comanjnlcntions, Civilian Personnel and Adminlatratlve Servicea, areervices Branch. Comrwnder Vanderbilt, Deputy Director. Under b, c, and d, it will be noted that thereorth African. Middle Bant and Far Bant Theater Officer. These men are under the direction of and report to Colonel Buxton, Aasletant Director, OSS. They will be responsible for larger unite set up, or to be set up. In the theaters designated. The Korth African unit is already functioning and the Middle Xast la getting under way. The Far East Is largely on paper.
h. ruse;ions of the desks
The desks are responsible The recruiting of agents.
indoctrination In the special problems involved into which they are to be assigned,
developing oflanning the missions whichlire to accomplish. Tho projects nre made out in triplicate andby (l) Mr. Shepardson. the Secretariat,he<U) the Planning Group. nd (U) Iron out dlfficultieapereonnel, finance, papera. etc. The project Is then pnaeedDonovan and. for final approval. qyeits forhowever, originate in the Planning Group and be passed down to the
Desks. , and (U) ere onV'hlghVr" echelon outside of SI and ore not directly connected with It.
d. The collection of reports fron the agents In the field. These reporta may ease in by cable or diplomatic pouch.
The dissemination of reports. Reports are edited so at to eliminate administrative material, ngente names,nd are then sent to the Reporting Board whioh further edlte or translates the material, checks It for gross errors and transmits it to the proper agencies. The original reports are deposited with the Registry.
The training schools are not under SI buteparate unit.
They are under the direction of Lt. Colonel Konneth Balcer. Tor SI men the
eourte lasts about four weeks and covers codes and cyphers, cover, special
problems, etc. There is no fixed curriculum) and each agent Isarge
amount of Individual treatment. The whole enphasls la on training chief 1
agents who willet of sub-agente In the field Bather than agents as such.
The number of field agente varies considerably from time tout in general it may be stated that there are now men active In Portugal, Spain, Swoden. Worth Africa, including Spanish Morocco, Central and West Africa. Turkey. Switzerland. Egypt. Irao. Iran and Afghanistan. The numbers active are hard to determine and vary from month to month as does their location, but, in general, aave for Egypt and Worth Africa, there are not more thanozen OSS men in any given country end usually
only two or three. arge group) la being built up Inecond) In Londonhird (abouto date) In Cairo, Sorae of the men in these three larger groups are connected with SO. some, so that again It is hard to determine just how many are SI, In the Washington office.of SI, there were lU2 parsons, including clerical help, as of May. PERSONALITIES
a. Administrative Section
SI, Whlteny Shepardson, Rhodes Scholar.Lieutenant Fieldssistant to Colonel House,businessman. Vice President International Railways of
to the Director. Lt, Colonel J. G. O'Conor. Liaison with training schools, J.urdock.
Personnel, SI. Francis Barker. Mr, Barker also handles
budget problems related to equipment, travel and supplies, roon allocations and other details. ood hardworking individual, somewhat short tempered.
Civil Service, Mrs. L. Farrington; very efficient.
Watte Hill. Tobacco family frompleasing personality, efficient.
Comment: Actually, nearly all of the more important problems concerning SI are handled by Hr. ShopardBOn in person,esult that he is considerably overworkedottleneck is formed. Staff meetings are heldeek,^attended by the hende of the Geographic Desks. No minutes are kept, whichonsiderable duplication of effort and lack of
clearly defined responsibility for the carrying out of decisions taken, b, African Section
African Thonter Officer. I. D. Shapiro. Anwide European and African experience inrainedoperator; sosawhet excitable but one of the bert ma in SI. Beresponsible for the Experimentalow in Algiers.
ThlB detachment, while directly under the Army control in North Africa, is recruited and managed here. At full strength It will number about *bO officers and ecn.
to Chief NATO, Captain I. M. n.
(J) Chief African Desk, R. Boulton. 7 Curator. Field Museum of Natural History; hasxtensive expeditions to Africa and Central America; knows Central Africa thoroughly: fairly good administrator; no military experlenoe.
