(Great Spies of Our y Jacques de JJVUNAY nnd Roger GHEYSENS
Published by Hachette. Paris,Paget index
Whatpy great? To answer this question, the authors present
short biographies of eight well-known intelligence agents had littleommon in their personalities, backgrounds, and methods of operation, anohe motivations that led them to become spies. Tho last chapter entitled. "Some Great Contemporary Spies," briefly describes the lives and operations of twenty-Tour members of the espionage organisations of various nations: Cxechoslovakia, Germany, Israel, Poland, Tsarist Russia, the USSR, and the UnitedState s.
arch and ISichard SOROS, Press Attach/in the German Embassy in Tokyo and at the same time an agent of the Pourth Bureau of the Red Armyhearned the Kremlin that Germany would attack the USSR in This information wn* corroborated by other Soviet intelligence networks in Europe, such as the Rote Kapelle of Harro SCHUI.ZK-BOYSEN in Berlin and "Lucy" /Rudolf ROESSLER/ in Switzerland, but it failed lo convince Stalin who firmly believed intability of the German-Soviet Non-aggression treaty of
SORGE was born5 al Adthlkant, near Baku in Ihe Caucasus; his father, Adolf SORGE,erman and his motherussian. 6 tho SORGE family moved lo Germany and acttlcd In Berlin.
ho:ii i ii years old, joined the German Army nnd was demobilized At that time heember of the USPI> (German Independent Socialist Party). 9 ho completed his studies at Hamburg University from which heh. D. In political sciences. On9 he joined the Gciman Communist Party (in which^to ID card. Prom0 until the end1 he was on editorommunist newspaper in Solingen.
His activitiesnd ere littles possible that he workedowtntcrn agent In Scandinavia and In the 1JK.
5 with the blessings of the Cordon. CkanuMst Party. SOdUK IcPb-for the USSR,ember of the CPSU (ID card7nd acquired Sovlot
citizenship. Tn9 he was recruited by General KfKTaS, head of the
Fourth-Buremt OP the Fed-Array, nnd sent to Shanghaiorrespondent or several
German papers. ^cre* CORCE iwrt HCGUMI WAX I, special correepondeul ofM
^lnbun,aterember cf SORSE's^spy ring In Japan.
Jn2 SORGB relumed to Moscow after three yeavs>of Intelligence
work In China la collaboration wjthj^ncsung Aieerlcen Journal let, and
^radio op^Oor^Iaxoth'ceVvh'ni liadjbeen Kent to Shanghai by the Fourth
osccwjheis next mission would be in Tokyo. Tn this connection
SORGB left In the spring3 to* Gciviany where he managed to ob la In the
credentialsrofessional Journal1st. oreign correspondent of tho
Fiankfurther ZeiUinfl, the Zclttchrlft fUer Ceopoyitlk^and of the Dutch econoalc
gLp^zino^Al^eniaan Handclsblad, SCRUB arrived in Yokohama
The Foupt^Rureaa bad very carefully planned end prepared SORGE's mice Ion
lo Japan. His assistant, Pranko VOUKRI.ICII, had already settled in Tokyo as a
special correspondent of the French Illustrated sngazlne WnnA of tho Belgrade
Brauko VOUXEI.ICH had also been wcUfcA-ralned for his rolo In SOPGE's^spy network.6 he went to Paris fro* Zagreb (Yogoolnrin) with bis brother end three Dieters. All of them studied at the Parle University. Prior tooined the Cons*inlet Furty in Yugoslavia. Tn? he was recruitedoaliitera agent by acalling herself Olga Baltic. Jn the fall? che told Branko that he was to be 6ent on mission lo Japan.
On3 VOUKELICH arrived in Tokyo acecapanlcd by bis
wife, .Edith CHRSX,he had. watt led In Purlsn* an infant son. VCUKKLICH vas poorly paid by the KAVAS Agency and the Fourth -HarCAI KM toMs salary In secrecy.hfor VjS tngazlne VOUKEMCfl openlyhoto-laboratory vhlch was vVtrr handy in SOltCE'e covert operations.
Another'i assistants, YUKU1VJ MIYACf, arrived In Japan from California Inifted pa1nter,/jolned the OoMninlst Party Jn tho-UO in
iloot the Amrloan attitude toward Minorities of Anionvas recruited byofficialiYAOI helped BCHJ8relations with liQZVKt
In5 SJRUKo Moscow via the ttt, and awl The new head of the
Yourta-&ireauJ General Gc*en UftriTsKIY/who approved all of GOJWE's operational
plans in WlffgiT also introduced Max KIAUSSM ae SGHCK's future assistant
Ha* JgJDBBi hXMMUwere old acquaintance sTftttf' Cenwny.as born in Schleswlg-Kolstelne vas aj-adlo operator in the German Army during Wlj later, lo the twenties,ailor end alii taut member of the Ccraan Seanen's Union, he visited the USSR. 7 KTA^SRI Joined the OQOVJniat Party.8 he went to HaaeOV where he was trainedadio operator and'sc/it to Shanghai9 vhcro he collaboratedGE. Re alsooung Finnish
girl, Anna NMJANTUS, who, with SORGE's consent, oceanic his silstrcas.
TAUSKN mrriedhe Geirvui Consul in Shanghai.
