Communist Chinese Attempts to ObUht Mips and .
FORRELEBSE DATt1 .
COMMUNIST CHINESE ATTEMPTS TO OBTAIN MAPS AND RELATED INFORMATION!
theean the Chinese hive beenartially successful, accelerated collection program for foreign maps and related geodetic information. Their main areas ofhave been the USSR and tho US and Ita possessions, although tome orders ilso have included maps of East. South, and Southeast Asia, the Middle East, Norway, Western Europe, Afrki, and several Pacific Ocean islands.
Since the reporting of acquisitions by the Chinese is undoubtedly incomplete, it is difficult to determine the extent of their map holding* and existing gaps. They! could have ^acquired maps of virtually all of the US and Canada from open sources. This would not preclude further attempted acquisitions of more accurate, up-to-date maps of these countries, including those containing geodetic, gravity, or other special information. The Chinese apparently have not succeeded in obtaining detailed maps of the areas near their southern border, especially of Laos, Thailand, Burma, and India but they could make their own for some limited areas to which they have access.
The Chinese have acquired small-scale maps of the USSR but they still lack more detailed, large-scale maps and geodetic data for that country. The small-scale maps arc generally of poor quality but could be useful as basic nrerences for use in intelligence analysis,general planning for military operations, and possibly photolnterpretaiion. They would not contain the detail necessary for artillery and missile targeting. Good quality large-scale maps of the western USSR snd World Air Operational Navigationor the entire country sire available in many places, but it Is not known if the Chinese have acquired these maps,
The high Chinese priority for maps of the USSR is evidenced by their willingness to pay extremely high prices and commissions for any maps of the Soviet Union and Indicates their lack of accurate, dependable maps of that country. Unclassified Soviet-published maps of the USSR have been Intentionally distorted for several years. Although these distortions ere. evident from map comparisons, determination' of correct locationr can be made only from
countries routinely collect mepi and related information on foreign countriet. Prior toowever, few Chinese attempts to obtain foreign mips were noted even though they probably Kidroutine map collection requirement. Map information would beto the Chinese for planning any military operation, including trooprtillery support, and location of bombing targets.tho maps also could provide the Chinese information for special military mapespionage, and possibly for plotting target locations and missile trajectoriesravity maps could be usefuluture ICBM targeting program.
The main areas of interest to the Chinese arc the USSR and the US. (See table for known recent Chinese attempts to purchaselthough the Chinese had expressed earlier interest In other areas, they have demonstrated the above emphasis since9 and also have been showing more interest in bordering countries.
Chinese attempts have been aimed at many types of maps but particularly at those whkh are most accurate and/or contain geodeticsuch'as survey point locations,and reference markers. Map typesInclude topographic, hydrographic, geologic, gravimetric, aero magnetic,ctivity, harbor and coastal charts and general Index, reference, and atlas compilations. Maps generally have been of large0ut0 to) maps also have been ordered and In some oases substituted for unavailable largo scale maps.
During thetrong Chinese requirement for maps of the USSR has been evident and the Chinese have offered highcommissions for them. These actionsthe Chinese probably have nevermsps other than those available topublic which are known to bedistorted. The distortions include dls-of up toiles In the locationscities, towns, snd roads, etc. Otherant classified and even Eastcountries have not receivedmaps. The correct location of thefeatures can be determined onlyaccurate
the Chinese lack
satellite useful in geodetic and cartographic applications they would be severely restricted In thalr ability to locate most military targets accurately within the USSR.
The specific reason for their collection of maps on the US and other non-Sovietnknown but the gravity maps could be usefuluture ICBM targeting program since gravity data are essential for accurately predicting missile trajectories. The other maps couldbasic Information for special military map compilations, for checking scales and accuracy of the Chinese map data base, and possibly for target locationuture ICBM program.
In addition to the attempts by the Chinese to purchase the maps shown In the table, they have abo purchased or attempted to purchase related equipment and charts. Forom the Chinese ship Tunt-feng. while docked In Kobe, Japan, Inurchased navigational and radio signal chartsarge quantity of VHP communicationsstensibly for better shJrMo-shore comryjeRjtoro fdMEIUU! ticri The purchase Included US and AffilsMlilli catalogs of nautical charts. LORAN tables for
areai. and an assortment of maritime, meteorological, and current charti of the Pacific and Indian Oceans. Although thismay be expressly for supporting Chinese merchant vessels in those areas, such as the voyage of the Tung-fcng tougust, the same charts also would be useful for Chinese shioa conducting gravity or missile range surveys.
For the past two years, the Chinese have been placing periodic order*artographic company in Vienna for maps from acatalog produced by the US Geological Survey. It is also possible that they ordered maps and charts produced by the US Coast and Geodetic Survey. In addition, they have ordered charts outlining US mapping data. These charti were referred to aa the trigonometric tables used in arriving at horizontal control data.
In addition to the above publications, the Chinese have attempted lo buy variousand geological publications. Forinepresentative of the Chinese Embassy in Stockholm requestedof the London Royal Geographic Society, Japan Geological Society andSurvey Institute, and the AustralianSurvey.
The Chinese are using Intermediariesthe world In attempts to obtain maps and related Information of many foreign countries. These inttnTtedisrios include book and map dealers, subscription services, trading companies snd individuals in Bern, Paris, Dacca. Hong Kong. London. Vienna, and West Germany.
Furthermore, the Chinese have advised their map purchasers to go outside the normal channels of map dealers and book stores andry libraries and antique and used book dealers. In at least two cases, the Chinese suggested the University of California at Los Angeles (UCLA)ood source. In one Instance, theas coupledtatement Indicating Chinese awareness of the security problems En obtaining geodetic data on the USSR.
Due to the strongnterest In such maps, the firm purchasedritish charts which were based on US-published maps and sento China. They alsoomplete list of US maps with their British equivalents along with commentsheir availability for the Chinese to order from. The firm also was to continue to try for thosemaps with no British equivalents or with poorer detail than required by the Chinese.
The USAF Aeronautical Chart andCenter has for several years issuedaccurate World Airor many parti of the world which might be used by the Chinese.
APPROVED FOR RE1EASC DATE:1
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feb 71Original document.