(u) Assistants to Chief African Desk
Cnpt. H. V. Schmidt, no African experience.
C. K. Ford, considerable African experience.
J. Okie, considerable African experience. Id) W. Lord, considerable African experience.
E. P. Quernu. considerable African experience.
Algiers Desk. A. v. du Pont. Does not know muchAfrica; not particularly efficient or effective,
to Chief AlglcrsDeek.
B. J. Koore
J. J. Lnfln; sagor and mennn well, knows North Afrlcu.
e. British Empire Ssotlon.
Middle Best Theater Officer Li.. ff. Scale, who is Also Chief British Empire Section. Lt. Beale; sonlergyman; worked for Tariff Commission; knows Lt. Colonel Sidney Morgen; very up and ccmlng; hard working; no European exprlenee.
London Desk, Major Alan Scaife. Pittsburg steel family.
Eire Desk, li. C, Nicholas. Recently discharged from the Navyor rennona of health.
India, Afghanistan and Union of South Africa Desk,
Major A. D. Rutcheson. vereena aarrlce in last war; Amy of occupation; hxove the Far East andood men.
London Personnel, Francis P. Miller. Formerly chief of thelooe friend of Mr.hodeaScholar;h CAC AEP; active in TMCA and international affaire; author, politician; able and astute,
d. Far Eastern Section.
. S. Harkaon, recently entered Into SI.
Eaet Indies Desk. S. D. Ripley. Anwide experience In New Guinea.
. Desk. H. Nylcnd.
km Burma. Thailand. Indo-Chlna. Malaya Desk, K. L. McClure. Most Of adult life spent In Southeastern Apia.
fj. China Desk, R. A. Hennlnicson.
Comment: Tha Far Eastern Section haa until recently beennn who had great knowledge but no organising ability. This situation has now changed. It hnn also boor, hanpered byek of cooperation on the port of the Theater Commander In the Pacific Area.
Earl Brennan. ood knowledge of Italy and legood administrator.
to the Chief.
Comment: Tho Italian Desk is partly SI. partly SO, mostly the latte So far they have produced relatively little but nay be expected to do more in the near future. They appear to have made numerous enemies in SI, because of their haphazard methods.
Chlof, Gordon Loud. Taught at Roberta College, Constantinople, knows tho Hear East; easy going and not too effective.
AasiBtont to the Chief. S. B. Penrose,aught at Roborta College; knows the Hear Sast; plenty of drive given the opportunity.
V. L. Campbell Those two are new nen.
Central European Section.
Calvin Hoover. Professor of Economics and Dean ofSchool, Duke University; private AEF; knows Germany andwell; an excellent administrator but lacks drive on occasion.
Scandinavian Desk, T. R. Huber.
(a) R. T. Cole
tb) Lt. V. T. Carlson. Thisew nan.
h.. South Eastern European Section
I. Acting Chief, Lt. Colonel F. D. Duke. For IS months AMA la Cairo. Knows the Army and the Sear East. Sometimes appears to lack drive, perhaps beoauso he does not care too much for this Job,
3. Assistant to the Chief, Major H. J. Began. Mexican border and overseasew York lawyer; good hardbolled man.
Seek, Sterling Dow. Qreek echolar; Harvardears
to th* Creek Desk, Gerald Else. ClassicsHarvard.
Yugoslav Desk, A. S. Vueinieh. One of three Yugoslav brothers now Is Washington; biased.
Bulgarian Desk, L. L. Beolor. Studied at the University of Sofia; excellent Unsuist; recommended to OSS by Lt. Colonel Bakelees.
Hungarian and Czech Desk, Charles Katek. Born in U. S. of Csechig man physically with not enough to do.
Desk, D.taopados. reek, educatedfficer in Greek Army; fought against Italy and Oonoany, wounded.
A good manittle too cocky at tines; knows bis Job. 1. Vsstem European Section.
1. Chief, F. L. Mayer. areer diplomat with wide European experience; good organlror and administrator; well liked and easy to get on with; despite some handicaps, runs his section very well.