In3 KlAUSra was sumWDCd to Moscow for extensive training before
joining SORGEokyo on At the beginning6 KIAUSeM was ready
to transmit iofoiaatioa fro* Tokyo tooviet station probably located
Id Vladivostok. Mrs.KIAUSKH worked-cloeejy^with her husband.
rjt. oporftted^with extraordinary efficiency and vm eubwit
to strictVly'nd KTAU&3i, vho wero recruttod byDuivan; Vere^awaie of the Identity of their osployer.9 SGHGB Inforuc VOUKKLICK that, following Instructions frow Moscow, ho (wist separate- froo hi for security reasons. VOuXRLTCu* obeyed and tho divorce took place onitt OLfMI (formerly Mrs. VCUKKLICH^ decided to Join her parents in She called with, ftwt, fioa Yokol-awi to Australiaver reached destination and has never been beardf-otttco.Ot VOUKKLl mrrtod Toahlko YAMASaXI and theyons' mmtA IMroshi-Yaroclsv.orking as an interpreter at the Czechoslovak
pite of its widespread operations SOIWW'e network never ruined an;
suspicions of thentlltary counter-intelligence) or the :
(special police). One also wonders how SOiiGi had been able to deceive the O
b.cn he Joined the RazlS'orcign Sectionh,
a close friend of-Ocncrnl Kugcne 0ttbnssivior innd secure*
position of press attache* at the Germanin Tokyo. It is known that
BCBHttUBBOj bead ofAHT VI (the SUUa Bureau) ofrequested von RITGEH, then head of. (Deutsche Haehrichten Bureau -Press Qtrite) to protect SOROS against Nazi attacksong as SOHGK'8 reportid lyScrc-dlrcc ted-toontained confidential Intel lig data about the USSR, Chlna^and Japan. SCrtKjJKtHERC's decision vaselnhnrd lfr-TiffilCH. Gestapo colonel, HKlfiJNGKR, at the Kmbassy in Tokyo, who SORGK under eurvclllnnco, [favorably 'evaluated SOItGH's activities lof bis arrest, SOHGK told his Joponcse Investigators that during bis visit to Hohe Fouri,Bureau had given hint pc-mission toertainof intelligence data to the Germans In order to strengthen bis position at thi
, SOBGK's network operated with extraordinary efficiency and was eubreu
to strictSO&F. and KTAUSKH, who were recruited by thefts
of the Identity of Oielr employer. GE Inforw
VOUKEI.ICH that, following Instructions frOB Moscow, he luust ceparate fron hi
for security reasons. KKL1CH obeyed and the divorce took place on l8 Pec
With(fewrly Mis. VCUXRMChJ decided to Join her parents In
She Balled with her eon, Hi-it, from YokoT<ena to Australia but rever reached
destination ami has never beon heanl OnOUKKT.T
rarried Yothlko YMWVIXI and theyon/ naraed Hlroshl-Yaroslav. At pre
Yochlko YAMASAXI lo working as an Interpreter at the Czechoslovak
An Eplto of its widespread operations EORCE's network never ruised an;
suspicions of thepoltat (nllitary eounterX-tnlelHgwice) or Ihr '
(special police). One also wonders hoween ablo to deceive the
3 andhen he Joined the NazlVorelgn Section/ hc<
a close friend of-General Kugenc OiT^lGenian ^robassftdor innd cocurcV
position of press attache' at the Geman Onbaasy in Tokyo. It is known that
head ofAMI VI (the Sixth Bureau) ofeurlty, requested von HrfGEH, then head of. (Deutsche Nachrichten Bureautogainst Razi attacks as long as SURGE'S reportcontained confidential lntclllg data about the USSR, QJna^ond Japan.WTO's decision waseinhardDR1CH. Gestapo colonel, MEISIWGM, al the nnbassy In Tokyo, wlio SORGE under surveillance, [favorably Ipvaiuated SORGe'e activities inf his arrest, SORGE told his Japanese investigators that during his visit to Moba Pnart-Bureau had given hla permission toertain iw-Wr of intelligence data to the Co name In order to strengthen bla position at th<
' In bis(Blent avs den AH ten,rich KOHUP (the counselor lo Tokyo sincel) described SORCR as onob* *e) personality, very sensitive tos' chains and liking to hit the bottle, rfc vns tall, athletic
and cored little about his appearance.
During eight (of spying Doctor GORGE, colonel of tho Redupplied the
*ost Important political and Military information to the FourthDurvau. On 18
il the network was detected ond SORGE arrestedreakish accident.
At that time the Japanese began rounding upmmuiistt whos they nuspected
of treason. One of the arrested, 1'fO KIGU, who had nothing to do with espionage,
in order to please the police denounced Mrs. Toioo KITAHAYASlfla suspected
It happened that Mrs. KlTABAYASHtourier inKT ring
and when arrested gave away the whole group to the astonished Japanese police.
In SeptemberSORCR was sentenced ^death and his appeal wasthe Japanese Supreoe Court in Jariuory The verdict was carried BOnMl OZAXI wus haJiged the sAfte day. VOuXKUCH,life, died in prisonIAUSKN, also sentenced to life,
was released by theinnd, with theof theleftcria. s wife, Anna, sentenced to seven years, followed At presenthe KLAUSENS are living in feast Germany. died In prisonugust Tcmo XTJAhAYASHI diedother
of SOftfR's spy ring gained their freedom when the Arwricans openedoil thethe loog detention SOHGK wrote nenoirs which veri recovered by the
Aaerleans and node known by General Charles A. ViLLCUGHKfeport ofecenber It seems that inganu SORGE typed his ueiojlrs innd the text had been Immediately translated Into Japanese. Large parts of the original manuscript had been destroyed during the botobonlmcnt of the Japanese Ministry of Justice.
Copies of the original documents of BOROS'l trial vero found and confiscated by the Ajocj "can Aray> but5 they vero returned to the Japanese.
' Tstven UJSZASSY
Captain Istvon UJSZASSY began hie career as the Hungarian assistantlo Parle In lOJO^tntn-'n Warsaw 6 he vas sent toattache vlth the rank of Lt.Colonel. 9 UJSZASSY vasUr. Ceneral and assigned to the Hungarian Geneial Staff vhere he vasthe mission of nubdu*lng the Ukrainian nationalist movement In In9 Hungarian agents provoked sepm-atc incidents inbonlering on Caipathlan Buthenle, and Budapest charged thewith the rcsponsabUity for theee troubles, Regent HOHTiffcannot tolerate irresponsible (Ukrainian) cleucuts whichsecurity of its borders" and onlBultancouely withof Pmguo by tho Gennans, the Hungarian troops seizedwith HPri.RR's
9s promoted to Major General and appointed heed of
Military Intelligence. Until the end ofhe eupervised the liquidation of .
national resistance in Carolinian Ruthenia. Bothand UJliZASSY Bainteiacd close relations with Gcruany and continued to warn HITLat about Soviet plans to conquer the Vest. t2 UJSZASSY boconc the head of Hungarian State Security.