3. Spanish Desk, V. L. Mellon. One of The Hellons; knows Spain; hard working and effective.
3. Assistants to the Spanish Desk)
ta) B. W. Andrews (b) T.ye? Both o? these are now men. h. Portuguese Desk, J. L. Hyde. An intorloror with wide European and Far Eastern experience.
5- French Desk, J. O'Brien. Considerable European experience; not too effective.
Assistant to Trench Desk, E. W. Bnrnes; ew win.
Low Countries Desk. Capt. C. E. Borat. Has en intimate knowledge of Holland, lees so of Belgluat.
Swiss Desk. R. L. Brittenham. rivate in the. Army; young educatedit on the romantic side.
9- Assistant to Swiss Desk. J.ew man. J. Labor Desk.
1. Chief, A. Goldberg. ood tough man; efficient and effective. , 2. Assistant to Chief, Isiah Dorfman.
CoBBcnt: The Labor Desk Is hard to evaluate because they are planning considerable expansion and beCMwe their men are In Voshington for only brief visits.
Ic. Counter Intelligence.
Chief. Junes Murphy. awyer; General Donovan's right hand man;henonlnnl mevory and grrat ability.
Assistant to Chief, E. H. Delaney.
Per Kant Desk, Judgo N. F. Allman. for many yearn Judge of the Mixed Court. Shanghai. Well fcrovn throughout the Far Ea?t.
1. Reporting Board.
L. Belln. Career diplomat with wide European experience.
Southgnte. Career diplomat with wide European Harold Coolidge. Harvard professor; soologist with African
experience, especially West Coast.
U. Research Assistants! (a) . Carroll <b) J. V. Walter Brown
5. Preas Survey, Mrs. Alice Clifford. This group works for information SI only.
b. Registry, Mrs. Margaret Orlggs. The rest of the personnel of this aectlon Vis purely clerical.
8. M5HTS; In generalSS suffers from amob the same wsakness as do other wartiae agencies In Washington: Lack of org< nizotlon; th) lack of direction. Its growth has been rapidlearly defined goal and without proper integration. Under the veil of necreoy, clarity has beon sacrificed to euch an extent that no one is at all aure what the real alms of SI are. Beaded by an able and umbltlou" man, OSS has expanded into many fielda and functions and SI, as part of the whole, has been dragged along with the parent organization. Its work has been badly hampered by (a) the above weakness, (b) Jealousy ond lack of coojeratlon on the part of the older agencies, (c) the inposolblllty of establishing an Si outfit In wartimes. Despite these difficulties its work haf- steadily improved because (a) mOBt
of tho men In the organization are very able and havo an excellent graep of the regions aasigned to them (b) through painful anterienca they have learned how to handle SI problems. Itery great pity that they continue to function largelyacuum. horough reorganisation, or rathor organisation,omplete integration with MIS and OEI. much could still be accomplished. What Is neededi
L. orkable table of organization.
2, trong executive officer to handle dett.Ha.
3> Clear cut directives.
A clear cut method of procedure for the various functione of tha
ecord kept by each Deik of reports sent in by each agent. This in nnt done at present and there le no way of evaluating the individual agent's work.
6. More emphaels on speed of accomplishment. This need Is felt throughout the entire organisation from top to bottom. There is too much time waeted through faulty and slipshod procedure and lack of definite responsibility.
7- Closer integration between the School and tha Deafca.
knowledge on tha part of the JJeaka of the needr. andMIS. The SI Desk Chiefs are anxioun to Improve thia altuatlon but MIS
has not always been cordial.
and constructive crltlcltn on the part of MIS of the SI
1. Reporting Board.
. Belin. Career diplomat with wide European experience.
Richard Southgnte. Career diplomat with wide European experience
Harold Coolidge. Harvard professor; zoologist with African experience, especially West Coart.