The authors describe ot length the political situation In Hungary during VWII, ito cooperation with Germany and relations with Yugonlavla. In lfA4 Regent HCRTHY requested withdrawal of hungarlan troops froto the Eastern front and vas answered by the Gervon occupation of Hungary onh.
( At that time,ragmatist, sought to explore plana of the Hungarian cctrauniets Jn cose ci the occupation of Hungary by the Soviets* He approached Lasrlo HAJK. " eeting vlth RAJK,Y oiggcotcd cooperation with tlie roalstance groups controlled by con**inisls aa veil as tho distribution of arms to tho workers who would guard factories, railways, etc. UJSZASSY hoped that in this way he would able to avert tho entry Into Hungary of the Red Amy This plan failed. RAJK replied thatresistance was spltt into many factions andew of then remained under his control.
The victorious Rod Amy closed In on Budapest which,opeless defense, siuxendered oni5. After the capitulation, UJSZASSY along with several other Hungarian generals surrendered to Marshal TOLBUKfllK vhp deported post of them lo PCW car.ps In Siberia where nearly oil perished. But not UJS7ASSY. Soviet authorities realized thatould be useful In the future and sent hlra to Moscow. Later he was transferred to the special NKVD villa nearhich was already occupied by twoan^ui leaders, both named AWfONKSCtF,
oung studentommunist, was1 and released after he agreed toolice Informer. Later RAJK joined the Internatlonal Brigade In Spain and servedolitical coiwilssar Jn the Rakosi Battalion. At'lne end of Spanish War he vent to trance and was detainedamp at Vernet. In the spring of loAi he was released by the Germans and returned to Budapest where he reorganized the illegal Cotuuunist Forty.
Probably tho same NKVD villa where Polish officers such as Col. BHRLlffG and others, who agreed to collaborate with the Soviets, were kept from tho autumn ofuntil the outbreak of the German-Soviet vAr. ontent.)
and Hungarian Count, Istvanormer head of the BY ^arlan Conservative Party. Thoy vera veil treatedsubmitted to continuous HKVD interrogatloas and ordered to write detailed reports on everything concerning their respective countries. BtTHItt* died there'l. Jn tho Spring of loA6 Marshal ANTONKSCU trleil to commit suicide and the NKVD sent Irlii hack to Rumania where he was tried by the teccaunist regime and hangedi6.
The reports writtenese four prisoners were deposited in the NKVD Archives In Moscow.
It seems that UJSZAOSY fared Mich better than others. Ills statement about tho circumstances which had driven Hungary into the var with the USSR was read at the Nuerembcrg Trials. The NKVD oleo took advantage of UJSPASSY's experience in dealing with Ukrainian nationalists in Carpathian Ruthenia. JSZASSY was set free and appointed advisor to the NKVD which, at that time, was engagedifficult fight vith Ukrainian partisans. nd7 the "Banaerovtsy" (RANDKPA'supported by. (Polish National Army)uerrilla war against Soviet anduiiuoist) troops and militia. In Southern Poland. About SuO^rcsistancc groups,0 men strong, inflicted heavy losses on tfoitiaunisl forces. Soviet General VATUTIN and Polish General "Walter"ero of the Spanish Civil War, were among the numerous victims.
Jt is believed that the NKVD managed to dismantle tho guerrilla centersthem off from the commanding bases in Carpathian Ruthenia In accordanceInstructions. UJSVASSY advised the NKVD to pursue and killall Ukrainian liaison agents and destroy radio transmission posts. direction the Ukrainian freedom fighters wereand renderedthe spring onI9V7 UJSVASSl's name was never mentioned again
and he disappearedrace. The authors mention that UJSZASSY'e reports to tbe NKVD vere Initialed vith the letter
'the authors described PHHJfY as ft "phlegmatic 6Py" vho 'or thirty year* '
over betrayed hlaeelf and.all Storing ThisIntoned the A
of cveiythlng ho could put hla hands on which was of Interest lo then.
FHILBY was recruited io Viennafter which he returned to london where he was seen in pro-Cencan andcircles of the Anglo-Ccnvm Fellowship. pecial Tines correspondent he covered the Spanish Civil War and was decorated for bravery by Generalissimo rWUiCO. 9ar correspondent he whs stationed In Airas, France and evacuated to the UK lo
l0oined the Secret Intelligence Serviceection D,
which at that time conducted covert operations in the IVOkans. lAter ho was
assigned to the Service of Special Operationsut in1
he returned counterintelligence) and became deputy chief
of its Ibcrien Branch. In lfM, PHILBY falle/la on attempt to ellatnote his
icjwdlat' boss (none not given) and take over Ms position, aid vas transferred to
Section IX (anti-Soviet Department).
Rere PHIIJiY vas able to control the diplomatic rrtll of all enlgree
governments Ic IxmJon and cither to neutralise their anil-Soviet operations or to furnish information wbieh enabled the Soviets to apprehend agents Involved In these activities. Inn official of the Soviet Consulate In Istanbul, YOiXCV, asked British authorities for aaylun and offereddossier on KXVD activities for VOIKOV added that ho knew the Identities of two Soviet agents Jn the British Foreign Office (proUbly MA CI JAR and HIRGE3S) and that of. caployee (probably PHnAY). as assigned to the VOJXW case but acted Inilatory manor that the Soviets had enough time to kidnap VOIXOV and send Mmilitary plane to the USSR.
6 HTITJiY was attached to the British Consulate in Istanbul. Fron there he controlled antl-Sovlot aotivitles in Albania and caused all volunteers
who* parachuted Into Albania, to be captured lwocdiately after landing.
In sumner ofPHILRV' was sent to Washington no. representative to cooperate with.. He was Oie "third" man who tipped off MACLEAN and FURGESS and ennblcd tliea to flee behind the Iron' Curtain before they could be arreBted for spying.
Death of Cenral SIKCftSKI, head of the Polish Coven><aent_ in_ Exile
The authors wonder whether PUlLKf could be linked with the still unsolved
mystery of General SIXOHSKI's death in Gibraltar. The general was
returning to Iondon frca the inspection of Polish troops In the Middle East and
Just after take-off his airplane dived sharply into tho Mediterranean. All passengers
except Czech pilot IfiCHALj1 vere
Several investigating commissions came to the conclusion that the accident
was cause by blocking of the Mechanism checking the altitude (blocage des gouvemes
de_ ^rofondeur- In French) and not by sabotago. The Poles rejected this verdict
stressing that the airplane vas not properly guarded before tbe flight and that
all controls had been working properly until then.
jO Jacques de lAVNAY hod an interview with Dr. Joseph
RtffUJCKK, former political advisor to Gen. SJKORSKI. RETTNGFJt accompanied the general on hie trips to the USSR and participated In several conferences vith STALIK. Tho deterioration of Soviet-Polish relations had begun when the Poles
*0 tho authors had an interview vith PHCHAT. in San Jose, California. He refused to talk about the accident and repeated his statement, made in Gibraltar, that the mechanism, checking the altitude suddenly was blocked and he lost control of the aircraft. After the recovery froa shock caused by the accident PRCKAL continued to serve vith the RAP.e returned to Czechoslovakia and vas active in rebuilding Czech civil aviation. Ine vas arrested in Warsaw accused of sabotaging Gen. SIXORSKI's airplane and sentenced to death. FRCHAL who expected* to bo questioned in this cose, went toVer.fcv lovt .
started demand In* -oplles to their inquiries In regard to the fate of many thousands of Polish officers, former lWs, vho had disappeared without^trace. The discovery
of the mass graves in Katyn with.^Dodies of the ruthlessly wintered officers completed the mpturo of diplomatic relations. Dr. KKfTNGMt stated that OMHCHIIJ, believed the Katyn crimebeen peipelratcd by the Soviets buthosen Ignore this ttiomy problem for the sake of the "cumonllied unity In the fight against Cciwe'iy. President ROOSKVELT, continued RHTIMCKR, simply advised SDCORSKI to avoid any conflict vhtch could lead to the rupture of relations with the USSR. Dr. RWINGKR was convinced that It was Sabotage which had caused General SIXORRKl'a death. lie also mentioned that when General SIKOHSKT,isit to President POOSFVKLT, was returning to loodoo onis airplane had crashed when taVlng-off in Hon treat due to the sabotage, but nobody was injured.
Ihe only clue that permitted tho authors to speculate that the NKVD could
have tampered with Ccocrol SIXORSKI'sy STALIN about
the accident in Gibraltar. uneSTAI.TII received Mtlovan DJUAS, special
envoy of TITO. STAI.TII repeatedly had been warning DJliAS that the Yugoslav leader
should not trust the doublefaced British Intelligence in regard to TPT0'6 security, because: "People wore found to kill General SJKORRKX in an airplane and then simply balled out: there wns no evidence nor witnessed."
As the deputy chief of. Iberian Branch, PUILRY often travelled to Spain ond in Julywas In Kadrld and in Gibraltar. PHILKT has never mentioned partioipation in SIKORSKT's assassination, but he wasosition tooviet agent who could have done the job.
The mystory of SIKORSKI's death turned attention to the death of General HOT A, Generalissimo TRANCO's right hand man,7 near Burgos. His airplane also crashed under mysterious circumstances. On the very same day, a
wcs correspondent, ItaixllllJir, who hod always before been seen in the General's entourage, vent to distant Salamanca. Certainly itoincidence!
Chapter on "great Cwiteatorory Spies>"
Hudolf Ivonovieh ABEL
AEKI. vas tornulypn Moscow. In ISP/ he Joined the Cltl. At the beginning he gave Instructions In the English language togents, later ho vas sent on various missions abroad. After the end ofhe USSR Intensified lis espionage operations abroad. W colonel AREI. became an Innate indlcplaced persons' cwnp in Gernany under the alias pf Andrew KAYOTTS. lie appliedanadian visa and left for Canada- Q he case to Hat US using his Canadian papers. AREI, arrived in Kev York aroundnd as Ball GOLDMJSShotograph studio In Brooklyn. Be alsootel rooa oa Broadway under the none of Mart. INS.
In reality, ABSI.'s function was "chief-resident" of the KGB In the US for which his pseudo wase reported directly to Cencral KRIKJLOY, the head of .KGB, and transmitled informationadio installed In his Brooklyn studio.
? AREI, requested an nssielant and Moscow cent KGB lieutenant Heino HAYUANhN. Be arrived in Rcw York with forged docu--acntfi under the noire of Eugene Mcolo MAKI, on American citizen, who hod spent nearly all his life in Finland. But KAYHANEnonentity and'drunkard; therefore ABEL sent hi* back to the USSR. EAYBANEM sailed free* Mew York onndrrival in Prance, fearing reprisals for his failure, he vent to the American Rahassy in Paris and told everything he knew about ABEL'S activities In Ihe US., arrested ABEL on
During his trial ABEL refused to reveal the scope of his clandestine workhe US or tho names of his collaborators. On7 he wss condemned
to.death but Mb able lawyer, James Brltt DOHOVAS, managed to have the sentence changed toears Imprisonment. On2 ABEL vas exchanged for -the American u2 pilot, Francis Gary POWERS.
At present) Rudolf Zvenovlch ABEL,who in the meantime vas promoted to general, is teaching in KGB schools .
George BTAKB, the British double-agent, was born in Rotterdamis father vas an Egyptian Jew, his nother of Pitch origin. During WWIP BIAKB worked with the Dutch underground. Later with the British Special Opei'Ation Services. Ueaturalized British subject. Assigned to Seoul as the British Vice-consul and agent, BIAKK repeatedly vonied against the impending forth Korean invasion, but no one paid any attention. 0 he vas captured by the North Koreans and Chinese and held In prison for three years during which he vas biainwafthed. Before his release3 BIAKE had agreed toft Soviet spy.