H. Beseorch Asr.istante:
B. M. Carroll
J. V. Lane lc) Walter Brown
fj. PreBs Survey. Mrs. Alice Clifford. This group works for Information si only.
ra. Registry. Kra. Margaret Griggs. The rest of the personnel of la purely
8. CfcfERAL coxmmsi In general SI/OSS auffere from much the Bene weakness as do other wartime agencies in Unchington: (a) Lack of org*nlzation; (b) lack of direction. Its growth has been rapidlearly defined goal and without proper Integration. Under the veil of oecrecy. clarity hassacrificed to auch an extent that no one la at all nure what the real nlme of SI are. Headed by an able nnd ambltloue man, OSS has expanded into many fields am' functionsi, as part of th* whole, han been dragged along with the parent organization. it* work har> been badly hampered by (a) the above weakneer, (b) Jealouay and lack of cooorotlon on the part of the older agencies, (c) the impoecibllity of estebllahint; nn si outfit in vartlmeo. Deaplte theae difficulties lie work ha', steadily Improved bocaure (a) most
of the man lo tho organizationvery able and have an excellent grasp of the regions assigned to then (b) through painful experience thay have laarnad hov to handle SI probleaa. Itery great pity that they continue to function largelyacuum. horough reorganization, or rather organization,omplete integration with MIS and ONI, much could atlll be accomplished. What le needodl
A workable table of organization.
A atrong executive officer to handle details.
Clear cut directives.
U, lear cut method of procedurn for the various functlona of the Desks.
A record kept by each Deck of report" vent in by each agent, -hi* la not done at present and there Is no way of evaluating the individual agent's work.
More emphasis on speed of accomplishment. This need la fait throughout the entire organization fron top to bottoa. There la too much time wasted through faulty and slipshod procedure and lack of definite responsibility.
integration between tho School and the Deekt.
S. Better knowledge on the part of the Desks of the needs and functions of MIS. The SI Peak CMefa ore nnxloun to Improve this situation but HIS has not always been cordial.
9. Prank and eonatruetlva criticism on tha part of HIS of the SI report aubnltted.
lan for Psychological In.
study covcrn matters relating to requlrenente,supply and transportation, copnunlcatlone. organisation, and operations
In Implementation of tha Special Plan for Psychological Warfare
approved by the Joint Chiefabfwhich are responslbllltles
of both OSS and the Theater
This section shouldlan of organization and operations for each operating branch within the area and Ita connection with the theater base. If the area cannot now be penetrated, lt shouldlan for penetrotinn at sone future date when euch is desirable and opportunity offers. 3- Operations
Prepare plans for the entire area by localities; surveys covering military, political, economic, psychological, social and other factors,physical targets for SO and current Information on which to fixfor propaganda, political, social, and economic pressures.
Statement of information not presently available and therefore constituting Intelligence objectives for SI.
Brief description of enemy eaplonage poesibilitiea and general steps required to counter them.
Include outline of auggost aubvornlve operation" to Include black propaganda, together with enemy vulnerabilities and targets.
ThlF. shouldetailed study of targets for sabotage and guerrilla fighting together with suggeetlona as to methods and means. U, Requirements
Civilian Covered by present allotments Not covered by allotments
Special equipment not covered by OSS Catalogue 5* Procurement
Arcy Nary Civilian
Additional requirements for military personnel to be covered by consolidated request by theaters for additional allotment.
Responsibility for procurement to be stated, whether OSS or theater
Additional requirements for civilian pereonnel or for field personnel of proper nationality to be stated, as well an the responsibility for procurement
List additional requirements and responsibility for procurement. Indicate transportation requirements to be obtained within theater.
Indicate plan for training, andesponsibility of CSS or theater commander.eneral outline of training to be given in each caBe. Indicate how roplteener.te are to be trained and provided.
Give general plan for supply and trnneportation (Including naval or marine) of both personnel, equipment, funds, etc. determined for definiteof OSS and theater commander.
This plan should cover requirements for Introduction Into the theaterwell aa for operations in the field.
Alaoarefully prepared check llat for last minute check to Insure nothing has been overlooked.
Give general plan for coesnmicatione between bate and field operators, between theater base and other OSS hasee, and between theater baas and OSS Washington.
Alao Include provision for a: special communications or communication equipment which may be culled for.Original document.