During tbe period, while stationed In Berlin end later io Pclrut, WAKE delivered to hie Soviet contacts "nil the docwieule he could put his hand on." ecret Service official he had access to the most Important intelligence data and it is believed that it vas from Information be had given theiu which permitted tho Soviets to discover2^ the observation tunnel between West ond East Berlin where Soviet telephone conversations were being recorded. He also could be responsible for the loss of several British agents behind the Iron Curtain.
Colonel Anthony ATSTKR, fonaer deputyof interior in Poland, who, fearing anti-Semitic repressions, defected to the West inenounced BLAKEegular KGB agent. InAKE vas arrested and pleaded guilty. His trial lastedinutes and he was sentenced toyears of prison. He escaped
from the Von-vood Scrubs Prlooo Jnt presentIAKKiving in Moscow.d^jf/fi published an interview withd which he declared that his spying activities had been motivated by Mu^rcat sympathy towardUSSR.
The authors described, techniques of the surveillance of jMlth COPIES and Valentin GUBICHEV and thetr ai rest by agent HUBIHYarch lfjty. When arrested CliBICHKV vas in possessionop, report on Soviet and 'eonrsinist activities in the U3 wliich had been given to hlia by COPTON.
rial inN was sentenced to tenreleasedond. econd trial in Kew York began in Februaryendedarch with the sentencing of both Judith COPLO* andears. COPLCW was released
eft the US on COHOB married her lawyer,SO^OIOV,
An lnrate, knownho was In prison vith RIAKK, described himonvinced txnmsinlst.Ferpctultc (For Ever or Korranslated from the Knglish language byN, Vervlers, Kditions
'* 5 -
then In Los Alniws, Kcv Mexico, from August I'-Vi until June. eturned to London and continued to deliver information to thehis
Be delivered Atonic secrets to the USSR, which were instrunv-ntal io.clunfilng
bVer. ICKS tiod heen In contact vith the Soviet espionage through Semen KRKMKH, aliasv"thc Soviet Military attache In London and one of the chiefs of the KGB network In Great Britain. After his arrival In Kew York, FUCHS was approached by Itavry GOID viio Introduced himself asiaison agent with YAKOVLKV, Soviet Vice-consul in New York. GOIJ) handed over to the Soviets oU atomic data furnished by FUCHS.
The documents made known .by Soviet code clerk, CUZKHKO, who defected in Ottawa, put, on the trail of FUCKS and led to his arrest in England. Hla trial begane vas ccntenccd to Ik years' Imprisonment but was released9 and expelled from tho UK. At presentUCHS is employed at the Tn6titut^of Nuclear Research Jn Dresden (East Germany).
Another British scientist, professor Alan NUN MAY, wito betrayedto the Soviets, vas arrestedentenced to ten.releasedpresenterofessor of
physics at tho University in Accra (Ghana).
Barryvas born on0 in hern, Svlliorland. His parents, Russian JewsY, had arrived-in Bern They emigrotcd to theAUSk, and changed their name to GOLD at the time of their natural!ration
GOT J) studied chemistry in Philadelphia at which tliK he met Tomommunist who helped him find workefinery. BLACK askod GOLD to supply
hta with factor/ eccreto concerning certain solvents in exchange for financial support from the Soviets, which enabled COLD to finish his studies. Later (date-not given) GOLDhemist nnued SHACK employed by the Kodakho delivered to CO ID eeverel production secretsheactor/. These data aleo wero honied over to the Soviets.
Onearned of the arrival of British scientist FUCKS, who already had been recruited in Londonoviet spy. Their first Meeting took place In Sew York on. On1 FUCKS gaveuge parcel of documents which wero drawdlntely delivered to the Soviet Embassy, Further deliveries of documents took place In July, August end" and thus FUCKS hto'ed over to the Sovietsuclear fission.
OID was ordered to go to Massachusetts, where FUCKS'^
sister lived, lo collect some important sioterial. FUCHS explained that he bod
been transferred to Kcw Mexico to work directly on the construction of the atomic
bomb. At the ecA of5 OOIXJSanta Fo where FUCHS turned over
tof documents weighting several kilos. These were the result*
of severalesearch and contained sufficient data for the Soviets to proceed
toward thectlon of their own atom boobong period of preparation and experiment.
When5 was arrested in England, ho govo^vcry vague description of his American contnrts. nevertheless, vlth theso few elucs. was able to arrest narry0 Be admittedv-Jiber of the Soviet spy ring directed Vy AnntoMy A. YAKOVIiV, Soviet Consul in Hew York. On0 GOIJ) woen Philadelphia and sentenced toears.
When gv?stloood GOIJ* talked freely: ho denounced David CREENGIASS, an caployce at th-nter in los Alamos, vbo under ihe influence Of his wife ondter-in-lav, Kthel ROSENBERG, hod given YAAOVLKV vital etoaic
information. (Arrested0 GMKKIASS denounced both TKKEtJhERGS).
COLD alno said that for his services to the USSR he hnd been awardedf the Fed Slntjwhlch entitled him to free ticketshe Moscow Metro;'
Cordon- Arnold ^OWSWLB (Konon.
The apprehension or Cordon LONSMTX took place Jn Iondon
and wased as the result of the surveillance of suspects Horry HOOfilfrOH
and Ethel CUt.
KOUCHrOrl was employed at the Itaval Ease in Portland (England) which conducted secret experiments with new materials for the construction of submarines. Hla lawlsh spending had aroused the suspicious of his neighbors who Infonoed the local police which, In turn, alerted tho Counterintelligence. Discreet observation of HOUGHTON and hie girl friend, Ethel RKR^brought to light their furtive meetings with an unidentified man who was also surveilled thereafter. The Man was identified as Cordonusinessman,d contactsouple name KHOGKH residingondon suburb.
rKJUCHTOtl, GOS and LONSDALE were arrestedeetlng near Waterloo Statloi in Loodon at which time GKEhopping bag to IONS DALE. The KROGERS were arrested later the same day. After the arrest the KrKBERS were Identified as long-tem Soviet agents named COHEN who, after having been involved In the ROSKNWJttJ affair In the US, hurriedly escaped to the UK Search of the KROGEPS' cot'. ageully equipped espionage center.
It was Ethel GEE who actually stole the top secret data according to specifications received froauestlonalrc on this mutter vas found during the search of GKE's apartment). The shopping bag Xhe had handed to LOKVYtif at the time of their arrest was found to contain top secret technical details of the first British nuclear submarine.
Further investigation reveled that0 vhenas assigned to
the British naval attache's staff Jn Warsaw, he had fallen in loveolish girl nww Christina,t her Instigation had furnished antibiotics to the Polish block market. After his return to England he was cent to Portland where he was approachedanwith greetings fromho "forced" him to supply secret data on the research conducted at the naval base. HOUGHTON persuadedEE to cooperate In his spying activities. From0 IONSDA.TK had been HOUOhTON's contact and it vofi he who delivered the Information he received to thoransittted or sent it directly to Moscow. It is difficult to evaluate howritish naval secrets were secured.by LOIISUATJl's spy network.
On1 IGNSDAIE was sentenced toears* imprisonment; Johnreceivedears and his wife, JTclcne, received ten. UOUChfON andwithears
In April VjG*exchanged for GrevJ IVritish subject arrested in Moscow for participation in the PEhT&VSKIY affoir.
According to the Soviet Hews Agency,ODY alias LONSDATJSMoscow0 aftereart
^- oraer high scliool professor In Nice, France,3 began servingigh official with the French Covennwnt which gave him access to all confidential -government information, lie hated Americans. Inhe was recruitedoviet spy by Aleksandr GUSOVSKXY, the counselor of the Soviet Embassy in Algiers. Be spied for the Soviets without respite:$ he handed over the planoint British-French attack in collaboration vith Israel against
* An official from the Polish Embassyn don. (Analyst's comment).
ez Canal. fter hie assignment to the French Ministry of Defense, 1AQUES passed on to his Soviet contacts secret information on the FrenchudgetInstallation of the Anerlcan secret radar net In Turkey. also gave them details on Oie French nuclear projects, General do Gaulolitical plans in Africa, etc.
On3 he vas arrested end sentenced to life, but Inhis sentence vas reduced toears1 Imprisonment.
Olcg yiodlmlrovlch lttWOVSKIY
Oleg V. FHROYSXiT was bom on9 In Ordzhonikldzv (thee attended the high school there, then entered tho Artillery School In Klyev. ieutenant, PHHKOVSKIY participated in the Polish and Finnish campaigns; later he vas transferred to Moscow where he workedolitical Instructor in the Komvxnol.
Inaptain IEhKOVSKiY was sent to the Ukrainian front as the corrnanler or en artillery battalion of the fTfth Tank Regiment. Ho was wounded and after his recovery returned to the front as the*cocriondont of1 Anti-tenk Guard Regiment. Py the end of the war, IzWCOVSKTY had ollolned the rank of Lt.-
coloncl and held several decorations and medals. He vas detached lo the Frunze.
Military Academy where he graduated 8 until the end ofhe attended courses el the Military Diplomatic Academy, and after graduation on3 vtis assigned lo Military Intelligence (CiflJ). he was sent to Ankara as military resident and after this tour attended the Dzhcrzlnskly Academyine months' course on missiles and nuclearn9 PF-NXOVSKTY returned to the GKJ and in0 was assigned to the State Scientific COinnlssloo.
Although aof the Party elnceITJOCOVSKIY bevaoe dieillueioned vlth Soviet regime methods of governing; his dissatisfactionreadily and he made up his mind to go over to the Western camp. FFNXOVSKiY established
- o -
contact vlth Crevllle WYNNE, an English buslneesnon, vho eoae to, Koscov
The nextoviet trade delegation headedrrived In London, -
and It vas WYNNE vtc enabled KfcNXOVSKlY to meet four representatives of British
and American Intelligence. The first meeting took place on 20 tt/at the Hotel Mount Boyal on Oxford Street, vhere the Soviet delegation vas Kiatcd. It vaa arranged Hint contact with PEHKOVSKIY would be aalntalried though WYNNE. IVMCOVSKfYlnox Miniature cameraransistor radio as tools for hla Intelligence work for the West.
Contact between PEKXOVSKIY and MYMQE continued. WYNltK went to Moscow Inthen PEKKOVEKIY was sent by hlo authorities lb London inI. went to Moscow in August end PEKXOVSXIY arrived in Paris Inuntil While In Parle he had several Meetings vlth of British and Auerlcon Intelligence. After his return towas Has. Janet Ann CHTSBOTM, wiferitish attache, to whom he
When WYNNE cam* to Moscow tntthKOVSKIY revealed that ho was being closely followed by the KOB and advised WYWtt to leave Moscow without delay. Using his authority at the airport lttNKOVSKlY helped WYNNE to chango hie ticket and bookeij hlra on tho first available night to the West.
Onolonel HttKOVSKlY vas arrested by the KGB andovember WYNNE van kidnapped by the KGB In Budapest and taken by plane to Moscow.
Kronl until the end ofY had managed to pass to CIA and Britishicrofilms containing the most important nllltary, political and economic information.
Thend WYNNE trial begen in the Soviet Supreme Courtfter four days of deliberation behind closed doors IVNXOVSKFT vaa sentenced to death and, according to Sovltt sources, the verdict was carried out on
WYNNE receivedears' luprlaonment, butt vm exchanged for Soviet spy Gordon LONSIALB In Greato1 had been sentenced5 years in prison.
Soviet spy network was Installed
Soviet spy network was Installed In Switzerlandut It began serious activities only after the Soviet spy ring in Berlin wns put out of operationJ1 vas arrestedi2).
The Svics ring vas headed by Samlor MOO (nkan. nld Soviet agent born in Hungary vh?re he had collaborated withITS.3 BADOmall press agency in Paris and6 moved to Geneva whero ha founded the Socle1 te Ceo-Prcsse which pioduced excellent maps for the Swiss press.
PA DO operated with the help of about CO collaborators: agents, radio
operators, couriers, etc. In his staff weie: Christian SCHNEIDER (oka TAYLOR)/
employee of the international labor Organisation; Otto HJENTER (nkavlss
journalist, anti-fascist and antl-Nazl; Rachel IWIBENDORPER (akan old oooaunist and. employee; Alcksanderritisher wltt had served In the International Brigade in Spain and vas the radio operator in lausance. It was SCSNE1DH* who "discovered- RORSSIJ* and introduced hla lo the PA DO organization.
RCM8UR was born Jn Knufbeuren, Cerwuiy,7 and died In lucernee vent to Lucerne from Berlinnditter fight against Nazism. ' When he began to publish Vita Nova, the Nazis stripped him of his German citizenship. BOSSIER preserved excellent relations with certain personalities inside the German government and tho Wehmacht, but he never betrayed his sources, he was la
According to the3 lEVgyTIA.which published an interview vith General A. G. GORKY, Attorney General of the Military Tribunal, vbo vas the prosecutor in the PENXOVSKIY trial.
consontact with Major Hans KAUSAMANH of Swiss Intelligence and kept him well-informed about the Cencan Army. ROESSlKR's Infoniation was alway accurate and completely up-to-date being deliveredell'-organized net of couriers.
Arter being contacted .by HAMS1KR agreed to coopereto with the Soviet ring end soon he became one of tho best and Boat efficient Soviet eples In Europe. Swiss Intelligence, which also received data acquired by HOESSIKR and HOOTER, discreetly did not Interfere with the Soviet ring. On the other hand, the Swiss police discovered the illegal radio transmissions nitd on3ouse in Geneva and detained Kduard and Maud HAMEL, radio operators working forhey also arrested Mar grit BOLLI (akaADO's collaborator. RADO went underground and ine end his wife escaped to France Illegally.
as arrested on* and releasedeptemberyear, ond uutll the end of the war procured excellent information for He died on8 at the age ofears and was buriednear
Co3 Aleksonder FOOT'S was arrested, and in the springk Rachel DUiBKNDORFER mot with the sainc fate. Tho trial of Christian SCHNETDSR took place In Bern He was sentenced tooyc in prison.
Julius and Ethol KOSEftBKRGBERG (neeas born In New Yorkn* she Joined the Communist Forty and during Its meetings became acquainted with Julius ROtiEKSERG. Both were childrenvi enteralo the US.3 ROSENBERG was hiredrooklyn firm which supplied various equlpiaeut to the Army, and in the springe began to spy for Coviet agents operating in tho US. Int5 he lost the Job with the Brooklyn firm because of hisconnections, but soon found work with the Emerson Co.
, Wis brother-ln-lav, David CREXKrjrASS, vki noblllrcd nnd detached toAlamos Center for Nuclear Research. ROSENnKKG asked Mo sister Ruth toInfluence to convince CK&.NGTASS to deliver to hla secret Information onnt the Center, ROSKhBERG offered GhEENGIASSa beginningagreed to /' i
lt_yos Harrylalnon agent, vho turned over to Anatollyhe atonic secrets handed to him by ROSENBERG as veil ne documents received froa Klaus FUCHS.
ebruary lUCICJ vns arrested In Great Britain and ROSENBERG offered
0 to enable him to escape via Mexicoommunist country. Doth
CRK'ENG'ABSes rcfuseo^to leave the
Ihe ROSENBERCG vera arrestedhrce-vceks* trial,1 they vere condrniied to death. They vere executed in Sing Sing prison on SO
IKKANOSOV, the Soviet Ambassador In Berlin, In accordance vllh instiuctlons froa KGB Chief BKH1YA, began toide Intel lignnce nctvork In. The head of this spy ring vas Rarro SCnlU^-BOYrTKN (nkaofficer In the Air Ministry In Berlin. This young Germ miho grandnephev of Admiralnd his vlfe, the granddaughter of Pri-ice Ihlllp von Eulenburg, both ardently anti-Nazi, operated this group, knovo the Bole Kapelle (the Red Orchestra) vith great efficacy. -
During the first part ofcl "CORO" vurncd the Kremlin that on PI June MillER vouldSSR. Fromntil, thenetwork transmitted to Hoscov detailed Information on allilitary plans and movements. This top secret Information vas transmitted from Brussels,
Belgium. Inil Ceiwui monitoring units closed In on the Rote Knpclle hideout In Brussels endadio operator* The Gestapo then Intent If led its search for the mysterious leader "CORO."
Oni2 SCHUIXK-ROYSEH, along with the majority of his collaborators, was arrested In Berlin. They declined to answer questions, but Mrs. SCIWI^-BOTSEh broke under torture inflicted by the Gestapo nnd confessed.
co2embers of the Rote Knpclle, eight men including SCHULXfi-BOYSKN and hie friend Arvid HARMCK, and three wuiaen Including CORO's wife, were executed In the Floottensco Prison in Berlin.
Hikolay Vladimlrovlch acoM.nlas bom in Russia int le difficult to establish when ho began to collaborate with the KGB, which wee probably due to the Influence of hla wife,inger who hadEKA agent for sotoe time before hor marriage.
Onook an ac^ve part In the kidnappingMIUMi, bead of the ROVSAssociation of Russian Combntante)various White Russian organisations. MILLER had succeeded Geneieldiednd General KUTEPOV who was kidnapred by the OHJ unmaaked, thanksote left by General efore going to aSK0HJ.1N. Be escaped froa Paris ond dieappeared
After the end of WH- the Ccmons made known thst, from the very beginning, SKOrJ-TN had participated in the Gcetapo plot against Soviet Marshal TUXHACrtEVSXIT and his colleagues In the Red Army. It was SKOBLfN wlio Kid allegedly passed Information to the GIU about eoae connections betveen Marshal 'JinctlACREVSKiY and the German Amy.rders, SXOHLIH also established contacts with UEiDRICH at the end
SKOBLW's vife,en accomplice In MILLER's kidnapping, vas arrested onA r- ntenced to tventy ye era of forced labor. She died In the Maaa't prison in Rcnneo (Franca) In.
' Bodgon flTASHTNSKty
STASHTNSKI vas born1 Jn Dorschevitse, near Lvov,Poland.'3erritory vas Incorporated Into threaten! UkraineASHJNSKl'e family participated Jn tho (Ukrainian) notionalist movement against the Soviets.
TASHOiSKI was blackmailed Into joining the KGB and vas sent to KGB school in Klyev for training. 6 STASHTNSKI,CB agent, arrived in Berlin vhere he vent through pal>istak1ng preparation for his first mission: the assasslnatton of Doctor (Lev)REUUf, the Ukrainian nationalist and anti-Soviet leader in Munich. On7 Dr. BF.BET vas imirdered In cold bloodymiido spray gun. Another Ukrainian lender, Rtcpan BANDERA, vas executed by STASHINSKf in the saiM manner onctober
On1 STASH1NSKI defected to the West andull confession of hie activities to the German end American authorities. Be admitted that his decision of escape to the Vest vas prompted by his Ccraan vlfe vhom he had married3 One the court In Karlsruhe sentenced hla to eight years of hard labor. At the same time the Soviets claimed that the murder of Stepan RAHDKRA had been coctnlttcd by the General GElOEN's organization.
"The Great Chief" of tho Soviet sjiy ring In Europe, Leopold TRRP/VR, vas bom ont Novy Targ (Neuiinrkt inearPoland. TREPFER attended the University lo Crocov (Krnkov) after vhich hoember of the Polish Commalst Party. He vas arrested by the Polish Police for partlclpatloftrike and released THE PIER then left for lalestlne vhero he became
while- stationed in Moscow he vm blackmailed by the KQ8 vhlch exploited the fact that heomosexual. Confronted vlth the evidence, VAfSATJ. agreed to cooperate and coon became one of the key Soviet spies in the UK, where he had returnede poised many important naval secrets to hla Soviet contact in London, General XQROVJN (Counselor Hikolay B. RODIN of the Soviet EnbaonyJ Re vus nrrcoted.
WENNKrcyi'ROKM was bom otolonel in the Swedish Army, heoviet spy neither under tho pressure of bloerjnaillng nor for Ideological reasons, tut s'mply for financial gain.
As the Swedish air attache first Innd later in, an official of the Swedish Ministry ofnd Ministry of Foreign,uppllcd his boss. General LQitHOV of the GRU, with important documents concerning Nordic defease plans, new achievements of the Aroerican Air Force, etc. For hi* services WKHNKKSTROtM was0 per ronLh and ihe sane amount was deposited to his account In Moscow to be collected after hie retirement. Investigations proved that WENfiERSTROEM was elso celling Soviet Intelligence Information to the Africans.
On IP.1 WKnNERSTHOtK was sentenced to life.
udolf Ivanovlchnthony ANDERS, Vladislav
RERIYA, Lavrc-rtiy luvlovich
BLACK, Thomas Lcssfng
BOLLT, Harguerlt (aka
CANAR1S, WiiheJia CHLSHOLM, Janet Anne CHRISTINA, fnu
DONOVAN, James Britt
tUErXHDOREER, Rachel (akaPrNEft, Horst
TILTCfl, Marie Sclnil
HUSNKKL, Alfred FOOTS, Alexander (okaFUCRS, Kliua GRE, Ethel
GOUffWOmY, Henryk GRRENGIASS, David CKEKNGLASS, Ruth GR06UL, Karl
GUIUCUKV, Valentin Alekseyevlch CUSOVSKTY, Aleksanacr GUAKItKO, Igor
HAMKL, Eduard HAMKL,a HARNACK, Ai'vid UAUyAMAN, Hans HAYHANEN/ Relno HBYDRICH, Relnhard
K1TABAYASBT Toao KTAUSBN, Anna KLAUSEN, Max, KORDT, Krlch
KKtMER, Sinon Dovldovlch
ODNC17KY, Henryit ABEL, Rudolf
ABEL, Rudolf Ivanovich
KRUCIOV, Sergey WOclforovlch KUTEPOV, AleVsandr Pavlovlch
IEMENOV, Petr Favlovich eeeordon
MAYSKTY, Ivao Mlkhailovleh
MAY, Allan Hun
MEIKISHKV, Petr Favlovich
MOLOTOV, Vyacheslav Mlkhailovleh
OKUI.ICKt, leojold OTT, Eugene OMKT HOWWI
PAQWES, George PENKOVSK1Y, Oleg IfllLBY, Harold
FJEVrrSKAYA, Kadyezhda see IWKRS, Gary HJENTKR, Otto
, Aleksandcr RAJK, IaszIo RAKUSIstvan
KERBf, lev PETJHGER, Joseph RPTGKN, von, fhu
_Abcl, Rudolf Ivanovlch
RODIN, Nlkolay Dorleovlch
Nlkolay VOadlrol rovich
PLOW, Judith . _
Enrol (aVa "Walter")
VUTCKWIHH. HUGEYSHlHSKli, Vyacheslav lanuarovlch
YAKOVIJ-.V, Anatolty Anlouovieh YOTOKO MIYAGI YOSHDCO YAMASAKI
Tni-VolayevIch-ls quoted in connection with the activities of General BKOBLSI. After the end ofhe Germans revealed that Generalas the originator of the plot set by the Gestapo against Marshal WM'AWfcYSKIY and his colleagues In tho Red Aroy which resulted In TUiG'ACaiWXrY'a liquidation by Stalin.Original document.